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한국보건행정학회> 보건행정학회지> 신종 코로나바이러스 감염증(코로나19) 대유행과 보건의료인의 인권: 공중보건의사를 중심으로

KCI등재

신종 코로나바이러스 감염증(코로나19) 대유행과 보건의료인의 인권: 공중보건의사를 중심으로

Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic and Human Rights of Health Professionals: Focused on Public Health Doctors

홍사민 ( Samin Hong )
  • : 한국보건행정학회
  • : 보건행정학회지 32권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 09월
  • : 330-333(4pages)
보건행정학회지

DOI


목차

서 론
코로나19 대유행과 공중보건의사의 인권
고찰 및 결론
이해상충
ORCID
REFERENCES

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초록 보기

Korea’s quarantine response to the novel coronavirus (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) pandemic is based on the sacrifice of health professionals, especially public health doctors (PHDs) who were called out first and put in the first place in the country. PHDs performed major quarantine tasks, such as collecting samples from screening clinics and epidemiological investigations, in various parts of the country, including the Daegu area, where the first large-scale COVID-19 confirmed cases in Korea and explosively increased. Because of their position as fixed-term civil servants, however, PHDs’ professionalism as doctors was ignored, and they were not properly compensated for their work. They were also exposed to problems such as a high risk of infection, mental suffering, and various human rights violations. We must prepare concrete measures to improve the fundamental treatment of PHDs and protect their human rights in order to prepare for a possible infectious disease pandemic in the future.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 의약학분야  > 예방의학및보건학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1225-4266
  • : 2289-0149
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1991-2022
  • : 1018


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32권4호(2022년 12월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1변화에 부응하는 보건의료정책 전환이 필요하다

저자 : 이선희 ( Sun-hee Lee )

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 345-346 (2 pages)

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2022 was a time when the global healthcare system was challenged and has grown in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. In addition, various issues accumulated in the process of quantitative growth have emerged in the Korean healthcare system. For instance, problems of sustainability in health insurance finances and removing bubbles from excessive medical utilization should be urgently resolved as tasks that occurred in the process of expanding the coverage of the health insurance system. The deficit of applicants for the pediatrician residency program suggests that expanding health insurance coverage alone has limitations in providing essential medical services. There is a need to incentivize doctors who provide essential medical care services. In 2023, we hope that efforts to enhance and internally reinforce the healthcare system will be concentrated.

KCI등재

2퇴원 의지가 요양병원의 성공적 퇴원에 미치는 영향에 대한 다수준 분석

저자 : 강하렴 ( Haryeom Ghang ) , 이연주 ( Yeonju Lee )

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 347-355 (9 pages)

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Background: Since November 2019, long-term care hospitals have been able to provide patients with discharging programs to support the elderly in the community. This study aimed to identify both patient- and hospital-level factors that affect successful community discharge from long-term care hospitals.
Methods: A multilevel logistic regression model was performed using hospitals as a clustering unit. The dependent variable was whether a patient stayed in the community for at least 30 days after discharge from a long-term care hospital. As for the patient-level independent variables, an agreement between a patient and the family about discharge, length of hospital stay, patient category, and residence at discharge were included. The number of beds and the ratio of long-stay patients were selected for the hospital-level factors. The sample size was 1,428 patients enrolled in the discharging program from November 2019 to December 2020.
Results: The number of patients who were discharged to the community and stayed at least for 30 days was 532 (37.3%). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 22.9%, indicating that hospital-level factors had a significant impact on successful community discharge. The odds ratio (OR) of successful community discharge increased by 1.842 times when the patients and their families agreed on discharge. The ORs also increased by 3.020 or 2.681 times, respectively when the patients planned to discharge to their own house or their child's house compared to those who didn't have a plan for residence at discharge. The ORs increased by 1.922 or 2.250 times when the hospitals were owned by corporate or private property compared to publicly owned hospitals. The ORs decreased by 0.602 or 0.520 times when the hospital was sized over 400 beds or located in small and medium-sized cities compared to less than 200 bedded hospitals or located in metropolitan cities.
Conclusion: The results of the study showed that the patients' and their family's willingness for discharge had a great impact on successful community discharge and the hospital-level factors played a significant role in it. Therefore, it is important to acknowledge and support long-term care hospitals to involve active in the patient discharge planning process.

