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한국목재공학회> 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)> Monitoring of Moisture and Dimensional Behaviors of Nail-Laminated Timber (NLT)-Concrete Slab Exposed to Outdoor Air

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Monitoring of Moisture and Dimensional Behaviors of Nail-Laminated Timber (NLT)-Concrete Slab Exposed to Outdoor Air

Sung-wook Hwang , Hyunwoo Chung , Taekyeong Lee , Kyung-sun Ahn , Sung-jun Pang , Junsik Bang , Hyo Won Kwak , Jung-kwon Oh , Hwanmyeong Yeo
  • : 한국목재공학회
  • : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권5호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 09월
  • : 301-314(14pages)
목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)

DOI

10.5658/WOOD.2022.50.5.301


목차

1. INTRODUCTION
2. MATERIALS and METHODS
3. RESULTS and DISCUSSION
4. CONCLUSIONS
CONFLICT of INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
REFERENCES

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The moisture and dimensional behaviors of a nail-laminated timber (NLT)-concrete slab composed of an NLT-plywood composite and topping concrete are monitored for 385 days. The slab is developed for using as flexural elements such as floors. The humidity control of wood gently introduces significant fluctuations under the ambient relative humidity into the slab, and fluctuations in the relative humidity result in dimensional changes. The equilibrium moisture content of the slab increases from 6.7% to 15.3% during the monitoring period, resulting in a width (radial) strain of 0.58%. The length (longitudinal) strain is negligible, and the height (tangential) strain is excluded from the analysis because of abstruse signal patterns generated. Concrete pouring causes a permanent increase in the width of the NLT-plywood composite. However, the width deforms because the weight of the concrete mixture loosens the nail-laminated structure, not because of the significant amount of moisture in the mixture. The dimensional stabilization effect of the nail-laminated system is demonstrated as the composite strain is lower than the total strain of lumber and plywood, which are elements constituting the nail-laminated structure.

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간행물정보

  • : 공학분야  > 토목공학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 1017-0715
  • : 2233-7180
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1973-2023
  • : 2643


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1표지 및 목차

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 51권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 0-0 (1 pages)

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2Characteristics of Magnetic Sengon Wood Impregnated with Nano Fe3O4 and Furfuryl Alcohol

저자 : Gilang Dwi Laksono , Istie Sekartining Rahayu , Lina Karlinasari , Wayan Darmawan , Esti Prihatini

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 51권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 1-13 (13 pages)

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Sengon (Falcataria moluccana Miq.) tree offers a wood of low quality and durability owing to its low density and thin cell walls. This study aimed to improve the properties of sengon wood by making the wood magnetic, producing new functions, and characterizing magnetic sengon wood. Each wood sample was treated using one of the following impregnation solutions: Untreated, 7.5% nano magnetite-furfuryl alcohol (Fe3O4-FA), 10% nano Fe3O4-FA, and 12.5% nano Fe3O4-FA. The impregnation process began with vacuum treatment at 0.5 bar for 2 h, followed by applying a pressure of 1 bar for 2 h. The samples were then tested for dimensional stability and density and characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) analysis. The results showed that the Fe3O4-FA impregnation treatment considerable affected the dimensional stability, measured in terms of weight percent gain, anti-swelling efficiency, water uptake, and bulking effect, as well as the density of sengon wood. Changes in wood morphology were detected by the presence of Fe deposits in the cell walls and cell cavities of the wood using SEM-EDX analysis. XRD and FTIR analyses showed the appearance of magnetite peaks in the diffractogram and Fe-O functional groups. Based on the VSM analysis, treated sengon wood is classified as a superparamagnetic material with soft magnetic properties. Overall, 10% Fe3O4-FA treatment led to the highest increase in dimensional stability and density of sengon wood.

