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한국응용약물학회> Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지)> Senotherapeutics and Their Molecular Mechanism for Improving Aging

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Senotherapeutics and Their Molecular Mechanism for Improving Aging

Jooho Park , Dong Wook Shin
  • : 한국응용약물학회
  • : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권6호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 11월
  • : 490-500(11pages)
Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지)

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
THE IMPLICATION OF SENESCENCE IN AGE AND AGE-RELATED DISEASES
THREE STRATEGIES TO TARGET SENESCENT CELLS
SENOMORPHICS
SENESCENCE-TARGETING IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS
DISCUSSION
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
REFERENCES

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Aging is defined as physiological dysfunction of the body and a key risk factor for human diseases. During the aging process, cellular senescence occurs in response to various extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as radiation-induced DNA damage, the activation of oncogenes, and oxidative stress. These senescent cells accumulate in many tissues and exhibit diverse phenotypes, such as resistance to apoptosis, production of senescence-associated secretory phenotype, cellular flattening, and cellular hypertrophy. They also induce abnormal dysfunction of the microenvironment and damage neighboring cells, eventually causing harmful effects in the development of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, pharmacological interventions targeting senescent cells, called senotherapeutics, have been extensively studied. These senotherapeutics provide a novel strategy for extending the health span and improving age-related diseases. In this review, we discuss the current progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of senotherapeutics and provide insights for developing senotherapeutics.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 의약학분야  > 약화학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 1976-9148
  • : 2005-4483
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1993-2023
  • : 1842


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1Enhancing Anti-Cancer Therapy with Selective Autophagy Inhibitors by Targeting Protective Autophagy

저자 : Min Ju Lee , Jae-sung Park , Seong Bin Jo , Young Ae Joe

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 1-15 (15 pages)

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Autophagy is a process of eliminating damaged or unnecessary proteins and organelles, thereby maintaining intracellular homeostasis. Deregulation of autophagy is associated with several diseases including cancer. Contradictory dual roles of autophagy have been well established in cancer. Cytoprotective mechanism of autophagy has been extensively investigated for overcoming resistance to cancer therapies including radiotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy. Selective autophagy inhibitors that directly target autophagic process have been developed for cancer treatment. Efficacies of autophagy inhibitors have been tested in various pre-clinical cancer animal models. Combination therapies of autophagy inhibitors with chemotherapeutics are being evaluated in clinal trials. In this review, we will focus on genetical and pharmacological perturbations of autophagy-related proteins in different steps of autophagic process and their therapeutic benefits. We will also summarize combination therapies of autophagy inhibitors with chemotherapies and their outcomes in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Understanding of current knowledge of development, progress, and application of cytoprotective autophagy inhibitors in combination therapies will open new possibilities for overcoming drug resistance and improving clinical outcomes.

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2The Trend of Organic Based Nanoparticles in the Treatment of Diabetes and Its Perspectives

저자 : Vijayakumar Natesan , Sung-jin Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 16-26 (11 pages)

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Diabetes is an untreatable metabolic disorder characterized by alteration in blood sugar homeostasis, with submucosal insulin therapy being the primary treatment option. This route of drug administration is attributed to low patient comfort due to the risk of pain, distress, and local inflammation/infections. Nanoparticles have indeed been suggested as insulin carriers to allow the drug to be administered via less invasive routes other than injection, such as orally or nasally. The organic-based nanoparticles can be derived from various organic materials (for instance, polysaccharides, lipids, and so on) and thus are prevalently used to enhance the physical and chemical consistency of loaded bioactive compounds (drug) and thus their bioavailability. This review presents various forms of organic nanoparticles (for example, chitosan, dextron, gums, nanoemulsion, alginate, and so on) for enhanced hypoglycemic drug delivery relative to traditional therapies.

