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한국이슬람학회> 한국이슬람학회 논총> 배교에 관한 샤리아 규범 연구: 문헌학적 연구 방법을 중심으로

KCI등재

배교에 관한 샤리아 규범 연구: 문헌학적 연구 방법을 중심으로

Sharia on Apostasy: Focusing on the literature research method

임병필 ( Lim Byungpil )
  • : 한국이슬람학회
  • : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 10월
  • : 1-28(28pages)
한국이슬람학회 논총

DOI


목차

Ⅰ. 서론
Ⅱ. 배교 관련 코란 계시
Ⅲ. 배교 관련 하디스 구절
Ⅳ. 배교에 관한 법학파의 법적 견해
Ⅴ. 이슬람 국가 형법의 배교 관련 조문
Ⅵ. 결론

키워드 보기


초록 보기

Sharia protects the five elements (religion, life, reason, honor, property), and apostasy is prohibited for the protection of religion. Islam saw apostasy as a Muslim becoming a kāfir. Here, kāfir is meant to include unbelievers, atheists, pagans (non-Muslims), skeptics, heretics, those who slander Islam or the prophets, and idolaters. Islam has a very broad understanding of apostasy, and the details of this are defined through Sharia. The Qur’ān warns those who betray or disbelieve Islam that there is an afterlife punishment by Allah and a real punishment by Muslims. Hadith (Sunna) clearly presented the acts of apostasy through specific examples, and confirmed that there are realistic and afterlife punishments for apostates. On the other hand, Sunni’s four law schools focused on establishing detailed guidelines for the issues that Muslims should know clearly and issues that are at issue in reality, believing that the acts and punishments of apostasy were clearly and sufficiently mentioned by the Qur’ān and the Hadith. In modern times, more than a dozen Islamic countries have stipulated through their constitutions or criminal laws that apostasy to Islam is a serious crime and should be punishable by death.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 인문과학분야  > 종교학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 연3회
  • : 1226-2811
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1990-2022
  • : 630


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32권3호(2022년 10월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1배교에 관한 샤리아 규범 연구: 문헌학적 연구 방법을 중심으로

저자 : 임병필 ( Lim Byungpil )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-28 (28 pages)

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Sharia protects the five elements (religion, life, reason, honor, property), and apostasy is prohibited for the protection of religion. Islam saw apostasy as a Muslim becoming a kāfir. Here, kāfir is meant to include unbelievers, atheists, pagans (non-Muslims), skeptics, heretics, those who slander Islam or the prophets, and idolaters. Islam has a very broad understanding of apostasy, and the details of this are defined through Sharia. The Qur'ān warns those who betray or disbelieve Islam that there is an afterlife punishment by Allah and a real punishment by Muslims. Hadith (Sunna) clearly presented the acts of apostasy through specific examples, and confirmed that there are realistic and afterlife punishments for apostates. On the other hand, Sunni's four law schools focused on establishing detailed guidelines for the issues that Muslims should know clearly and issues that are at issue in reality, believing that the acts and punishments of apostasy were clearly and sufficiently mentioned by the Qur'ān and the Hadith. In modern times, more than a dozen Islamic countries have stipulated through their constitutions or criminal laws that apostasy to Islam is a serious crime and should be punishable by death.

KCI등재

2Tracking the Sufi presence in Jerusalem

저자 : Mona Farouk M. Ahmed

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 29-55 (27 pages)

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Tracing Sufism in the Islamic world, Jerusalem was one of the Sufis' centers attracting many of them to settle in this holy city known for its significant spirituality for Muslims. This study traces the Sufi presence in Jerusalem from the past until the present to give an overview of the history of Sufism in this holy city. Through examining the remaining Sufi lodges in Jerusalem today, the study introduces the main Sufi orders and the development of their role and activities in the Jerusalemite society throughout history. The study showed that the golden era of the Sufi role ended with the end of Ottoman rule. Then, there was a decline in this role which faced many challenges including the economic difficulties worsened under the Israeli occupation. Being a part of the Palestinian society, the Sufis of Jerusalem had their contributions to the Arab-Israeli conflict struggling for defending their lands and properties till today.
Introducing the development of the Sufi orders in Jerusalem, the study showed that despite the decline of the Sufi activities in the modern era, the Sufi presence continued, which was seen in their remaining buildings including zawiyas, ribats, and shrines covered by this study. Though many of them lost their Sufi function, there are still some Sufi families continuing to maintain Sufi traditions at present in Jerusalem.