KCI등재

3신종감염병의 양적 및 질적 혼합 위험 평가 모델 개발

저자 : 우다래 ( Darae Woo ) , 최은미 ( Eunmi Choi ) , 최영준 ( Young June Choe ) , 예정용 ( Jungyong Yeh ) , 박상신 ( Sangshin Park )

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 356-367 (12 pages)

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Background: The emergence of new infectious diseases threatens public health, increasing socioeconomic damage, and national risks. This study aimed to develop an evidence-based risk assessment tool to quickly respond to new infectious diseases.
Methods: The risk elements were extracted by reviewing the risk assessment methods of the World Health Organization, United States, Europe, United Kingdom, and Germany, and the validity and priority of elements were determined through expert meetings and Delphi surveys. Then, the scale and level for each risk element were defined and a final score calculation method according to the risk evaluation result was derived. The developed risk assessment tool was verified using data at the time of domestic transmission of an emerging infectious disease.
Results: In case of spread of actual infectious diseases, priority is determined based on the criticality of the elements in each area of transmissibility and severity, from which the weighted score of the risk assessment is derived. Then, the risk score for each element was calculated by multiplying the average value of the risk evaluation by its weight and the evaluation risk assessment score for the two areas was calculated. At last, the final score is plotted in a matrix where the x-axis indicates the transmissibility and the y-axis the severity and plotted on the coordinate plane for time series use.
Conclusion: With respect to transmissibility and severity, this risk assessment method to respond to new and re-emerging infectious diseases enables rapid and evidence-based evaluation by quantitatively and qualitatively assessing various risk elements.

KCI등재

4한국 노인장기요양시설 및 재가 요양보호사들의 노동환경과 노동조건 개선방안

저자 : 손미아 ( Mia Son ) , 김태운 ( Tae Un Kim ) , 예상은 ( Sang Eun Yeh ) , 황은아 ( Eun A Hwang ) , 최민서 ( Minseo Choi ) , 윤재원 ( Jae-won Yun )

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 368-379 (12 pages)

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Background: This study aimed to establish a strategy to improve the poor working environment and working conditions among long-term healthcare workers in Korea.
Methods: A total of 600 questionnaires with which long-term health care workers participated in the targeted base areas of each city and province nationwide were distributed directly and 525 responses were collected and 506 responses were analyzed. Surveys, on-site field visits, and in-depth interviews were also conducted to understand the working environment as well as conditions and establish a strategy for improving the working environment among long-term healthcare workers to understand the demands of working conditions and working conditions.
Results: Korean long-term care workers firstly and mostly enumerated their risk factors for ill-health when lifting or moving elderly recipients directly by hand (69.9%), followed by increased physical workload with old beds, tools, and facilities (42.3%) in the workplaces, shortage of manpower (32%), and source of infection (30%). To improve the working environment as well as conditions, Korean long-term care workers considered improving low-wage structures, ergonomic improvements to solve excessive physical loads, and increasing various bonus payments as well as implementing the salary system, positive social awareness, and increasing resting time. Of 506 responses, 92.3% replied that the long-term care insurance system for the elderly should be developed to expand publicization at the national level.
Conclusion: This study proposes to improve the low-wage structure of Korean long-term care workers, automation and improvement of facilities, equipment, and tools to eliminate excessive physical loads (beneficiary elderly lifting), and reduction of night labor.

KCI등재

5국외 감염병 위험도 평가체계의 비교분석

저자 : 최은미 ( Eunmi Choi ) , 우다래 ( Darae Woo ) , 최영준 ( Youngjune Choe ) , 예정용 ( Jungyong Yeh ) , 박상신 ( Sangshin Park )

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 380-388 (9 pages)

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Background: Emerging infectious diseases, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome or coronavirus disease 2019, pose a continuous threat to public health, making a risk assessment necessary for infectious disease control and prevention. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the risk assessment methods for infectious diseases used by major foreign countries and organizations.
Methods: We conducted an investigation and comparative analysis of risk assessment and risk determination methods for infectious diseases. The risk assessment tools included the strategic toolkit for assessing risks, influenza risk assessment tool, pandemic severity assessment framework, and rapid risk assessment methodology.
Results: The most frequently reported risk elements were disease severity, antiviral treatment, attack rate, population immunity, and basic productive ratio. The risk evaluation method was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively by the stakeholders at each institution. Additionally, the final risk level was visualized in a matrix, framework, and x and y-axis.
Conclusion: Considering the risk assessment tools, the risk element was classified based on the duplicate of each indicator, and risk evaluation and level of risk assessment were analyzed.