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36-Shogaol and 10-Shogaol Synergize Curcumin in Ameliorating Proinflammatory Mediators via the Modulation of TLR4/TRAF6/MAPK and NFκB Translocation

저자 : Xian Zhou , Ahmad Al-khazaleh , Sualiha Afzal , Ming-hui tim Kao , Gerald Münch , Hans Wohlmuth , David Leach , Mitchell Low , Chun Guang Li

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 27-41 (15 pages)

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Extensive research supported the therapeutic potential of curcumin, a naturally occurring compound, as a promising cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drug. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic anti-inflammatory and anti-cytokine activities by combining 6-shogaol and 10-shogaol to curcumin, and associated mechanisms in modulating lipopolysaccharides and interferon-ɣ-induced proinflammatory signaling pathways. Our results showed that the combination of 6-shogaol-10-shogaolcurcumin synergistically reduced the production of nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor and inter-lukin-6 in lipopolysaccharides and interferon-γ-induced RAW 264.7 and THP-1 cells assessed by the combination index model. 6-shogaol-10-shogaol-curcumin also showed greater inhibition of cytokine profiling compared to that of 6-shogaol-10-shogaol or curcumin alone. The synergistic anti-inflammatory activity was associated with supressed NFκB translocation and downregulated TLR4-TRAF6-MAPK signaling pathway. In addition, SC also inhibited microRNA-155 expression which may be relevant to the inhibited NFκB translocation. Although 6-shogaol-10-shogaol-curcumin synergistically increased Nrf2 activity, the anti-inflammatory mechanism appeared to be independent from the induction of Nrf2. 6-shogaol-10-shogaol-curcumin provides a more potent therapeutic agent than curcumin alone in synergistically inhibiting lipopolysaccharides and interferon-γ induced proinflammatory mediators and cytokine array in macrophages. The action was mediated by the downregulation of TLR4/TRAF6/MAPK pathway and NFκB translocation.

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4Loganin Prevents Hepatic Steatosis by Blocking NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

저자 : Joo Hyeon Jang , Gabsik Yang , Jin Kyung Seok , Han Chang Kang , Yong-yeon Cho , Hye Suk Lee , Joo Young Lee

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 40-47 (8 pages)

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Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is a necessary process to induce fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a kind of NAFLD that encompasses the spectrum of liver disease. It is characterized by inflammation and ballooning of hepatocytes during steatosis. We tested whether inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome could prevent the development and pathology of NASH. We identified loganin as an inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome and investigated whether in vivo administration of loganin prevented NASH symptoms using a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet model in mice. We found that loganin inhibited the NLRP3 inflammasome activation triggered by ATP or nigericin, as shown by suppression of the production of interleukin (IL)-1β and caspase-1 (p10) in mouse primary macrophages. The speck formation of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) was blocked by loganin, showing that the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome complex was impaired by loganin. Administration of loganin reduced the clinical signs of NASH in mice fed the MCD diet, including hepatic inflammation, fat accumulation, and fibrosis. In addition, loganin reduced the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components in the liver. Our findings indicate that loganin alleviates the inflammatory symptoms associated with NASH, presumably by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In summary, these findings imply that loganin may be a novel nutritional and therapeutic treatment for NASH-related inflammation.

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5Identification of Small GTPases That Phosphorylate IRF3 through TBK1 Activation Using an Active Mutant Library Screen

저자 : Jae-hyun Yu , Eun-yi Moon , Jiyoon Kim , Ja Hyun Koo

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 48-59 (12 pages)

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Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) integrates both immunological and non-immunological inputs to control cell survival and death. Small GTPases are versatile functional switches that lie on the very upstream in signal transduction pathways, of which duration of activation is very transient. The large number of homologous proteins and the requirement for site-directed mutagenesis have hindered attempts to investigate the link between small GTPases and IRF3. Here, we constructed a constitutively active mutant expression library for small GTPase expression using Gibson assembly cloning. Small-scale screening identified multiple GTPases capable of promoting IRF3 phosphorylation. Intriguingly, 27 of 152 GTPases, including ARF1, RHEB, RHEBL1, and RAN, were found to increase IRF3 phosphorylation. Unbiased screening enabled us to investigate the sequence-activity relationship between the GTPases and IRF3. We found that the regulation of IRF3 by small GTPases was dependent on TBK1. Our work reveals the significant contribution of GTPases in IRF3 signaling and the potential role of IRF3 in GTPase function, providing a novel therapeutic approach against diseases with GTPase overexpression or active mutations, such as cancer.

