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영미문학연구회> 안과밖> 자연과 사회의 관계 다시 생각하기 인간주의, 포스트휴머니즘, 자연주의 논쟁

KCI등재

자연과 사회의 관계 다시 생각하기 인간주의, 포스트휴머니즘, 자연주의 논쟁

Revisiting Nature-Society Relation: A Debate between Humanism, Posthumanism, and Naturalism

서영표 ( Seo Young-pyo )
  • : 영미문학연구회
  • : 안과밖 53권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 11월
  • : 192-226(35pages)
안과밖

DOI

10.46645/inoutsesk.53.8


목차

1. 사회구성주의자가 만난 자연주의의 충격: 개인적 경험
2. 자연주의와 사회의 변형 가능성
3. 차라리 잡종이 되자!: 납작한 존재론
4. 근대성을 넘어선 새로운 지식 패러다임 찾기
5. 비환원론적 자연주의와 페미니즘, 생태주의, 사회주의의 연대

키워드 보기


초록 보기

This paper criticizes the modern paradigm of knowledge in terms of the relations between nature and society. Firstly it focuses on the debate on human capacities within natural limits between two theoretical realists Ted Benton and Kate Soper. Soper argues that, while accepting that the human-being is a natural being as well as a social one, we have to underline the unique capacities of the human-being to change the existing consumerist capitalism which has jeopardized our planet. In replying to it, Benton suggests that we can explore the cultural and historical capacities of the human-being from a perspective of non-reductionist naturalism. Synthesizing this tension in a productive way, we can reach to the conclusion that the human-being bound to the historical and cultural limits could possibly change them when experiencing the biological and natural limits within it. From the position of Benton and Soper, post-humanism and new materialism might be an over-reaction to dualism of nature and society forced by the era of ecological crisis. Importantly, they fails to explain the historical conditions as a historical combination of natural limits and society and to derive a political direction from it. This paper acknowledges an ethical-normative attitude of new materialism and posthumanism as persuasive, but tries to produce a new paradigm of knowledge for a political project to realize ethical-normative hope. This new paradigm, while being epistemologically open, never gives up a possible rational discussion and deliberation, which is distancing from epistemological relativism.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 어문학분야  > 영문학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 반년간
  • : 1226-3761
  • : 2765-5695
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2022
  • : 948


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53권0호(2022년 11월) 수록논문
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1디지털 시민성과 21세기 공적 영역

저자 : 임동균 ( Im Dong-kyun )

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This essay investigates the characteristics of the contemporary public sphere and offers suggestions for enhancing digital citizenship in today's platform society. It underscores the irony that, despite the vast expansion of the public domain, democracy has declined in most contemporary democracies. This paper suggests that the current public sphere is distinguished by four features, including democratic openness, fragmentation, homogenization, and mediatization, and provides explanations for each. It also explains how fragmentation, homogenization, and mediatization contribute to anti-democratic tendencies in the online public sphere. This paper then investigates the concept of digital citizenship and proposes methods for democratizing the online public sphere by utilizing individuals' digital citizenship. In addition, strategies for promoting digital citizenship in education are discussed. It emphasizes the necessity to create and bolster the forces of de-automatization in order to combat the pernicious effects of computational capitalism and the pervasive influence of online platforms by fostering digital citizenship. The paper emphasizes the significance of exposing students to carefully designed democratic interactions using online platforms in alternative ways within the context of educational settings. The paper employs Bernard Stigeler's philosophy of technology and Luc Boltanski's pragmatic sociology for discussion.

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2이등시민의 반격 잉글랜드의 의붓딸들과 이대녀

저자 : 김부성 ( Kim Boosung )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 53권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 38-60 (23 pages)

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This paper discusses the ways in which Virginia Woolf's discussion of female citizenship in her 1938 polemical essay Three Guineas speaks to women in their twenties, or Idaenyo, abbreviated from Isipdaeyoja, in South Korea. Recently, Korean media have paid attention to the emergence of women in their twenties as meaningful voters that have an impact on the domestic political scene. Even if this attention indicates the nation's unprecedented gesture to interpellate young women as political subjects, identifying them as a homogeneous group seems erroneous. In Three Guineas, written after women's suffrage was accomplished, Woolf discloses the limitations on women's right to vote and touches upon various controversial issues regarding female citizenship: civic rights and duties, belonging and exclusion, political participation and indifference, and national citizenship and global one. Understanding how a nation-state conceives female citizenship, Woolf represents women of the educated class as “step-daughters of England” to underscore their implicitly excluded subject position and proposes a radical vision for their political influence in the form of indifference and their deliberate denial of national citizenship. I argue that both “step-daughters of England” in Three Guineas and young women in South Korea reveal second-class citizens' self-awareness about their political agency that surpasses national boundaries. Acknowledging the complexities of gender-based conflicts in current Korean society, I conclude that Woolf anticipates the educated women's dilemma as national subjects and suggests alternative ways of exercising their political agency.