KCI등재

6노인장기요양보험 서비스 이용에 따른 의료이용 및 의료비 지출 양상의 변화

저자 : 강희진 ( Hee-jin Kang ) , 장수현 ( Suhyun Jang ) , 장선미 ( Sunmee Jang )

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 389-399 (11 pages)

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Background: This study aimed to analyze changes in medical utilization and cost before and after long-term care (LTC) implementation.
Methods: We used the National Health Information Database from National Health Insurance Service. The participants were selected who had a new LTC grade (grade 1-5) for 2015. Medical utilization was analyzed before and after LTC implementation. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series was conducted to evaluate the overall effect of the LTC implementation on medical costs.
Results: The total number of participants was 41,726. A major reason for hospitalization in grade 1 was cerebrovascular diseases, and dementia was the top priority in grade 5. The proportion of hospitalization in grade 1 increased sharply before LTC implementation and then decreased. In grade 5, it increased before LTC implementation, but there was no significant difference after LTC implementation. As for medical cost, in grades 1 to 4, the total cost increased sharply before the LTC implementation, but thereafter, changes in level and trend tended to decrease statistically, and for grade 5, immediately after LTC implementation, the level change was decreasing, but thereafter, the trend change was increasing.
Conclusion: Long-term care grades showed different medical utilization and cost changes. Long-term care beneficiaries would improve their quality of life by adequately resolving their medical needs by their grades.

1
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KCI등재

1지속 가능한 의료시스템 재건이 필요하다

저자 : 이선희 ( Sun-hee Lee )

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 245-246 (2 pages)

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Concerns about a global economic recession are rising following the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Accordingly, government entities, which are committed to overcome two barriers to severe inflation and economic recession, are showing high interest in spending management so as not to undermine fiscal soundness. Since the health care sector especially accounts for a large proportion of fiscal expenditure, it should be managed in a manner that the expense is appropriately spent. The National Health Insurance System and Healthcare System have secured international competitiveness and reliability by effectively responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. Likewise, considerable efforts should be made to reorganize the welfare and healthcare systems so that they can be sustainable during the post-COVID-19 era and the recession.

KCI등재

2윤석열 정부의 보건의료정책 방향과 과제

저자 : 박은철 ( Eun-cheol Park )

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 247-257 (11 pages)

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The presidential election and the inauguration of the new government are a period of the policy window opening. The newly launched government is expected to improve the quality of life of the people. The Yoon Suk-yeol Government is also launched with new expectations with a transitional period in health care. The sustainability of health care in Korea is threatened. The environment of health care and the main policy issues of health care are difficult to secure the necessary finance for health care in spite of the increasing health care burden. Accordingly, the Yoon Suk-yeol Government's health care policy aims to provide intensive support to those in need of health and welfare and to improve the health of the people through investment in health. And for integrating fragmented health care and welfare services and creating people-centered community-based health care, a health care innovation center will be established for the evaluation platform of new delivery and payment systems, a health care development plan will be established for the blueprint of health care, and reorganizing the central & local government should be reviewed. Although we are facing unfavorable situations such as the distribution of the National Assembly, inflation, and the possibility of economic recession, we expect that announced health care policies will be implemented, recognizing that health care innovation is the only way to improve health care sustainability.

KCI등재

3한국·일본·독일의 공적 장기요양보험제도 재정부담 완화 과정 비교

저자 : 윤나영 ( Na-young Yoon ) , 이동현 ( Dong Hyun Lee )

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 258-271 (14 pages)

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The rapidly aging trend of Korea is a major factor that threatens the sustainability of the long-term care insurance system. Therefore, looking at how Japan and Germany mitigated the financial burden when they managed similar long-term care insurance systems will provide important implications for improving the Korean system in the future. The study was conducted using the literature review method, and the “country” was set as a unit for the case analysis. The three countries selected are Korea, Japan, and Germany. Recently in Korea, the insurance premium rates of all subjects have been rapidly rising, which can exacerbate the issue of intergenerational equity. On the other hand, Japan has responded to the aggravating finances for long-term care insurance due to aging by raising coinsurance for selected groups like the wealthy elderly. Germany is selectively raising the insurance premium rates by additionally increasing the premium rate for childless recipients. A more preventive and quality-oriented care service plan can be promoted by referring to the recent changes in Japan and Germany. In addition, a more effective and selective increase in payment burden in Japan and Germany could be considered in response to a recent equity issue in Korea.