KCI등재

3인터넷 미디어를 통해 본 탈레반 재집권과 아프가니스탄

저자 : 이주한 ( Lee Joo-han )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 57-85 (29 pages)

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This study analyzed online news articles related to the return to power of the Taliban in Afghanistan covered by two major Internet news outlets in Korea: namely, Pressian and New Daily. This study adopted Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to look into the perspectives of both media outlets on the current situation in Afghanistan and discourse strategies. CDA is interdisciplinary research methodology and it is used not only in linguistics but also in politics.
The key findings of this study are as follows. Pressian reported the situation in Afghanistan by using various discourse strategies such as nonrationalization, presentation of negative image, presentation of positive image, dichotomy and warning. Also, Pressian showed a critical stance on the Taliban and the United States. New Daily reported the situation in Afghanistan by using the same discourse strategies too. However, unlike Pressian, there was no criticism of the United States in New Daily. Lastly, for a better understanding of the current situation in Afghanistan, it is necessary to look at the political and social changes in Afghanistan from various angles. More specifically, it is important to consider not only women's human rights but also a variety of themes such as poverty, refugee issues and regional security.

KCI등재

42011년 이후 이집트인들이 무슬림형제단에 환멸을 느끼는 이유 연구

저자 : 건하산 ( Geon Hassan )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 87-116 (30 pages)

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2013 년 7 월 무함마드 무르시 대통령의 군사 타도 이후 무슬림 형제단의 권력 상실은 이집트를 30 년간 통치한 호스니 무바라크 대통령의 2011 년 민중봉기에 이어 이집트의 민주적 전환을 이루려는 시도가 실패했음을 의미하면서 다양한 논쟁을 불러일으켰다. 이 연구에서 다룬 주요 주제는 왜 무슬림 형제단이 이집트의 통치를 지키지 못하였는지에 중점을 두며, 이집트 인들이 무슬림 형제단에 믿음을 잃게 된 이유는 무엇인가? 무슬림 형제단의 계획은 얼마나 잘 고안되었고 유용했는가? 무슬림 형제단은 “이슬람 국가”의 이상을 잘 구현했는가? 제대로 준비도 되지 않은 채 집권했다는 점에서 무슬림 형제단이 저지른 정치적 실수는 무엇인가?에 대해 연구를 진행하였다. 또 무슬림 형제단은 다원적 사고방식을 채택하지 못하여 외교 및 경제 정책 모두에서 실수를 저질러 결국 가장 큰 아랍 국가의 통제권을 장악하는데 실패하였고 그것은 결국 정치적 이슬람의 명성에 부정적인 영향을 미쳤다. 본 연구는 이러한 질문들에 대해 새로운 관점에서 답하고자 하며 이집트에서 무슬림 형제단의 통치 실패의 이유를 정확히 지적하고자 노력하였다. 그리하여 본 연구의 결과는 보수와 혁명 정신의 부재, 진보적 계획의 부재 그리고 지도자들의 무능과 통치 경험의 부족등과 깊게 연관이 되었음을 밝힌다. 또한 이 연구는 이슬람교와 정치 이슬람 분야의 정책입안자와 학자들에게 도움이 되고, 이 주제와 관련된 학문적 논의에 기여할 것이라 믿는다.

KCI등재

5종파 갈등의 재생산: 사우디와 이란의 범 아랍어 뉴스의 예멘 내전 보도 방식의 차이를 중심으로

저자 : 안소연 ( Ahn So Yeon )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 117-148 (32 pages)

