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한국폐기물자원순환학회> 한국폐기물자원순환학회지> 발효·건조 공정을 이용한 하수처리장 협잡물 처리 실증화 기술개발 연구

KCI등재

발효·건조 공정을 이용한 하수처리장 협잡물 처리 실증화 기술개발 연구

Development of Demonstration Technology for Treatment of Sewage Impurities by Fermentation and Drying Process

서정식 ( Jeong-sig Seo ) , 윤종호 ( Jong-ho Youn ) , 반재형 ( Jea-hyung Ban ) , 이명오 ( Myoung-oh Lee )
  • : 한국폐기물자원순환학회
  • : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권5호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 10월
  • : 461-469(9pages)
한국폐기물자원순환학회지

DOI

10.9786/kswm.2022.39.5.461


목차

Ⅰ. 서 론
Ⅱ. 실험장치 및 방법
Ⅲ. 결과 및 고찰
Ⅳ. 결 론
References

키워드 보기


초록 보기

In this study, a demonstration technology was developed for the treatment of sewage impurities by a fermentation and drying process. To treat the sewage impurities, fermentation and drying devices with a daily processing capacity of 100 kg and 300 kg, respectively, were installed at a public wastewater treatment facility. It was found that the weight loss rate and average water content of the fermentation dried residues from the sewage impurities ranged from 79-84% and 20-25%, respectively. The residues satisfied the quality standards of solid refuse fuel, meaning they could be reused as auxiliary fuel for coal-fired electrical power plants or cement factories. The fermentation and drying process was much more economical and environmentally friendly than the incineration process mainly used to treat sewage impurities. Compared with the incineration process, the fermentation and drying process was about 78% less expensive.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 공학분야  > 환경공학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 격월
  • : 2093-2332
  • : 2287-5638
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1984-2022
  • : 2983


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39권6호(2022년 12월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1폐기물매립지의 메탄 배출량 측정 정확도 향상을 위한 시·공간적 배출 특성 고찰

저자 : 송상훈 ( Sang-hoon Song ) , 김란희 ( Ran-hui Kim ) , 이남훈 ( Nam-hoon Lee ) , 박진규 ( Jin-kyu Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 477-488 (12 pages)

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First-order decay models have been used to estimate annual landfill methane emissions for national greenhouse gas inventories. These models vary greatly. Inaccurate input values or oversimplified processes, such as methane oxidation or dynamic methane emission rates, cause this downside. Direct field measurements can be used to predict total methane emissions more accurately. Methane emission rates fluctuate weekly and daily and are influenced by the soil cover and meteorological conditions such as barometric pressure, temperature, rain, and wind speed. Hotspot emissions contribute significantly to landfill methane emissions. To accurately estimate annual methane emissions, direct field measurements must account for meteorological effects and quantify hotspot emissions during landfill emission monitoring programs. In South Korea, there are no field-based calculations, hampering the development of a strategic strategy to reduce methane emissions from solid waste landfills. South Korea must develop innovative methods to quantify landfill methane emissions and a mitigation strategy.

KCI등재

2수출·입 폐기물의 관리 개선 마련 연구: 관세·통계통합품목분류표(HSK)를 중심으로

저자 : 박윤수 ( Yoon Soo Park ) , 전태완 ( Tae-wan Jeon ) , 신선경 ( Sun-kyoung Shin ) , 엄남일 ( Nam-il Um )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 489-497 (9 pages)

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The export and import waste generated in Korea amounts to 2.63 million tons per year (about 4% of total industrial waste). During importing and exporting waste, an item code called the Harmonized System of Korea (HSK) is assigned to it through classification, inspection, and customs clearance procedures. This study prepared methods for identifying the current status of HSK, systematizing HSK, and effectively applying HSK. First, the following were investigated: the status of the HSK Code, the current status of HSK management in Korea, and HSK related to waste. As a result, Korea adopted the HSK classification table and operated with it as a notice by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. A system of 10 units is used, and there are about 339 HSK related to waste. Second, it was found that there were wastes without HSK or that some items did not match. 119 new HSK were proposed for 17 types of imported and exported waste. Third, it was found that, at times, responsible personnel made the wrong decision or intentionally entered incorrect HSK in the process of importing and exporting waste. Designated and ordinary industrial wastes under the “Waste Control Act” of Korea need to be linked with the HSK.