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3나르꼬스, 슬럼, 그리고 빗장 공동체 21세기 라틴아메리카 도시공간의 재구성과 배타적 시민권

저자 : 박정원 ( Park Jungwon )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 53권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 59-88 (30 pages)

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This essay to explores the urban landscape of the 21st century Latin America, marked by the massive expansion of informal sectors and drug industry that, in turn, foreground in the explosion of violence and fear across the continent. Also, it examines how the meaning of citizenship has been changed and the ways citizens are divided and polarized in accordance with the creation of new urban spaces: “slum” and “gated community.” Two films, Ciudade de Deus (2002) and La zona (2007), tell the stories of Rio de Janeiro's favela and Mexico City's gated community respectively, visualizing the urban ecologies riddled with by inequality, alienation, and hierarchy among members of the city. Slum is an overcrowded residential area inhabited by underprivileged, while gated community refers to affluent neighborhoods that maintains controlled access and walled boundan'es. These films demonstrate how the two spaces are entangled and embeded in the neoliberal transformation, contributing to the distribution of violence and the formation of exclusive citizenship.

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4시코랙스와 미란다 사이 메리 시콜의 시민권 서사 실험

저자 : 설연지 ( Sol Yon Ji )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 53권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 87-111 (25 pages)

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After more than a century of obscurity, the Jamaican nurse and Crimean war-hero Mary Seacole is now widely recognized as a figure of global importance in the wake of COVID-19 and the Black Lives Matter Movement. A biracial British woman born between a Scottish father and a Jamaican mother, Seacole published in 1857 an autobiography-travelogue titled Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands. Emphasizing the indispensability and importance of Transatlanticism as a methodology in studying a Caribbean-born colonial subject such as Seacole, this paper draws upon recent scholarship of nineteenth-century American literature on citizenship to investigate the way Seacole makes an intervention into the dominant British national narrative of the nineteenth-century. In doing so, it turns to the hitherto neglected references and connection to William Shakespeare in Wonderful Adventures. Shakespeare's The Tempest serves as the major intertext in this paper's examination of the way Seacole subtlely yet powerfully revises and appropriates the narrative tradition around the female witch-healer with a dark complexion in her demand for a fuller British citizenship. Sir Walter Scott's Guy Mannering (1815) and Ivanhoe (1819) are discussed as texts presenting more recent versions of witch-healers of non-English origin with whom Seacole's contemporaries were familiar.

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5순수 적대공간의 조건 라끌라우와 한국의 영속적 위기 상태

저자 : 박이대승 ( Park Daeseung )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 53권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 111-141 (31 pages)

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This article aims to conceptualise characteristics of South Korean politics and society, by elaborating the concept of “pure space of antagonism”. This concept is a result of critical readings and interpretations of Ernesto Laclau's texts about “empty signifiers” and populism. We define it as an abstract state in which external conditions of antagonism, especially what Laclau called “institution” and “conceptual determination,” are completely removed. South Korean social fields that are close to such a state, reveal an extreme form of social antagonism, the effects of which were not expected by Laclau. He considered antagonistic frontiers as an essential condition for the formation of “the people” who stand against an oppressive, hierarchical or not-well-structured institutional system. However, this article focuses on the destructive effects of the pure space of antagonism, which are made when a non-antagonistic political community disappears or it is not separated from social antagonism. Antagonistic frontiers can constitute the people against elites and, as we can see in South Korea, they can also make an underdog exclude other underdogs or minorities. Therefore, we must establish a space proper to institutionalised politics, which does not depend upon antagonistic and hegemonic space.