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This study examines Saudi-Iranian rivalry and its influence on sectarian conflict in the Middle East using the Yemeni Civil War as a case study. Typically, Saudi-Iranian rivalry is considered as a sectarian conflict between Sunni and Shi'a. However, sectarianism is being used as a tool to consolidate power. Since the Arab Spring, power struggles between Saudi Arabia and Iran has escalated. In this process, Saudi and Iranian intervention has contributed to escalating sectarian conflicts in the Middle East. Furthermore, sectarian biased news coverage of both state owned Saudi and Iranian news channels led to spread sectarian antagonism and spur sectarian split in the Middle East. The study looks into the origins of the Yemeni Civil War and its relations with Saudi Iranian rivalry. In particular, this study contributes to investigating how Saudi and Iranian state owned Arabic news channels deployed sectarian discourses in their coverage of the Houthi movement, Operation of Decisive Storm and Yemen humanitarian crisis and used this to their advantage in the Yemeni Civil War. This study confirms that Saudi Arabia and Iran use their news channels to perpetuate sectarian fissures by reinstating their own sectarian propaganda. Sectarianism which is produced by political power is reproduced through the media and the people who accept and benefit from it.

KCI등재

6기후변화, 탄소중립 그리고 중동: 사우디아라비아의 탄소중립정책을 중심으로

저자 : 이주성 ( Lee Joosong ) , 백승훈 ( Paik Seunghoon )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 149-176 (28 pages)

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The MENA region is the most vulnerable region to global climate change. Temperature rise, desertification and coastline changes caused by climate change are highly likely to have a profound impact on the lives of the people of MENA countries. As a result, many MENA countries are agile in the international movement to slow the pace of climate change.
Saudi Arabia, one of the world's largest oil producers, announced in October 2021 an ambitious plan to achieve zero carbon emissions by 2060 by actively accepting the recommendations of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report. Saudi Arabia's declaration of Net Zero as a rentier state, in which the country is operated with a rent obtained from oil, caused a sensation in the international community. However, unlike Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MBS)'s carbon-neutral announcement, Saudi Arabia's plans to invest in fossil fuels including oil and gas and expand infrastructure are still in progress.
Therefore, this study aims to analyze how the transitional transformation in the MENA region will develop in the future by looking at Saudi Arabia's carbon-neutral policy.

KCI등재

7ESG 채권과 ESG 수쿠크 비교를 통한 수쿠크에 대한 재인식

저자 : 이희열 ( Lee Hee-yul ) , 김동환 ( Kim Dong-hwan )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 177-203 (27 pages)

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Recently, in the global bond market, the issuance of ESG bonds, which are different from the existing bond investment method aimed at achieving financial returns, is increasing. ESG bonds are issued to attract investment based on a company's ESG performance or future sustainability.
Green Sukuk, which has a similar concept, has been issued in the Islamic financial market, and this trend is expanding to attract funds for businesses aimed at resolving social issues. Some scholars have begun to classify such Sukuks as ESG Sukuk.
In general, conventional bonds are debt instruments with fixed returns. On the other hand, the Islamic Sukuk is a certificate confirming the possession of a stake in the assets used in the business. Therefore, the holder of Sukuk becomes the owner of a certain percentage of the investment and assets.
This study attempts to identify what similarities, differences, and advantages and disadvantages exist when conventional bonds and Sukuk, which are structurally different, are combined with the ESG concept. It is hoped that Korean companies wishing to raise funds for ESG-purpose projects and Korean investors wishing to invest in ESG projects will consider ESG Sukuk as another alternative in addition to conventional bonds.

KCI등재

8Determinants of the Choice of Foreign Direct Investment Modes: An Empirical Analysis of Multinational Enterprises in Kazakhstan

저자 : Wonchan Ra , Vitaliy Tsoy

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 205-247 (43 pages)

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Multinational enterprises (MNEs) have recently increased their presence in Kazakhstan, but research on their choice of foreign direct investment (FDI), a major form of entry, has not been sufficiently conducted despite its significance for firm strategy and the local economy. This study addresses the determinants of the choice of FDI modes by foreign firms in Kazakhstan, focusing on two major FDI modes, i.e., setting up a joint venture (JV) or a wholly owned subsidiary (WOS). Six hypotheses on how country-level factors affect MNEs' choice between the two modes were established. Using secondary data on 187 firms from 41 countries operating in Kazakhstan as of 2019, a binomial logistic regression was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results show that a longer cultural distance, a higher corruption level, and a weaker economic relationship between home and host countries have a significant effect on MNEs' choice of a JV over a WOS.