KCI등재

3우리나라 폐기물매립지 온실가스 감축방안 : 매립가스 유효활용의 발전 및 과제

저자 : 박진규 ( Jin-kyu Park ) , 송상훈 ( Sang-hoon Song ) , 김란희 ( Ran-hui Kim ) , 전연호 ( Yeon-ho Jeon ) , 이남훈 ( Nam-hoon Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 498-509 (12 pages)

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South Korea's most recent national inventory report found that landfills are the largest anthropogenic source of methane. Despite decades of closure, landfill methane emissions threaten human health and climate change. This study investigates landfill gas (LFG) valorization to reduce these emissions. This technique converts LFG into value-added chemicals like biomethane, syngas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen), methanol, and dimethyl ether. LFG valorization is an interesting approach to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and shift toward a low-carbon society, but it is not economically feasible. To reduce carbon emissions and boost LFG valorization in South Korea, a carbon tax and/or subsidies may be considered. Establishing a sustainable LFG valorization technology would provide enough momentum to create a circular carbon-based economy.

KCI등재

4전과정평가 기법을 활용한 커피박 자원화의 환경부하 저감효과 분석 : 일반합성목재와 커피박합성목재의 환경영향 비교를 중심으로

저자 : 이종효 ( Jong Hyo Lee ) , 황용우 ( Yong Woo Hwang ) , 황윤수 ( Youn Soo Hwang )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 510-520 (11 pages)

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In this study, we compare the environmental loads of the coffee waste wooden deck and the general wooden deck using the life cycle assessment (LCA). We estimate the coffee waste wooden deck's environmental advantages by LCA methodology. According to our findings, a coffee waste wooden deck reduces environmental load by 13.2% when compared to a general wooden deck. The reduction ratio for eutrophication potential was 20.4%, acidification potential was 19.4%, and global warming potential was 15.9%. Among the six environmental impact categories, abiotic depletion had the least reduction. In particular, while CO2 emission reduction may seem insignificant numerically from the functional unit's perspective, it can be considered a significant reduction effect given the characteristics of building materials. Assuming the trail construction, which has 3.6 m of width and 360 m of length (1,320 m2), the reduction effect of the environmental load is approximately 11.6 ton CO2-eq. Moreover, it reduces environmental load by 11.6 tons of CO2 equivalent per year and absorbs as much GHGs as 4,936 pine trees or 3,277 oak trees. This study helps management and policymakers visualize the impact of recycling coffee waste on the environment.

KCI등재

5바이오촤를 포함한 모르타르의 휨강도 특성

저자 : 엄희숙 ( Hee Suk Eom ) , 전병준 ( Byung Jun Jeon ) , 신동훈 ( Donghoon Shin )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 521-531 (11 pages)

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Biochar is a charcoal-like material that separates and stores the carbon component of organic biomass that is grown by absorbing the greenhouse gas emissions produced from burning fuel. Interestingly, when biochar is used as an additive during mortar production, the effect of the stored greenhouse gas is evident in the characteristics of the building. In this study, we experimentally evaluate the bending strength of mortar when biochar partially replaces the content of sand in mortar production. Under the condition that the ratio of cement to sand is 1: 3, in the range of 0% to 9.3% based on the mass of cement, we produce specimens in which some sand had been replaced with biochar in 4 cm × 16 cm × 1 cm. Following this, the bending strength of these specimens is measured using a three-point bending strength-measuring device at 7 days and 28 days respectively. Our findings reveal that at up to 7% of biochar replacement rate, it is possible to produce a greenhouse gas-stored mortar without loss of mortar strength; more so, we observed that the 5% biochar replacement rate demonstrates the highest bending strength showing that the advantage of strength improvement can also be utilized.