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6Thrombin Induced Apoptosis through Calcium-Mediated Activation of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 in Intestinal Myofibroblasts

저자 : Mi Ja Park , Jong Hoon Won , Dae Kyong Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 59-67 (9 pages)

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Thrombin is a serine protease that participates in a variety of biological signaling through protease-activated receptors. Intestinal myofibroblasts play central roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. In this study, we found that thrombin-induced apoptosis is mediated by the calcium-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in the CCD-18Co cell. Thrombin reduced cell viability by inducing apoptosis and proteinase-activated receptor-1 antagonist attenuated thrombin-induced cell death. Endogenous ceramide did not affect the cell viability itself, but a ceramide-mediated pathway was involved in thrombin-induced cell death. Thrombin increased intracellular calcium levels and cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity. The ceramide synthase inhibitor Fumonisin B1, intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 inhibitor AACOCF3 inhibited thrombin-induced cell death. Thrombin stimulated arachidonic acid release and reactive oxygen species generation, which was blocked by AACOCF3, BAPTA-AM, and the antioxidant reagent Trolox. Taken together, thrombin triggered apoptosis through calcium-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in intestinal myofibroblasts.

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7MS-5, a Naphthalene Derivative, Induces Apoptosis in Human Pancreatic Cancer BxPC-3 Cells by Modulating Reactive Oxygen Species

저자 : Suman Giri , Gyu Hwan Park , Joon-seok Choi , Eunsook Ma , Kyung-soo Chun , Sang Hoon Joo

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 68-73 (6 pages)

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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal cancers with a poor prognosis. Standard chemotherapies have proven largely ineffective because of their toxicity and the development of resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapies. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of MS-5, a naphthalene derivative, on BxPC-3, a human pancreatic cancer cell line. We observed that MS-5 was cytotoxic to BxPC-3 cells, as well as inhibited the growth of cells in a concentration- and time- dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the percentage of annexin V-positive cells increased after MS-5 treatment. We also observed cleavage of caspases and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, and downregulation of Bcl-xL protein. Flow cytometry analysis of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial superoxide suggested that MS-5 induced the generation of mitochondrial superoxide while lowering the overall intracellular ROS levels. Thus, MS-5 may be potential candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment.

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8MHY2251, a New SIRT1 Inhibitor, Induces Apoptosis via JNK/p53 Pathway in HCT116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

저자 : Yong Jung Kang , Young Hoon Kwon , Jung Yoon Jang , Jun Ho Lee , Sanggwon Lee , Yujin Park , Hyung Ryong Moon , Hae Young Chung , Nam Deuk Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 73-81 (9 pages)

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Sirtuins (SIRTs) belong to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent class III histone deacetylase family. They are key regulators of cellular and physiological processes, such as cell survival, senescence, differentiation, DNA damage and stress response, cellular metabolism, and aging. SIRTs also influence carcinogenesis, making them potential targets for anticancer therapeutic strategies. In this study, we investigated the anticancer properties and underlying molecular mechanisms of a novel SIRT1 inhibitor, MHY2251, in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. MHY2251 reduced the viability of various human CRC cell lines, especially those with wild-type TP53. MHY2251 inhibited SIRT1 activity and SIRT1/2 protein expression, while promoting p53 acetylation, which is a target of SIRT1 in HCT116 cells. MHY2251 treatment triggered apoptosis in HCT116 cells. It increased the percentage of late apoptotic cells and the sub-G1 fraction (as detected by flow cytometric analysis) and induced DNA fragmentation. In addition, MHY2251 upregulated the expression of FasL and Fas, altered the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, downregulated the levels of pro-caspase-8, -9, and -3 proteins, and induced subsequent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. The induction of apoptosis by MHY2251 was related to the activation of the caspase cascade, which was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with ZVAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, MHY2251 stimulated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and MHY2251-triggered apoptosis was blocked by pre-treatment with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor. This finding indicated the specific involvement of JNK in MHY2251-induced apoptosis. MHY2251 shows considerable potential as a therapeutic agent for targeting human CRC via the inhibition of SIRT1 and activation of JNK/p53 pathway.