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6영화 다양성과 포용의 역량 키우기 넷플릭스와 BFI 영화정책을 중심으로

저자 : 조혜영 ( Cho Hyeyoung )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 53권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 140-169 (30 pages)

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This article examines the strategies for diversity and inclusion practiced by Netflix and the British Film Institute(BFI) as two of the most influential cases. My argument is that Netflix uses diversity as a tool for making surplus value in the global pop culture market while the BFI's Diversity Standards is universally applicable to enhance socio-cultural diversity. Netflix's niche project to embrace diversity does not limit its scale to specific minority groups but targets the larger multiracial and multicultural global market. However, it is necessary to examine whether Netflix's representation of diversity and inclusion actually promote the local and/or ethnographic diversity. In addition, personalized recommendations and thumbnail images that are tailored to subscribers' viewing history are problematic in that they make them look more diverse than they actually are, hiding their algorithmic biases or stereotypes. Meanwhile, the BFI has established the Diversity Standards which all applicants for public funding must satisfy. Unlike the standards for specific funds allocated to underrepresented groups, the BFI's Diversity Standards is a qualification that all applicants should meet and thus offers the minimum criteria for practicing equality and fostering a capability for diversity in cinema. The Diversity Standards is meaningful in that it provides a new frame for breaking away from meritocracy or reverse discrimination stigma.

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7안데스의 수막 까우사이와 아이유 조화와 공존

저자 : 김윤경 ( Kim Yoonkyung )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 53권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 168-192 (25 pages)

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The idea of ecological civilization is of growing importance as an antidote to the crisis of capitalism facing all humanity in today's society. Ecological civilization aims at the mode of life in which humans live in harmony with the natural world, recognizing the shared proprietorship of both. Therefore, communitarianism, that is, a communal way of life, mathers in such a mode of life and hence the need to shed new light on Sumak Kawsay (buen vivir) of the indigenous people in the Andes of Latin America. In the age of the Inca Empire, the Andean indigenous people sought to realize Sumak Kawsay they sought in their community, which they called ayllu. It meant respect for the natural would, which they called pachamama; moreover, it extolled the mutual harmony of nankind and nature. They lived a communal life of sharing land and exchanging labor, although the transactions within ayllu were based on realistic needs, and were accompanied by coercion and punishment. Clearly this forms a stark contrast to life in today's capitalist society where competition, discrimination and hatred dominate. The life of the Andean indigenous people, which seeks coexistence with nature and cooperation among community members, is worth noting particularly as a new alternative to the life under capitalism.

KCI등재

8자연과 사회의 관계 다시 생각하기 인간주의, 포스트휴머니즘, 자연주의 논쟁

저자 : 서영표 ( Seo Young-pyo )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 53권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 192-226 (35 pages)

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This paper criticizes the modern paradigm of knowledge in terms of the relations between nature and society. Firstly it focuses on the debate on human capacities within natural limits between two theoretical realists Ted Benton and Kate Soper. Soper argues that, while accepting that the human-being is a natural being as well as a social one, we have to underline the unique capacities of the human-being to change the existing consumerist capitalism which has jeopardized our planet. In replying to it, Benton suggests that we can explore the cultural and historical capacities of the human-being from a perspective of non-reductionist naturalism. Synthesizing this tension in a productive way, we can reach to the conclusion that the human-being bound to the historical and cultural limits could possibly change them when experiencing the biological and natural limits within it. From the position of Benton and Soper, post-humanism and new materialism might be an over-reaction to dualism of nature and society forced by the era of ecological crisis. Importantly, they fails to explain the historical conditions as a historical combination of natural limits and society and to derive a political direction from it. This paper acknowledges an ethical-normative attitude of new materialism and posthumanism as persuasive, but tries to produce a new paradigm of knowledge for a political project to realize ethical-normative hope. This new paradigm, while being epistemologically open, never gives up a possible rational discussion and deliberation, which is distancing from epistemological relativism.

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저자 : 김명환 ( Kim Myung-hwan )

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This paper tries to discuss why it is important to pass “the Framework Act on Humanities, Social Sciences, and Natural Sciences”―a bill that will promote balanced development of different academic disciplines. Policy-makers in Korea have always put priority on science and technology to carry out “fast follower strategies” since the early 1960s, a successful national policy for decades. Since Korea is no longer a developing country, however, we must hurry to overcome “fast follower model.” The introduction of the new law will enable us to adopt “first mover model” and address urgent challenges of humanity including climate crisis, providing consistent, long-term academic policies not only for humanities and social sciences, but also for basic sciences struggling with the government's lop-sided support for applied sciences and technology.