KCI등재

6파일럿 스케일 버너에서 바이오 중유 및 바이오 원유 혼합연료의 연소 특성

저자 : 정연우 ( Yeonwoo Jeong ) , 류영현 ( Younghyun Ryu ) , 최상규 ( Sangkyu Choi ) , 최연석 ( Yeonseok Choi ) , 한소영 ( Soyoung Han ) , 응웬반꾸잉 ( Quynhvan Nguyen )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 532-542 (11 pages)

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Carbon neutrality is a balance between emitting carbon and absorbing carbon from the soil, forest, and oceans. To achieve carbon neutrality by 2050, a variety of research on energy such as solar, wind, hydrogen, biomass, and waste energy has been performed worldwide. Bio-fuel oil and bio-crude oil are considered promising energy resources to achieve carbon neutrality because they can be effectively used not only for heat energy but also for transport fuel. In this study, an experiment on the combustion characteristics of bio-fuel oil and bio-crude oil blends was conducted. The mixtures of biofuel and conventional diesel fuel were also studied. A conventional oil burner with a 35 kW capacity was modified into a downward injection type and to adopt an air-blast atomizing nozzle. Bio-fuel oil was made from waste oil and bio-crude oil was derived from coffee grounds. The temperature distributions in the combustion chamber and the gaseous emissions were compared at various blending ratios. When the bio-fuel oil was blended with bio-crude oil from the coffee ground, nearly complete combustion was observed, except for the 100% bio-crude oil, with the emission of a large amount of CO. It was also shown that as the ratio of bio-crude oil was increased, NO concentration increased due to the nitrogen content in the bio-crude oil. In the cases where biofuel was blended with diesel fuel, all cases showed close to complete combustion, where the temperature of the combustion chamber was raised with an increasing ratio of diesel.

KCI등재

7Powder-Type 산화칼슘(CaO)을 이용한 육불화황(SF6) 분해 부산물의 고정화 연구

저자 : 류재용 ( Jae Yong Ryu )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 543-552 (10 pages)

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Climate change represents a worldwide warning on global warming and has elevated awareness on the global climate crisis. As a result, worldwide changes to tackle climate change have been initiated. In compliance with the Paris agreement, Korea has declared Carbon Net Zero and implemented legislative changes. Regarding the greenhouse gas emissions in Korea, the mineral industry plays a large role among other industries. A huge amount of greenhouse gases is emitted during the decarboxylation and calcination processes in the cement production process. Therefore, to address the climate crisis, the cement industry also needs to develop technologies to promote carbon neutrality. This study was conducted to explore ways to control SF6, of which GWP is the highest, using cement kiln and thermal plasma, and to recycle the byproduct of pyrolysis into an eco-friendly cement supplementary material by immobilizing it with calcium oxide. The destruction and removal efficiency of SF6 was 100%, while the immobilization reaction rate calculated from the concentration change of the by-product was 99.4%. As a by-product of the immobilization reaction, cement subsidiary raw materials such as fluorite (CaF2) and anhydrite (CaSO4) were generated, and it is thought that recycling of these raw materials is possible.

KCI등재

8폐자원에너지 시설의 환경성 및 경제성 평가에 따른 지원방안 연구

저자 : 박세인 ( Se-in Park ) , 이유민 ( Youmin Lee ) , 남궁훤 ( Hueon Namkung ) , 강준구 ( Jun-gu Kang ) , 전태완 ( Taewan Jeon )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 553-561 (9 pages)

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Although the need for new and renewable energy is increasing, support for waste-to-energy facilities has been reduced as the related laws have been amended. Accordingly, there are concerns about the weakening of the competitiveness of waste-to-energy facilities. Therefore, this research conducted a study on the support methodology for waste-to-energy facilities. To provide support for waste-to-energy facilities, it is necessary to evaluate the related facilities based on common factors. In this study, for the evaluation of waste-to-energy facilities, the environmental indicator was calculated by using the environmental properties of the facility as a factor, while the benefit calculated by examining the energy production of the waste-to-energy facility was used as the economic indicator. In addition, the numerical values of each indicator were simplified through normalization, and the scores of the environmental and economic indicators were calculated by scoring the normalized values. For the calculated result, the sum of the environmental and economical scores was used as the overall score of the facility by applying the indicator reflection ratio.