KCI등재

9문학텍스트 아-한 기계번역의 가용성과 한계 연구

저자 : 곽순례 ( Gwag Soon-lei )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 249-276 (28 pages)

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This study aims to identify the limitations and availability of neural machine translation(NMT) through a comparative analysis of the Arabic-Korean human translation and NMT of a literary text. To this end, the NMT of Saud Alsanousi's novel The Bamboo Stalk is analyzed compared to its human translation published in Korean. Errors in the NMT output are classified into nine categories for quantitative analysis, and exemplary errors are qualitatively examined. According to the findings of analysis, many errors involve polysemous words that must be translated according to their context. In particular, when negative words are included, the whole sentence is often translated into the opposite meaning. The explicitation of pronouns has not been done as much as predicted. The Arabic phrases of inanimate subject with animate object appeared and the inanimate subjects of Arabic were rendered into other sentence components. Specifically, they were rendered into adverb phrases and predicates. In addition, this study presents good cases of NMT to confirm it's availability. Although this study uses limited data for analysis, it is meaningful in that it confirms the limitations and availability of Arabic-Korean NMT.

1
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KCI등재

1배교에 관한 샤리아 규범 연구: 문헌학적 연구 방법을 중심으로

저자 : 임병필 ( Lim Byungpil )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-28 (28 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

Sharia protects the five elements (religion, life, reason, honor, property), and apostasy is prohibited for the protection of religion. Islam saw apostasy as a Muslim becoming a kāfir. Here, kāfir is meant to include unbelievers, atheists, pagans (non-Muslims), skeptics, heretics, those who slander Islam or the prophets, and idolaters. Islam has a very broad understanding of apostasy, and the details of this are defined through Sharia. The Qur'ān warns those who betray or disbelieve Islam that there is an afterlife punishment by Allah and a real punishment by Muslims. Hadith (Sunna) clearly presented the acts of apostasy through specific examples, and confirmed that there are realistic and afterlife punishments for apostates. On the other hand, Sunni's four law schools focused on establishing detailed guidelines for the issues that Muslims should know clearly and issues that are at issue in reality, believing that the acts and punishments of apostasy were clearly and sufficiently mentioned by the Qur'ān and the Hadith. In modern times, more than a dozen Islamic countries have stipulated through their constitutions or criminal laws that apostasy to Islam is a serious crime and should be punishable by death.

KCI등재

2Tracking the Sufi presence in Jerusalem

저자 : Mona Farouk M. Ahmed

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 29-55 (27 pages)

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Tracing Sufism in the Islamic world, Jerusalem was one of the Sufis' centers attracting many of them to settle in this holy city known for its significant spirituality for Muslims. This study traces the Sufi presence in Jerusalem from the past until the present to give an overview of the history of Sufism in this holy city. Through examining the remaining Sufi lodges in Jerusalem today, the study introduces the main Sufi orders and the development of their role and activities in the Jerusalemite society throughout history. The study showed that the golden era of the Sufi role ended with the end of Ottoman rule. Then, there was a decline in this role which faced many challenges including the economic difficulties worsened under the Israeli occupation. Being a part of the Palestinian society, the Sufis of Jerusalem had their contributions to the Arab-Israeli conflict struggling for defending their lands and properties till today.
Introducing the development of the Sufi orders in Jerusalem, the study showed that despite the decline of the Sufi activities in the modern era, the Sufi presence continued, which was seen in their remaining buildings including zawiyas, ribats, and shrines covered by this study. Though many of them lost their Sufi function, there are still some Sufi families continuing to maintain Sufi traditions at present in Jerusalem.

KCI등재

3인터넷 미디어를 통해 본 탈레반 재집권과 아프가니스탄

저자 : 이주한 ( Lee Joo-han )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 57-85 (29 pages)

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This study analyzed online news articles related to the return to power of the Taliban in Afghanistan covered by two major Internet news outlets in Korea: namely, Pressian and New Daily. This study adopted Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to look into the perspectives of both media outlets on the current situation in Afghanistan and discourse strategies. CDA is interdisciplinary research methodology and it is used not only in linguistics but also in politics.
The key findings of this study are as follows. Pressian reported the situation in Afghanistan by using various discourse strategies such as nonrationalization, presentation of negative image, presentation of positive image, dichotomy and warning. Also, Pressian showed a critical stance on the Taliban and the United States. New Daily reported the situation in Afghanistan by using the same discourse strategies too. However, unlike Pressian, there was no criticism of the United States in New Daily. Lastly, for a better understanding of the current situation in Afghanistan, it is necessary to look at the political and social changes in Afghanistan from various angles. More specifically, it is important to consider not only women's human rights but also a variety of themes such as poverty, refugee issues and regional security.