KCI등재

4Application of Program Theory and Logic Model to Evaluate Immunization Disparity Program for Children under 3 Years

저자 : Jee In Chung

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 272-281 (10 pages)

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With the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health policymakers are adopting new policies regarding the issue of immunization disparities, especially for children in low-income communities of color who lack awareness and thereby access to vaccines. The purpose of this paper is to propose an evaluation framework using program theory-based evaluation approach and logic model to analyze and evaluate the immunization disparities in children aged 19-35 months. Data is collected from New York City department of Health and the U.S. Census Bureau for Northern Manhattan Start Right Coalition program which consists of 19,800 children, and the community-provider partnership includes 26 practices and 20 groups. Program theory is used to evaluate this community-based initiative with the logic model which is a visual depiction that illustrations the program theory to all stakeholders. The logic model highlights the resources, activities, outputs, outcomes, and impacts of the program to guide to planners and evaluators and to call attention to the inadequacies or flaws in the operational, implementation and service delivery process of the program in offering a new perspective on the program. This framework adds to the literature on evaluations of immunization disparities in determining whether evaluators can definitively attribute positive immunization outcomes in the community to the program and conclude whether it has potential in expanding or duplicating it to other similar settings, especially in other rural areas of the United States, and abroad, where routine immunization equity gaps are wide due to income, racial and ethnic diversity, and language barrier.

KCI등재

5고령화연구패널조사 2014-2018년 데이터를 이용한 한국 노인의 복합만성질환 변화와 본인부담 총 의료비의 연관성

저자 : 박수진 ( Soojin Park ) , 남진영 ( Jin Young Nam )

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 282-292 (11 pages)

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Background: Aging societies face social problems of increased medical expenses for older adults due to increased geriatric diseases. This study aims to analyze the relationship between the state change of multiple chronic conditions (MCC) and out-of-pocket medical expenses in the elderly aged 60 or older.
Methods: The 2014-2018 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging data were used for 2,202 elderly people. Four status change groups were established according to the change in the number of chronic diseases. The association between the change of MCC and the out-of-pocket medical cost was analyzed using the generalized estimating equation model analysis.
Results: The average out-of-pocket total medical costs were 1,384,900 won for participants with MCC and 542,700 won for those without MCC, which was a statistically significant difference (p<0.0001). Compared to the reference group (simple chronic disease, SCD→SCD), the change in multiple chronic conditions significantly increased the total out-of-pocket medical expenses in MCC→MCC and SCD→MCC groups (MCC→MCC: β=0.8260, p<0.0001; SCD→MCC: β=0.6607, p<0.0001).
Conclusion: In this study, it was confirmed that the prevalence of MCC increased with age, and the out-of-pocket medical cost increased in the case of MCC. Continuity of treatment can be achieved for patients with MCC, and the system and management of treatment for MCC are required to receive appropriate treatment.

KCI등재

6OECD 국가 코로나19 대응정책 효율성 분석

저자 : 장위룡 ( Weilong Zhang ) , 김형준 ( Hyungjun Kim ) , 송라윤 ( Rhayun Song ) , 박명화 ( Myonghwa Park ) , 오근엽 ( Keunyeob Oh )

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 293-303 (11 pages)

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Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has occurred since the end of 2019, has caused tremendous damage not only in terms of disease and death but also in terms of economy. Accordingly, governments implemented health and quarantine policies to prevent the transmission and spread of COVID-19 and minimize economic effects, and implemented various countermeasures to reduce social and economic damage. However, the damage varies from country to country, and there are differences in the response of each government.
Methods: Using 2020 data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, the effectiveness of governments' quarantine and economic policies in response to COVID-19 was calculated, and what factors determine the effectiveness were analyzed. While most of the previous studies analyzed the relationship between the government's quarantine policy and corona transmission and death, this study is characterized by considering the economic aspect in addition.
Results: As a result of the analysis, the following results were obtained. First, when economic aspects are not considered, Asian and European countries have similar levels of efficiency, but when economic aspects are taken into account, Asian countries have higher efficiency. Second, population density had a negative effect on the efficiency of each country's policy, and long-term orientation was found to have an important impact when considering the economic aspect.
Conclusion: We found that the governance index is an important variable influencing the efficiency, which shows that the effectiveness of government policies in response to the coronavirus depends heavily on the trust relationship between the government and the people.