KCI등재

9코로나 19 고발열 의료폐기물이 소각시설 대기오염물질 배출특성에 미치는 영향

저자 : 이은송 ( Eunsong Lee ) , 김진태 ( Jintae Kim ) , 이정규 ( Jungyu Lee ) , 신완호 ( Wanho Shin ) , 한소영 ( Soyoung Han ) , 홍원석 ( Wonseok Hong ) , 윤진한 ( Jinhan Yun )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 562-571 (10 pages)

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This study evaluated the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on nitrogen oxides emissions from a medical waste incinerator. During the summer vacation season and year-end periods, the amount of medical waste as well as COVID- 19 patients dramatically increased by 2 to 6 times. In addition, nitrogen oxide emissions increased by approximately 30 % due to the injection of high calorific medical waste into the medical waste incinerator. The increase in medical waste calorific value is attributed to the exclusion of diapers from the medical waste classification and the composition of synthetic resins in waste transport containers. By applying the energy conservation law, the estimated waste calorific value for the months with the highest and lowest nitrogen oxides emissions were ~5,250 kcal/kg and 4,760 kcal/kg, respectively. The correlation between waste calorific value and nitrogen oxide was confirmed. However, the calorific value of medical waste varies for each transport container, and there is a limit in constantly controlling the calorific value of the injected waste. Therefore, to minimize the environmental impact of medical waste incinerators, it is necessary to apply combustion optimization technologies such as flue gas recirculation and air staging combustion to control air pollution.

KCI등재

10천연 가죽 폐기물을 이용한 가스켓 시트 제조에서 가죽 폐기물 및 실리카 충진제별 물성 변화 연구

저자 : 정득준 ( Deukjun Jeong ) , 김관용 ( Gwanyong Kim ) , 이상철 ( Sangchul Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 572-579 (8 pages)

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This study is on an upcycle technology for manufacturing gasket sheets using solid waste generated in the manufacturing process of natural leather. Regarding the manufacturing of rubber gasket sheets based on dry manufacturing technology, we studied the crosslinking characteristics and mechanical characteristics of shaving scrap and trimming scrap according to the types of natural leather waste, where the effect of the type of silica used as a reinforcing filler was investigated. As a result, research on industrial recycling items that reduce carbon usage and do not generate wastewater was conducted.

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KCI등재

1고성능 감수제 첨가비율에 따른 알칼리 활성 결합재의 기초 물성 평가

저자 : 변희재 ( Huijae Byun ) , 나형원 ( Hyeongwon Na ) , 형원길 ( Wongil Hyung )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 389-394 (6 pages)

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This study aimed to prepare a non-sintered cement mortar made without using standard Portland cement and investigate its fluidity and strength characteristics by adding a high-performance water-reducing agent. The flow test results revealed that high fluidity was obtained by adding a PC-based water-reducing agent when two types of the water-reducing agent were added under the same W/B condition. The flexural strength test showed that the test mortar had a higher flexural strength value than plain mortar after 28 days when 0.5% of PC-based and lignin-based water-reducing agent was added. As the added amount of water-reducing agent increased, the test mortar's strength showed a tendency to decrease little by little. As a result of the compressive strength test, the strength of the PC-based water-reducing agent decreased as the amount of agent added increased. In contrast, the strength of the Lignin-based water-reducing agent increased as the amount of agent added increased. It is appropriate to use a PC-based water-reducing agent for non-sintered cement mortar. This study concluded that adding 0.5% of the agent will be advantageous in securing fluidity and strength.