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9Functional Characterization of Drosophila melanogaster CYP6A8 Fatty Acid Hydroxylase

저자 : Sang-a Lee , Vitchan Kim , Byoungyun Choi , Hyein Lee , Young-jin Chun , Kyoung Sang Cho , Donghak Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 82-90 (9 pages)

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Genomic analysis indicated that the genome of Drosophila melanogaster contains more than 80 cytochrome P450 genes. To date, the enzymatic activity of these P450s has not been extensively studied. Here, the biochemical properties of CYP6A8 were characterized. CYP6A8 was cloned into the pCW vector, and its recombinant enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni2+-nitrilotriacetate affinity chromatography. Its expression level was approximately 130 nmol per liter of culture. Purified CYP6A8 exhibited a low-spin state in the absolute spectra of the ferric forms. Binding titration analysis indicated that lauric acid and capric acid produced type l spectral changes, with Kd values 28 ± 4 and 144 ± 20 μM, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the oxidation reaction of lauric acid produced (ω-1)-hydroxylated lauric acid as a major product and ω-hydroxy-lauric acid as a minor product. Steady-state kinetic analysis of lauric acid hydroxylation yielded a kcat value of 0.038 ± 0.002 min-1 and a Km value of 10 ± 2 μM. In addition, capric acid hydroxylation of CYP6A8 yielded kinetic parameters with a kcat value of 0.135 ± 0.007 min-1 and a Km value of 21 ± 4 μM. Because of the importance of various lipids as carbon sources, the metabolic analysis of fatty acids using CYP6A8 in this study can provide an understanding of the biochemical roles of P450 enzymes in many insects, including Drosophila melanogaster.

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10Growth Factors Upregulated by Uric Acid Affect Guanine Deaminase-Induced Melanogenesis

저자 : Nan-hyung Kim , Ai-young Lee

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 89-97 (9 pages)

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Uric acid produced by guanine deaminase (GDA) is involved in photoaging and hyperpigmentation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by uric acid plays a role in photoaging. However, the mechanism by which uric acid stimulates melanogenesis in GDA-overexpressing keratinocytes is unclear. Keratinocyte-derived paracrine factors have been identified as important mechanisms of ultraviolet-induced melanogenesis. Therefore, the role of paracrine melanogenic growth factors in GDA-induced hypermelanosis mediated by uric acid was examined. The relationships between ROS and these growth factors were examined. Primary cultured normal keratinocytes overexpressed with wild type or mutant GDA and those treated with xanthine or uric acid in the presence or absence of allopurinol, H2O2, or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were used in this study. Intracellular and extracellular bFGF and SCF levels were increased in keratinocytes by wild type, but not by loss-of-function mutants of GDA overexpression. Culture supernatants from GDA-overexpressing keratinocytes stimulated melanogenesis, which was restored by anti-bFGF and anti-SCF antibodies. Allopurinol treatment reduced the expression levels of bFGF and SCF in both GDA-overexpressing and normal keratinocytes exposed to exogenous xanthine; the exogenous uric acid increased their expression levels. H2O2-stimulated tyrosinase expression and melanogenesis were restored by NAC pretreatment. However, H2O2 or NAC did not upregulate or downregulate bFGF or SCF, respectively. Overall, uric acid could be involved in melanogenesis induced by GDA overexpression in keratinocytes via bFGF and SCF upregulation not via ROS generation.

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1Modulation of Reactive Oxygen Species to Overcome 5-Fluorouracil Resistance

저자 : Kyung-soo Chun , Sang Hoon Joo

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 479-489 (11 pages)

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5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) remains to be an important chemotherapeutic drug for treating several cancers when targeted therapy is unavailable. Chemoresistance limits the clinical utility of 5-FU, and new strategies are required to overcome the resistance. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants are balanced differently in both normal and cancer cells. Modulating ROS can be one method of overcoming 5-FU resistance. This review summarizes selected compounds and endogenous cellular targets modulating ROS generation to overcome 5-FU resistance.

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2Senotherapeutics and Their Molecular Mechanism for Improving Aging

저자 : Jooho Park , Dong Wook Shin

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 490-500 (11 pages)

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Aging is defined as physiological dysfunction of the body and a key risk factor for human diseases. During the aging process, cellular senescence occurs in response to various extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as radiation-induced DNA damage, the activation of oncogenes, and oxidative stress. These senescent cells accumulate in many tissues and exhibit diverse phenotypes, such as resistance to apoptosis, production of senescence-associated secretory phenotype, cellular flattening, and cellular hypertrophy. They also induce abnormal dysfunction of the microenvironment and damage neighboring cells, eventually causing harmful effects in the development of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, pharmacological interventions targeting senescent cells, called senotherapeutics, have been extensively studied. These senotherapeutics provide a novel strategy for extending the health span and improving age-related diseases. In this review, we discuss the current progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of senotherapeutics and provide insights for developing senotherapeutics.