KCI등재

7Comparative Analysis of COVID-19 Infection Prevention Control Guidelines from Seven Countries: Implications on COVID-19 Response and Future Guidelines Development

저자 : Yoolwon Jeong , Sun-hee Lee

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 304-316 (13 pages)

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Background: As prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission in healthcare settings has become a critical component in its effective management, COVID-19 specific infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines were developed and implemented by numerous countries. Although largely based on the current evidence-base, guidelines show much heterogeneity, as they are influenced by respective health system capacities, epidemiological risk, and socioeconomic status. This study aims to analyze the variations and concurrences of these guidelines to draw policy implications for COVID-19 response and future guidelines development.
Methods: The contents of the COVID-19 IPC guidelines were analyzed using the categories and codes developed based on “World Health Organization guidelines on core components.” Data analysis involved reviewing, appraising and synthesizing data from guidelines, which were then arranged into categories and codes. Selection of countries was based on the country income level, availability of COVID-19 specific IPC guideline developed at a national or district level.
Results: The guidelines particularly agreed on IPC measures regarding application of standard precautions and providing information to patients and visitors, monitoring and audit of IPC activities and staff illnesses, and management of built environment/equipments. The guidelines showed considerable differences in certain components, such as workplace safety measures and criteria for discontinuation of precautions. Several guidelines also contained unique features which enabled a more systematic response to COVID-19.
Conclusion: The guidelines generally complied with the current evidence-based COVID-19 management but also revealed variances stemming from differences in local health system capacity. Several unique features should be considered for benchmark in future guidelines development.

KCI등재

8병원은 왜 폐업하는가?: Cox 비례위험모형을 중심으로

저자 : 옥현민 ( Hyun Min Ok ) , 김성현 ( Sung Hyun Kim ) , 지석민 ( Seok Min Ji )

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 317-322 (6 pages)

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Background: Limited access to medical services causes problems in patients' health and life. Also, hospital closures cause concentration towards general hospitals, which leads to worsening National Health Insurance finance. Therefore, hospital closure is an important topic to be analyzed.
Methods: This paper analyzed the factors that affect hospital closures using survival analysis with the data of 970 hospitals opened between 2010 and 2019 in Korea. The number of medical personnel, hospital rooms, sickbeds, and medical departments were used as explanatory variables.
Results: The number of medical personnel and hospital rooms increased the survival probability while the number of sickbeds and medical departments decrease the survival probability.
Conclusion: The results suggest that hospitals have economies of scale and diseconomies of scope in management.

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9진료회송 사업 현황 및 성공요인 분석: 고양시 소재 종합병원급 내분비내과와 심장내과 환자를 중심으로

저자 : 박희선 ( Hee Sun Park ) , 최정규 ( Jung Kyu Choi ) , 태은숙 ( Eun Sook Tae ) , 최상길 ( Sang Gil Choi ) , 김의혁 ( Eui Hyeok Kim )

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 323-329 (7 pages)

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Background: This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the referral and return of patients to clinics in the endocrinology and cardiology departments at the National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital to evaluate the “referral and return of patients to clinics” program and reduce the rate of returning patients.
Methods: From May 2018 to December 2020, we identified the number of visits to referral hospitals and hospital usage status at Ilsan Hospital after returning to clinics. We also identified the patients who returned to Ilsan Hospital within 6 months, defined as “failure to transport,” among those recommended to be transported to clinics of the Medical Cooperation Center. Additionally, we evaluated the characteristics of the “failure to transport” patients.
Results: Among the returning patients, the rate of visiting Ilsan Hospital within 6 months was higher in cardiology than in endocrinology (25.1% vs. 16.7%). Older age, more severe disease, and more number of visits to the department were associated with a high rate of failure to transport. The rate of failure to return was low in cases diagnosed with hyperlipidemia/lipoprotein metabolism disorder. With respect to diabetes, the rate of failure to transport differed according to each type of diagnosis of diabetes.
Conclusion: The success rate of the “referral and return of patient to clinics” program differed based on each patient's characteristics, department of visit, and diagnosis. Individualizing according to the visit department and diagnosis is required to ensure successful transfers, and infrastructure expansion and institutional arrangements must be facilitated.

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10신종 코로나바이러스 감염증(코로나19) 대유행과 보건의료인의 인권: 공중보건의사를 중심으로

저자 : 홍사민 ( Samin Hong )

발행기관 : 한국보건행정학회 간행물 : 보건행정학회지 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 330-333 (4 pages)

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Korea's quarantine response to the novel coronavirus (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) pandemic is based on the sacrifice of health professionals, especially public health doctors (PHDs) who were called out first and put in the first place in the country. PHDs performed major quarantine tasks, such as collecting samples from screening clinics and epidemiological investigations, in various parts of the country, including the Daegu area, where the first large-scale COVID-19 confirmed cases in Korea and explosively increased. Because of their position as fixed-term civil servants, however, PHDs' professionalism as doctors was ignored, and they were not properly compensated for their work. They were also exposed to problems such as a high risk of infection, mental suffering, and various human rights violations. We must prepare concrete measures to improve the fundamental treatment of PHDs and protect their human rights in order to prepare for a possible infectious disease pandemic in the future.

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