KCI등재

2중소도시 소각시설에 반입된 생활폐기물에 대한 3년간의 물리적 조성조사

저자 : 윤석표 ( Seok-pyo Yoon )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 395-400 (6 pages)

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In this study, physical composition analysis was conducted on household waste collected from the storage pit of the household waste incinerator once a month (36 times in total) for three years. The main results obtained from the survey results are as follows. According to a survey of the physical properties of household waste, plastic was the highest at 30.2%, followed by food at 26.5%, paper at 14.1%, and fiber at 9.3%. The annual difference in food and plastics is attributed to an increase in food composition ratio and a relatively decrease in plastic composition ratio in 2021, which is presumed to be due to less eating out and ordering delivery food at home due to the COVID-19 situation. Since food waste and recyclable waste are discharged separably from other wastes, it can be seen that the variation of major wastes such as plastic, food, paper, and fiber, in the household wastes subject to incineration is no difference between seasons. The average weight of one discarded mask was 5.97 ± 0.94 g. The weight ratio of incineration standard garbage bags among household wastes was 1.33 ± 0.46%. The low calorific value of municipal solid waste estimated by the average physical composition was 3,762 kcal/kg, showing a result almost similar to the low calorific value of waste generated in the household part of the fifth waste statistical survey of Korea Ministry of Environment.

KCI등재

3폐의류 처리 개선방안에 관한 연구

저자 : 최연석 ( Yeonseok Choi ) , 최상규 ( Sangkyu Choi ) , 한소영 ( Soyoung Han ) , 정연우 ( Yeonwoo Jung )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 401-409 (9 pages)

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Globally, only 15% of discarded old clothes are recycled, while the remainder is incinerated or dumped in landfills, resulting in severe deterioration of air and land quality. Korea's old clothes export business boomed and expanded until 2013. As a result, there were not any social difficulties, such as “Not in My Backyard” (NIMBY), nor a lack of in-country landfill sites to dispose of old clothes. However, China's export of old clothes has been surging since the early 2010s and caused an oversupply of old clothes in the world market. This resulted in the problematic management of the related companies as well as the old clothes disposal problem in Korea. Furthermore, the government's administration system for old clothes has some issues, such as incorrect statistics of discarded amounts, unclear classification of textile wastes, and a lot of unlisted companies in the field. This study retrieved the total amount of discarded old clothes in Korea through related references and compared it with other countries. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of old clothes were analyzed to determine their suitability for bio-SRF. Finally, a legislative system for old clothing in Korea was reviewed, and some modifications were suggested to support related industries and to prepare for the upcoming old clothing disposal problem.

KCI등재

4폐기물 처리 시나리오에 따른 환경효율성 변화 분석 연구

저자 : 이소라 ( Sora Yl ) , 임혜숙 ( Hye Sook Lim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 410-417 (8 pages)

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Eco-efficiency can be expressed as an economic value for environmental impact, and the eco-efficiency of each waste treatment method can be calculated using environmental and economic evaluations of waste treatment facilities. This study analyzed changes in eco-efficiency according to changes in the share of waste treatment methods in the future based on the results of eco-efficiency evaluation of the waste treatment method. As a scenario the changing of future waste generation and treatment methods, the forecast of waste generation and treatment according to the first “Master Plans for Resources Circulation” was used. Municipal solid waste was selected as the target waste, and incineration, landfill disposal, combustible waste-to-energy, organic waste biogasification, and food waste recycling were considered for the waste treatment methods. The results of the eco-efficiency evaluation, based on the share of waste treatment forecast for 2027 (the target year of the first “Master Plans for Resources Circulation”), showed that eco-efficiency improved when compared to the 2016 (the base year of the first “Master Plans for Resources Circulation”). Calculations for eco-efficiency in 2027 differed depending on the share of the waste landfill, with 4,118 thousand won/point for all waste landfills, 4,312 thousand won/point for incombustible waste landfills, and 4,084 thousand won/point for mixed waste landfills. These all improved when compared to 5,173 thousand won/point, 7,701 thousand won/point, and 4,744 thousand won/point, respectively, for the base year. The improvement in the eco-efficiency of the target year compared to the base year is because the eco-efficiency of the landfill facilities was evaluated as superior to other facilities. However, because the operating burden of landfill treatment facilities tends to be underestimated, further research on economic costs and environmental impacts will be required. The results of the eco-efficiency evaluation can be utilized for policy making on waste treatment and establishing a methodology for facility improvement and efficiency.