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3p38 MAPK Inhibitor NJK14047 Suppresses CDNB-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Symptoms in BALB/c Mice

저자 : Ju-hyun Lee , Seung-hwan Son , Nam-jung Kim , Dong-soon Im

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 501-509 (9 pages)

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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder. Suppression of MAPKs and NF-κB is implicated as a vital mechanism of action of several traditional Chinese medicines for AD therapy. Although overexpression of MAPK mRNA in the skin tissue has been shown in the AD model, the roles of each MAPK in AD pathogenesis have rarely been studied. This study examined the effect of NJK14047, an inhibitor of p38 MAPKs, on AD-like skin lesions induced in BALB/c mice by sensitization and challenges with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) on dorsal skin and ears, respectively. After induction of AD, NJK14047 (2.5 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) was administrated for 3 weeks via intraperitoneal injection. Following its administration, NJK14047 suppressed CDNB-induced AD-like symptoms such as skin hypertrophy and suppressed mast cell infiltration into the skin lesions. It also reduced CDNB-induced increase in TH2 cytokine (IL-13) and TH1 cytokines (interferon-γ and IL-12A) levels but did not decrease serum IgE level. Furthermore, NJK14047 blocked CDNB-induced lymph node enlargement. These results suggest that NJK14047, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, might be an optimal therapeutic option with unique modes of action for AD treatment.

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4Effects of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis on the Disposition of Tofacitinib in Rats

저자 : Sung Hun Bae , Hyo Sung Kim , Hyeon Gyeom Choi , Sun-young Chang , So Hee Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 510-519 (10 pages)

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Tofacitinib, a Janus kinase 1 and 3 inhibitor, is mainly metabolized by CYP3A1/2 and CYP2C11 in the liver. The drug has been approved for the chronic treatment of severe ulcerative colitis, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of tofacitinib in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis. After 1-min of intravenous infusion of tofacitinib (10 mg/kg), the area under the plasma concentration-time curves from time zero to time infinity (AUC) of tofacitinib significantly increased by 92.3%. The time-averaged total body clearance decreased significantly by 47.7% in DSS rats compared with control rats. After the oral administration of tofacitinib (20 mg/kg), the AUC increased by 85.5% in DSS rats. These results could be due to decreased intrinsic clearance of the drug caused by the reduction of CYP3A1/2 and CYP2C11 in the liver and intestine of DSS rats. In conclusion, ulcerative colitis inhibited CYP3A1/2 and CYP2C11 in the liver and intestines of DSS rats and slowed the metabolism of tofacitinib, resulting in increased plasma concentrations of tofacitinib in DSS rats.

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저자 : Su Jeong Kim , Min Yeong Choi , Keun Young Min , Min Geun Jo , Jie Min Kim , Hyung Sik Kim , Young Mi Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 520-528 (9 pages)

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Mast cells are an effector cell that plays a pivotal role in type I hypersensitive immune responses. Mast cells exist in connective tissues, such as skin and mucosal tissue, and contain granules which contain bioactive substances such as histamine and heparin in cells. The granules of mast cells are secreted by antigen stimulation to cause the type I allergic hypersensitivity. In addition, stimulated by antigen, mast cells synthesize and secrete various eicosanoids and cytokines. While AT9283 is known to have anticancer effects, the therapeutic effect of AT9283 on allergic disorders is completely unknown. In this study, it was found that AT9283 reversibly inhibited antigen-IgE binding-induced degranulation in mast cells (IC50, approx. 0.58 μM) and suppressed the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-4 (IC50, approx. 0.09 μM) and TNF-α (IC50, approx. 0.19 μM). For a mechanism of mast cell inhibition, while not inhibiting Syk phosphorylation, AT9283 suppressed the activation of LAT, a downstream substrate protein of Syk, in a dose-dependent manner. As expected, AT9283 also inhibited the activation of PLCγ1 and Akt, downstream signaling molecules of Syk/LAT, and MAP kinases such as JNK, Erk1/2, and P38. In an in vitro protein tyrosine kinase assay, AT9283 directly inhibited Syk activity. Next, AT9283 dose-dependently inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), an IgE-mediated allergic acute response, in mice (ED50, approx. 34 mg/kg, p.o.). These findings suggest that AT9283 has potential to use as a new drug for alleviating the symptoms of IgE-mediated allergic disorders.

