Herein, water and ethanol extracts were obtained from the leaves, branches, kernels, and pericarp of Quercus gilva and subsequently analyzed for antioxidant activity and circadian rhythm regulation effects. Candidate components that may affect circadian rhythm and antioxidant activity were investigated to discover potential functional materials. Antioxidant activity was analyzed via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity assays, showing that the hot water extract exhibited higher activity than that of the ethanol extract. In particular, the branch extract showed high antioxidant activity. By measuring total contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins, the hot water branch extract showed the highest concentrations, highlighting their significant contribution to the antioxidant activity. Examination of the circadian rhythm regulation of each extract showed that the ethanol extract exhibited greater impacts on the circadian rhythm amplitude compared to the water extract. The branch ethanol extract induced circadian rhythm amplitude changes via clock gene Bmal1 expression regulation. Determination of 12 phenolic compound concentrations showed that the branch ethanol extract contained many phenolic compounds, including catechin. This suggests that these compounds affected circadian rhythm regulation. In conclusion, the hot water branch extract has potential as an natural antioxidant material, while the corresponding ethanol extract has potential as a functional material for regulating circadian rhythm.
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