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5국내 폐플라스틱 열분해오일의 나프타 활용을 위한 재활용환경성평가 적용 연구

저자 : 전화연 ( Hwayeon Jeon ) , 김목연 ( Mock-yeon Kim ) , 이재우 ( Jae Woo Lee ) , 김재곤 ( Jae-kon Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 418-430 (13 pages)

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Waste plastic pyrolysis oil is characterized by a wide-ranging boiling point, a high heavy metals content, and a low temperature flash point. It is more difficult to use directly compared to low-grade fuel because its quality differs by producer. In this study, the recycling of waste plastic pyrolysis oil as naphtha was analyzed in terms of hazardous characteristics, quality properties, and chemical compositions to produce an environmental assessment of recycling. A harmful characteristic of waste plastic pyrolysis oil is its average flash point of 3 degrees Celsius. That of raw naphtha is also low due to the presence of components with low boiling points, such as n-pentene and n-butane. Moreover, the results of the properties analysis showed that, in the majority of cases, the water content was less than 1% and the carbon residue was less than 0.15%. However, some samples were not homogeneous, so the kinetic viscosity could not be measured. Additionally, the elemental analysis showed that the oxygen contents of some samples were found to be high. The heavy metal analysis demonstrated that the phosphorus, arsenic, sodium, and chlorine contents were high, with chlorine reaching a notable concentration of 1,000 mg/kg. Furthermore, pyrolysis oil has a carbon number range with about 70% from C5 to C12. It is necessary to fractionate a high boiling point and remove arsenic and chlorine from heavy metals by use of a pretreatment process. In addition, the contents of oxygen, olefin, and aromatic must be converted and removed. In conclusion, waste plastic pyrolysis oil must be improved in terms of its harmful and physical properties.

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6자원순환 보증금제 특징 분석을 통한 1회용 컵 등 대상 확대 연구

저자 : 이소라 ( Sora Yl )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 431-439 (9 pages)

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With the integration of the 'Beverage Container Deposit Return System' into the 'Resource Circulation Deposit Return System' in Korea, there is a need to differentiate the strategies for the soon-to-be introduced deposit refund scheme for single-use cups from existing systems. This study, therefore, reviews the characteristics and implementation of deposit refund schemes for beverage containers and single-use cups in Korea and abroad to suggest suitable differentiation strategies for the single-use cup deposit refund scheme as well as plans to expand the scope of the deposit return scheme. The success of a deposit return system is highly dependent on the size of the deposit: the larger the deposit, the higher the return rate as well as the possibility of fraudulent refunds. For this reason, the scheme for collecting empty bottles, which is focused on reuse, and that for collecting single-use cups, which is mainly for recycling, should be managed separately using different collection systems. Setting a large deposit to improve the return rate will increase the consumers' perceived market price, so it is necessary to indicate the deposit fee separately on the receipt. Also, strategies need to be considered for dealing with fraudulent refunds, which directly connect to management costs, such as whether to set a small deposit to prevent such behavior from the beginning or to set a large deposit and introduce anti-counterfeiting tools. A transparent system for managing the deposit refund scheme could be established by installing a reverse vending machine for collecting beverage containers and having a dedicated agency to manage the installation and operation of the machine directly based on real-time information.

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7혐기성소화조의 교반방식이 음폐수 처리효율에 미치는 영향

저자 : 이상윤 ( Sangyoon Lee ) , 배재호 ( Jaeho Bae )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 440-450 (11 pages)

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Anaerobic digestion is a method for the proper management of the continuously increasing amount of food waste leachate, although it is costly and time consuming and requires enormous sites. Therefore, improving digestion efficiency with proper operation can be a realistic alternative. In this study, the effects of agitation methods on the performance of anaerobic digesters treating food waste leachate were evaluated by comparing two agitation methods: gas agitation and mechanical agitation. After changing gas agitation to mechanical agitation, the daily amount of food waste leachate treated increased from 131 to 147 t. In addition, the organic removal efficiency was improved by up to 6%. Digestion gas production also increased from 0.33 to 0.50 Nm3/kg CODcr-added. Moreover, it was found that it was possible to reduce electricity consumption by 40%. The above results indicate that the mechanical agitation method is more advantageous for the treatment of food waste leachate than the gas agitation method.