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6A Novel Therapeutic Effect of a New Variant of CTLA4-Ig with Four Antennas That Are Terminally Capped with Sialic Acid in the CTLA4 Region

저자 : Yongwei Piao , So Yoon Yun , Hee Soo Kim , Bo Kyung Park , Hae Chan Ha , Zhicheng Fu , Ji Min Jang , Moon Jung Back , In Chul Shin , Jong Hoon Won , Dae Kyong Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 529-539 (11 pages)

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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial immune-mediated disease, the pathogenesis of which involves different cell types. T-cell activation plays an important role in RA. Therefore, inhibiting T-cell activation is one of the current therapeutic strategies. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4-Ig), also known as abatacept, reduces cytokine secretion by inhibiting T-cell activation. To achieve a homeostatic therapeutic effect, CTLA4-Ig has to be administered repeatedly over several weeks, which limits its applicability in RA treatment. To overcome this limitation, we increased the number of sialic acid-capped antennas by genetically engineering the CTLA4 region to increase the therapeutic effect of CTLA4-Ig. N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT) and α2,6-sialyltransferase (α2,6-ST) were co-overexpressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to generate a highly sialylated CTLA4-Ig fusion protein, named ST6. The therapeutic and immunogenic effects of ST6 and CTLA4-Ig were compared. ST6 dose-dependently decreased paw edema in a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis and reduced cytokine levels in a co-culture cell assay in a similar manner to CTLA4-Ig. ST6- and CTLA4-Ig-induced T cell-derived cytokines were examined in CD4 T cells isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells after cell killing through irradiation followed by flow- and magnetic-beadassisted separation. Interestingly, compared to CTLA4-Ig, ST6 was substantially less immunogenic and more stable and durable. Our data suggest that ST6 can serve as a novel, less immunogenic therapeutic strategy for patients with RA.

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7Betulin, an Anti-Inflammatory Triterpenoid Compound, Regulates MUC5AC Mucin Gene Expression through NF-kB Signaling in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

저자 : Rajib Hossain , Kyung-il Kim , Fengri Jin , Hyun Jae Lee , Choong Jae Lee

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 540-545 (6 pages)

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Betulin is a triterpenoid natural product contained in several medicinal plants including Betulae Cortex. These medicinal plants have been used for controlling diverse inflammatory diseases in folk medicine and betulin showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anticancer activities. In this study, we tried to examine whether betulin exerts a regulative effect on the gene expression of MUC5AC mucin under the status simulating a pulmonary inflammation, in human airway epithelial cells. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with betulin for 30 min and then stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 24 h or the indicated periods. The MUC5AC mucin mRNA expression and mucin glycoprotein production were measured by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. To elucidate the action mechanism of betulin, effect of betulin on PMA-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) signaling pathway was also investigated by western blot analysis. The results were as follows: 1) Betulin significantly suppressed the production of MUC5AC mucin glycoprotein and down-regulated MUC5AC mRNA expression induced by PMA in NCI-H292 cells. 2) Betulin inhibited NF-κB activation stimulated by PMA. Suppression of inhibitory kappa B kinase (IKK) by betulin led to the inhibition of the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory kappa B alpha (IκBα), and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. This, in turn, led to the down-regulation of MUC5AC glycoprotein production in NCI-H292 cells. These results suggest betulin inhibits the gene expression of mucin through regulation of NF-kB signaling pathway, in human airway epithelial cells.

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8Immune Responses to Plant-Derived Recombinant Colorectal Cancer Glycoprotein EpCAM-FcK Fusion Protein in Mice

저자 : Chae-yeon Lim , Deuk-su Kim , Yangjoo Kang , Ye-rin Lee , Kibum Kim , Do Sun Kim , Moon-soo Kim , Kisung Ko

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 546-552 (7 pages)

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Epidermal cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), which has been considered as a cancer vaccine candidate. The EpCAM protein fused to the fragment crystallizable region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) tagged with KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (EpCAM-FcK) has been successfully expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) and purified from the plant leaf. In this study, we investigated the ability of the plant-derived EpCAM-FcK (EpCAM-FcKP) to elicit an immune response in vivo. The animal group injected with the EpCAM-FcKP showed a higher differentiated germinal center (GC) B cell population (~9%) compared with the animal group injected with the recombinant rhEpCAM-Fc chimera (EpCAM-FcM). The animal group injected with EpCAM-FcKP (~42%) had more differentiated T follicular helper cells (Tfh) than the animal group injected with EpCAM-FcM (~7%). This study demonstrated that the plant-derived EpCAM-FcK fusion antigenic protein induced a humoral immune response in mice.