KCI등재

42011년 이후 이집트인들이 무슬림형제단에 환멸을 느끼는 이유 연구

저자 : 건하산 ( Geon Hassan )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 87-116 (30 pages)

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2013 년 7 월 무함마드 무르시 대통령의 군사 타도 이후 무슬림 형제단의 권력 상실은 이집트를 30 년간 통치한 호스니 무바라크 대통령의 2011 년 민중봉기에 이어 이집트의 민주적 전환을 이루려는 시도가 실패했음을 의미하면서 다양한 논쟁을 불러일으켰다. 이 연구에서 다룬 주요 주제는 왜 무슬림 형제단이 이집트의 통치를 지키지 못하였는지에 중점을 두며, 이집트 인들이 무슬림 형제단에 믿음을 잃게 된 이유는 무엇인가? 무슬림 형제단의 계획은 얼마나 잘 고안되었고 유용했는가? 무슬림 형제단은 “이슬람 국가”의 이상을 잘 구현했는가? 제대로 준비도 되지 않은 채 집권했다는 점에서 무슬림 형제단이 저지른 정치적 실수는 무엇인가?에 대해 연구를 진행하였다. 또 무슬림 형제단은 다원적 사고방식을 채택하지 못하여 외교 및 경제 정책 모두에서 실수를 저질러 결국 가장 큰 아랍 국가의 통제권을 장악하는데 실패하였고 그것은 결국 정치적 이슬람의 명성에 부정적인 영향을 미쳤다. 본 연구는 이러한 질문들에 대해 새로운 관점에서 답하고자 하며 이집트에서 무슬림 형제단의 통치 실패의 이유를 정확히 지적하고자 노력하였다. 그리하여 본 연구의 결과는 보수와 혁명 정신의 부재, 진보적 계획의 부재 그리고 지도자들의 무능과 통치 경험의 부족등과 깊게 연관이 되었음을 밝힌다. 또한 이 연구는 이슬람교와 정치 이슬람 분야의 정책입안자와 학자들에게 도움이 되고, 이 주제와 관련된 학문적 논의에 기여할 것이라 믿는다.

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5종파 갈등의 재생산: 사우디와 이란의 범 아랍어 뉴스의 예멘 내전 보도 방식의 차이를 중심으로

저자 : 안소연 ( Ahn So Yeon )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 117-148 (32 pages)

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This study examines Saudi-Iranian rivalry and its influence on sectarian conflict in the Middle East using the Yemeni Civil War as a case study. Typically, Saudi-Iranian rivalry is considered as a sectarian conflict between Sunni and Shi'a. However, sectarianism is being used as a tool to consolidate power. Since the Arab Spring, power struggles between Saudi Arabia and Iran has escalated. In this process, Saudi and Iranian intervention has contributed to escalating sectarian conflicts in the Middle East. Furthermore, sectarian biased news coverage of both state owned Saudi and Iranian news channels led to spread sectarian antagonism and spur sectarian split in the Middle East. The study looks into the origins of the Yemeni Civil War and its relations with Saudi Iranian rivalry. In particular, this study contributes to investigating how Saudi and Iranian state owned Arabic news channels deployed sectarian discourses in their coverage of the Houthi movement, Operation of Decisive Storm and Yemen humanitarian crisis and used this to their advantage in the Yemeni Civil War. This study confirms that Saudi Arabia and Iran use their news channels to perpetuate sectarian fissures by reinstating their own sectarian propaganda. Sectarianism which is produced by political power is reproduced through the media and the people who accept and benefit from it.