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10현대 미국 아방가르드 시학에 대한 비판적 고찰

저자 : 박서영 ( Park Seoyoung )

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This paper provides a critical examination of the twentieth-century poetic avant-garde, a broadly radical and innovative aesthetic practice that constitutes an important contribution to the development of modern and contemporary American poetry. This study was motivated by the recognition that Conceptual poetry, a contemporary culmination of appropriation art, not so much embodies a provocative and progressive subversion of the hegemonic norms and values as represents artistic mediocrity and moral laxity of increasingly reified and alienated avant-garde poetics. Rooted in experimental modernism of the early twentieth century and the New American Poetry of the 1950s/60s, American avant-garde poetry has developed a distinct poetic lineage, offering a powerful corrective to the privileged lyric tradition and simultaneously serving as a critique of culture and ideology. However, I argue that twentieth-century avant-garde poetics has also exposed limits and pitfalls in its formation and promotion of the collectively prescribed aesthetic vision as well as inevitable blind spots and biases particularly concerning the issues of gender and race. Finally, this paper aims at suggesting the need to move beyond the reductive dichotomies between hegemony/revolution, conformity/oppositionality, and tradition/experimentation that have been normalized by the radical rhetoric of the avant-garde and to find “what will suffice,” to borrow Wallace Stevens' words, in the new era marked by unprecedented existential challenges.

12
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This article aims to conceptualise characteristics of South Korean politics and society, by elaborating the concept of “pure space of antagonism”. This concept is a result of critical readings and interpretations of Ernesto Laclau's texts about “empty signifiers” and populism. We define it as an abstract state in which external conditions of antagonism, especially what Laclau called “institution” and “conceptual determination,” are completely removed. South Korean social fields that are close to such a state, reveal an extreme form of social antagonism, the effects of which were not expected by Laclau. He considered antagonistic frontiers as an essential condition for the formation of “the people” who stand against an oppressive, hierarchical or not-well-structured institutional system. However, this article focuses on the destructive effects of the pure space of antagonism, which are made when a non-antagonistic political community disappears or it is not separated from social antagonism. Antagonistic frontiers can constitute the people against elites and, as we can see in South Korea, they can also make an underdog exclude other underdogs or minorities. Therefore, we must establish a space proper to institutionalised politics, which does not depend upon antagonistic and hegemonic space.

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6영화 다양성과 포용의 역량 키우기 넷플릭스와 BFI 영화정책을 중심으로

저자 : 조혜영 ( Cho Hyeyoung )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 53권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 140-169 (30 pages)

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This article examines the strategies for diversity and inclusion practiced by Netflix and the British Film Institute(BFI) as two of the most influential cases. My argument is that Netflix uses diversity as a tool for making surplus value in the global pop culture market while the BFI's Diversity Standards is universally applicable to enhance socio-cultural diversity. Netflix's niche project to embrace diversity does not limit its scale to specific minority groups but targets the larger multiracial and multicultural global market. However, it is necessary to examine whether Netflix's representation of diversity and inclusion actually promote the local and/or ethnographic diversity. In addition, personalized recommendations and thumbnail images that are tailored to subscribers' viewing history are problematic in that they make them look more diverse than they actually are, hiding their algorithmic biases or stereotypes. Meanwhile, the BFI has established the Diversity Standards which all applicants for public funding must satisfy. Unlike the standards for specific funds allocated to underrepresented groups, the BFI's Diversity Standards is a qualification that all applicants should meet and thus offers the minimum criteria for practicing equality and fostering a capability for diversity in cinema. The Diversity Standards is meaningful in that it provides a new frame for breaking away from meritocracy or reverse discrimination stigma.