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9Growth Inhibitory and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Hirsuteine in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells through Targeting Sphingosine Kinase 1

저자 : Shan Gao , Tingting Guo , Shuyu Luo , Yan Zhang , Zehao Ren , Xiaona Lang , Gaoyong Hu , Duo Zuo , Wenqing Jia , Dexin Kong , Haiyang Yu , Yuling Qiu

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 553-566 (14 pages)

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Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a slowly progressing hematopoietic cell disorder. Sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) plays established roles in tumor initiation, progression, and chemotherapy resistance in a wide range of cancers, including leukemia. However, small-molecule inhibitors targeting SPHK1 in CML still need to be developed. This study revealed the role of SPHK1 in CML and investigated the potential anti-leukemic activity of hirsuteine (HST), an indole alkaloid obtained from the oriental plant Uncaria rhynchophylla, in CML cells. These results suggest that SPHK1 is highly expressed in CML cells and that overexpression of SPHK1 represents poor clinical outcomes in CML patients. HST exposure led to G2/M phase arrest, cellular apoptosis, and downregulation of Cyclin B1 and CDC2 and cleavage of Caspase 3 and PARP in CML cells. HST shifted sphingolipid rheostat from sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) towards the ceramide coupled with a marked inhibition of SPHK1. Mechanistically, HST significantly blocked SPHK1/S1P/S1PR1 and BCR-ABL/PI3K/Akt pathways. In addition, HST can be docked with residues of SPHK1 and shifts the SPHK1 melting curve, indicating the potential protein-ligand interactions between SPHK1 and HST in both CML cells. SPHK1 overexpression impaired apoptosis and proliferation of CML cells induced by HST alone. These results suggest that HST, which may serve as a novel and specific SPHK1 inhibitor, exerts anti-leukemic activity by inhibiting the SPHK1/S1P/ S1PR1 and BCR-ABL/PI3K/Akt pathways in CML cells, thus conferring HST as a promising anti-leukemic drug for CML therapy in the future.

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10Clinical Factors Affecting the Serum Retention of a Teratogenic Etretinate after the Acitretin Administration

저자 : Jong Heon Jeong , Gyu Hwan Hyun , Yu Jeong Park , Sung Won Kwon , Ai-young Lee

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 562-573 (12 pages)

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Etretinate, an acitretin metabolite, has a long retention duration in adipose tissues with a teratogenic potential. FDA advises a contraceptive period of at least three years after discontinuing acitretin. However, the effect of accumulated etretinate in adipose tissues on fetus is unknown. Although the teratogenic threshold for serum concentration of etretinate has been presented as higher than 2 ng/mL, that of acitretin is unknown. To examine factors affecting body retention of acitretin and etretinate, effects of acitretin dosage, acitretin-taking duration, elapsed time after stopping acitretin, age, sex, concomitant alcohol consumption, and foods and supplements rich in vitamin A intake on serum concentrations of acitretin and etretinate were analyzed in 14 acitretintaken patients and 58 controls without taking acitretin or etretinate. Serum concentrations of acitretin, but not etretinate, tended to be inversely related to the discontinuation duration. They were also related to old age. Different from a published result that alcohol consumption could promote the metabolism of acitretin into etretinate, alcohol intake did not affect serum concentrations of etretinate. Unexpectedly, more frequent intake of vitamin A or provitamin A-rich food and supplements was associated with higher serum acitretin, whereas less frequent intake of vitamin A or provitamin A-rich food and supplements was associated with higher serum levels of etretinate in acitretin-taken patients. Despite preliminary data, inter-individual variations in serum retention of etretinate suggest the necessity of further research before applying the same guidelines to everyone to minimize unnecessary contraception.

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