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6기후변화, 탄소중립 그리고 중동: 사우디아라비아의 탄소중립정책을 중심으로

저자 : 이주성 ( Lee Joosong ) , 백승훈 ( Paik Seunghoon )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 149-176 (28 pages)

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The MENA region is the most vulnerable region to global climate change. Temperature rise, desertification and coastline changes caused by climate change are highly likely to have a profound impact on the lives of the people of MENA countries. As a result, many MENA countries are agile in the international movement to slow the pace of climate change.
Saudi Arabia, one of the world's largest oil producers, announced in October 2021 an ambitious plan to achieve zero carbon emissions by 2060 by actively accepting the recommendations of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report. Saudi Arabia's declaration of Net Zero as a rentier state, in which the country is operated with a rent obtained from oil, caused a sensation in the international community. However, unlike Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MBS)'s carbon-neutral announcement, Saudi Arabia's plans to invest in fossil fuels including oil and gas and expand infrastructure are still in progress.
Therefore, this study aims to analyze how the transitional transformation in the MENA region will develop in the future by looking at Saudi Arabia's carbon-neutral policy.

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7ESG 채권과 ESG 수쿠크 비교를 통한 수쿠크에 대한 재인식

저자 : 이희열 ( Lee Hee-yul ) , 김동환 ( Kim Dong-hwan )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 177-203 (27 pages)

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Recently, in the global bond market, the issuance of ESG bonds, which are different from the existing bond investment method aimed at achieving financial returns, is increasing. ESG bonds are issued to attract investment based on a company's ESG performance or future sustainability.
Green Sukuk, which has a similar concept, has been issued in the Islamic financial market, and this trend is expanding to attract funds for businesses aimed at resolving social issues. Some scholars have begun to classify such Sukuks as ESG Sukuk.
In general, conventional bonds are debt instruments with fixed returns. On the other hand, the Islamic Sukuk is a certificate confirming the possession of a stake in the assets used in the business. Therefore, the holder of Sukuk becomes the owner of a certain percentage of the investment and assets.
This study attempts to identify what similarities, differences, and advantages and disadvantages exist when conventional bonds and Sukuk, which are structurally different, are combined with the ESG concept. It is hoped that Korean companies wishing to raise funds for ESG-purpose projects and Korean investors wishing to invest in ESG projects will consider ESG Sukuk as another alternative in addition to conventional bonds.

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8Determinants of the Choice of Foreign Direct Investment Modes: An Empirical Analysis of Multinational Enterprises in Kazakhstan

저자 : Wonchan Ra , Vitaliy Tsoy

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 205-247 (43 pages)

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Multinational enterprises (MNEs) have recently increased their presence in Kazakhstan, but research on their choice of foreign direct investment (FDI), a major form of entry, has not been sufficiently conducted despite its significance for firm strategy and the local economy. This study addresses the determinants of the choice of FDI modes by foreign firms in Kazakhstan, focusing on two major FDI modes, i.e., setting up a joint venture (JV) or a wholly owned subsidiary (WOS). Six hypotheses on how country-level factors affect MNEs' choice between the two modes were established. Using secondary data on 187 firms from 41 countries operating in Kazakhstan as of 2019, a binomial logistic regression was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results show that a longer cultural distance, a higher corruption level, and a weaker economic relationship between home and host countries have a significant effect on MNEs' choice of a JV over a WOS.

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9문학텍스트 아-한 기계번역의 가용성과 한계 연구

저자 : 곽순례 ( Gwag Soon-lei )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 249-276 (28 pages)

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This study aims to identify the limitations and availability of neural machine translation(NMT) through a comparative analysis of the Arabic-Korean human translation and NMT of a literary text. To this end, the NMT of Saud Alsanousi's novel The Bamboo Stalk is analyzed compared to its human translation published in Korean. Errors in the NMT output are classified into nine categories for quantitative analysis, and exemplary errors are qualitatively examined. According to the findings of analysis, many errors involve polysemous words that must be translated according to their context. In particular, when negative words are included, the whole sentence is often translated into the opposite meaning. The explicitation of pronouns has not been done as much as predicted. The Arabic phrases of inanimate subject with animate object appeared and the inanimate subjects of Arabic were rendered into other sentence components. Specifically, they were rendered into adverb phrases and predicates. In addition, this study presents good cases of NMT to confirm it's availability. Although this study uses limited data for analysis, it is meaningful in that it confirms the limitations and availability of Arabic-Korean NMT.

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