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7안데스의 수막 까우사이와 아이유 조화와 공존

저자 : 김윤경 ( Kim Yoonkyung )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 53권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 168-192 (25 pages)

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The idea of ecological civilization is of growing importance as an antidote to the crisis of capitalism facing all humanity in today's society. Ecological civilization aims at the mode of life in which humans live in harmony with the natural world, recognizing the shared proprietorship of both. Therefore, communitarianism, that is, a communal way of life, mathers in such a mode of life and hence the need to shed new light on Sumak Kawsay (buen vivir) of the indigenous people in the Andes of Latin America. In the age of the Inca Empire, the Andean indigenous people sought to realize Sumak Kawsay they sought in their community, which they called ayllu. It meant respect for the natural would, which they called pachamama; moreover, it extolled the mutual harmony of nankind and nature. They lived a communal life of sharing land and exchanging labor, although the transactions within ayllu were based on realistic needs, and were accompanied by coercion and punishment. Clearly this forms a stark contrast to life in today's capitalist society where competition, discrimination and hatred dominate. The life of the Andean indigenous people, which seeks coexistence with nature and cooperation among community members, is worth noting particularly as a new alternative to the life under capitalism.

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8자연과 사회의 관계 다시 생각하기 인간주의, 포스트휴머니즘, 자연주의 논쟁

저자 : 서영표 ( Seo Young-pyo )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 53권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 192-226 (35 pages)

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This paper criticizes the modern paradigm of knowledge in terms of the relations between nature and society. Firstly it focuses on the debate on human capacities within natural limits between two theoretical realists Ted Benton and Kate Soper. Soper argues that, while accepting that the human-being is a natural being as well as a social one, we have to underline the unique capacities of the human-being to change the existing consumerist capitalism which has jeopardized our planet. In replying to it, Benton suggests that we can explore the cultural and historical capacities of the human-being from a perspective of non-reductionist naturalism. Synthesizing this tension in a productive way, we can reach to the conclusion that the human-being bound to the historical and cultural limits could possibly change them when experiencing the biological and natural limits within it. From the position of Benton and Soper, post-humanism and new materialism might be an over-reaction to dualism of nature and society forced by the era of ecological crisis. Importantly, they fails to explain the historical conditions as a historical combination of natural limits and society and to derive a political direction from it. This paper acknowledges an ethical-normative attitude of new materialism and posthumanism as persuasive, but tries to produce a new paradigm of knowledge for a political project to realize ethical-normative hope. This new paradigm, while being epistemologically open, never gives up a possible rational discussion and deliberation, which is distancing from epistemological relativism.

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9한국 고등교육과 학문의 도약을 위한 실마리 기초학문 학술정책과 「기초학술기본법」

저자 : 김명환 ( Kim Myung-hwan )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 53권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 225-248 (24 pages)

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This paper tries to discuss why it is important to pass “the Framework Act on Humanities, Social Sciences, and Natural Sciences”―a bill that will promote balanced development of different academic disciplines. Policy-makers in Korea have always put priority on science and technology to carry out “fast follower strategies” since the early 1960s, a successful national policy for decades. Since Korea is no longer a developing country, however, we must hurry to overcome “fast follower model.” The introduction of the new law will enable us to adopt “first mover model” and address urgent challenges of humanity including climate crisis, providing consistent, long-term academic policies not only for humanities and social sciences, but also for basic sciences struggling with the government's lop-sided support for applied sciences and technology.

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10현대 미국 아방가르드 시학에 대한 비판적 고찰

저자 : 박서영 ( Park Seoyoung )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 53권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 247-274 (28 pages)

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This paper provides a critical examination of the twentieth-century poetic avant-garde, a broadly radical and innovative aesthetic practice that constitutes an important contribution to the development of modern and contemporary American poetry. This study was motivated by the recognition that Conceptual poetry, a contemporary culmination of appropriation art, not so much embodies a provocative and progressive subversion of the hegemonic norms and values as represents artistic mediocrity and moral laxity of increasingly reified and alienated avant-garde poetics. Rooted in experimental modernism of the early twentieth century and the New American Poetry of the 1950s/60s, American avant-garde poetry has developed a distinct poetic lineage, offering a powerful corrective to the privileged lyric tradition and simultaneously serving as a critique of culture and ideology. However, I argue that twentieth-century avant-garde poetics has also exposed limits and pitfalls in its formation and promotion of the collectively prescribed aesthetic vision as well as inevitable blind spots and biases particularly concerning the issues of gender and race. Finally, this paper aims at suggesting the need to move beyond the reductive dichotomies between hegemony/revolution, conformity/oppositionality, and tradition/experimentation that have been normalized by the radical rhetoric of the avant-garde and to find “what will suffice,” to borrow Wallace Stevens' words, in the new era marked by unprecedented existential challenges.

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