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8반응표면분석법을 이용한 우분 혐기소화효율 향상 열전처리 최적조건 분석

저자 : 배종훈 ( Jonghun Bae ) , 박병창 ( Byeongchang Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 451-460 (10 pages)

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The response surface methodology based on a central composite design was applied to optimize the thermal pretreatment conditions for the anaerobic digestion of cow manure. It was found that the anaerobic digestion efficiency improved as the temperature and time increased during the thermal pretreatment of cow manure. However, when the temperature and time conditions increased above a certain value, the degree of biodegradability decreased. This is because melanoids generated during high-temperature or long-term thermal pretreatment act as an anaerobic digestion inhibitor. Therefore, it is important to maintain the appropriate temperature and time when applying thermal pretreatment. The appropriate temperature and time ranges derived from this experiment were found to be 124-168 ℃ and 40-50 min. The maximum biodegradability predicted through reaction optimization was y = 40.2, and at this time, the temperature and time were 145℃ and 45 min.

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9발효·건조 공정을 이용한 하수처리장 협잡물 처리 실증화 기술개발 연구

저자 : 서정식 ( Jeong-sig Seo ) , 윤종호 ( Jong-ho Youn ) , 반재형 ( Jea-hyung Ban ) , 이명오 ( Myoung-oh Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 461-469 (9 pages)

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In this study, a demonstration technology was developed for the treatment of sewage impurities by a fermentation and drying process. To treat the sewage impurities, fermentation and drying devices with a daily processing capacity of 100 kg and 300 kg, respectively, were installed at a public wastewater treatment facility. It was found that the weight loss rate and average water content of the fermentation dried residues from the sewage impurities ranged from 79-84% and 20-25%, respectively. The residues satisfied the quality standards of solid refuse fuel, meaning they could be reused as auxiliary fuel for coal-fired electrical power plants or cement factories. The fermentation and drying process was much more economical and environmentally friendly than the incineration process mainly used to treat sewage impurities. Compared with the incineration process, the fermentation and drying process was about 78% less expensive.

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10미생물 전기화학적 BMP test를 통한 혐기성 소화 유출수의 후처리 효율평가

저자 : 차지환 ( Jihwan Cha ) , 천아인 ( Ain Cheon ) , 양현명 ( Hyeonmyeong Yang ) , 김민지 ( Minji Kim ) , 박병창 ( Byeongchang Park ) , 배종훈 ( Jonghun Bae ) , 전항배 ( Hangbae Jun )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 470-476 (7 pages)

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Bio-electrochemical anaerobic digestion (BEAD) is a technology that can improve the methane production of anaerobic digestion (AD) effluent by supplying a small amount of voltage, and its performance has been proven through many studies. However, most studies have used substrates with high biodegradability. In addition, there are few studies on AD effluent, which is difficult to treat due to its low biodegradation rate although it still has a high COD concentration. In this study, the posttreatment potential of AD effluent through BEAD was evaluated through a biochemical methane potential test, and optimal conditions were selected by supplying different voltages. As a result of the experiment, when a voltage of 0.4 V was supplied, the methane yield, coulombic efficiency, and biodegradation rate were the highest, and it was judged that the voltage supply contributed to the decomposition of non-degradable organic matter and rapid hydrogen and methane conversion of organic matter. However, when a voltage of >0.6 V was supplied, the efficiency was decreased, which was considered to be because the activity of microorganisms was inhibited due to the high voltage. Therefore, in this study, the optimum voltage was confirmed to be 0.4 V, and the possibility of the post-treatment of AD effluent through BEAD was confirmed.

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