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3Aims and scope

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 51권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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4Flexural Modulus of Larch Boards Laminated by Adhesives with Reinforcing Material

저자 : Injeong Lee , Weontae Oh

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 51권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 14-22 (9 pages)

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Economical use of larix (larch) boards (grade 3) in industries is lower than that of imported hardwood; thus, studies have been conducted toward performance improvement of larix boards. Herein, flexural modulus of larix board samples laminated with wood adhesives polyurethane resins, poly (vinyl acetate) resins, phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde resins, melamine-formaldehyde resins, and urea-formaldehyde resins was compared with that of the samples bonded with adhesives reinforced with mesh-type basalt fibers. Moreover, the flexural moduli of the laminated samples bonded by mesh-type basalt fibers were compared with those of reinforced samples. The results showed that boards laminated with polyurethane and urea-formaldehyde resin adhesives had higher flexural modulus than those without the lamination. In particular, the increase in the flexural modulus was relatively significant for the 2- and 3-ply board structures laminated with polyurethane adhesives compared to those with reinforcement. The 3-ply board structure without reinforcement had the highest flexural modulus when the urea-formaldehyde resin adhesive was used.

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5Characteristics of Bio Pellets from Spent Coffee Grounds and Pinewood Charcoal Based on Composition and Grinding Method

저자 : Nopia Cahyani , Andi Detti Yunianti , Suhasman , Kidung Tirtayasa Putra Pangestu , Gustan Pari

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 51권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 23-37 (15 pages)

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One type of biomass that has promising potential for bio pellet production is spent coffee grounds (SCGs). However, previous studies have shown that SCGs in bio pellets cause a lot of smoke. Therefore, they need to be mixed with a material that has a higher calorific value to produce better quality pellets. One material that can be used is pine wood because it has a natural resin content that can increase the calorific value. The aim of this study was to examine the quality of bio pellets produced with SCGs and pine wood charcoal at different particle sizes. The charcoal was ground using either a hammer mill (HM) or a ball mill (BM). Pine wood charcoal was mixed with SCGs at ratios of SCGs to pine wood charcoal of 4:6 and 6:4 by weight, respectively, and the adhesive used a tapioca with a composition ratio 5% of the raw material. The bio pellets were produced using a manual pellet press. The quality of the bio pellets was assessed based on Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 8021-2014, and the physical observations include flame length, burning rate, and compressive strength. The average water content, ash content, and calorific value of the bio pellets were in accordance with SNI 8021-2014, but the density and ash content values were below the standard values. The BM variation of bio pellets had a higher compressive strength than the HM variation, and the 4:6 BM variation had the longest burning time compared with 4:6 HM.

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6Effects of Precipitation pH of Black Liquor on Characteristics of Precipitated and Acetone-Fractionated Kraft Lignin

저자 : Ega Cyntia Watumlawar , Byung-dae Park

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 51권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 38-48 (11 pages)

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Two important steps in utilizing technical kraft lignin (KL) from black liquor to synthesize lignin-phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resin are its extraction via precipitation and fractionation. However, the effects of precipitation pH and acetone fractionation on the characteristics of hardwood KL have not been studied for LPF resins. Therefore, this paper reports the effects of the precipitation pH of black liquor and acetone fractionation on the characteristics of KL from mixed hardwood species for LPF resins. The precipitation was conducted at various pH levels from 3 to 9 of black liquor to obtain crude KL (C-KL), which was used in acetone fractionation to produce acetone-soluble KL (AS-KL) and acetone-insoluble KL (AI-KL). Precipitation at pH 3 and 9 produced the highest and lowest yields of C-KL, respectively. As expected, the C-KL infrared spectra were similar regardless of the precipitation pH levels. As the pH increased, the molecular weight of C-KL increased. However, the molecular weight of AS-KL and AI-KL after acetone fractionation increased to a maximum of 4,170 and 47,190 g/mol at pH 7, then decreased to 3,210 and 19,970 g/mol at pH 9, respectively. The smallest molecular weights of AS-KL and AI-KL were 3,210 and 15,480 g/mol and were found at pH 9 and 3, respectively. These results suggest that both AS-KL at pH 9 and AI-KL at pH 3 have good potential as starting lignins for synthesizing LPF resins that require cross-linking for polymerization.

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7Reliability of the Impregnated Boron Compounds, Citric Acid- and Heat-Treated Samama (Anthocephalus macrophyllus) Wood against the Fungal and Termite Attacks

저자 : Trisna Priadi , Guruh Sukarno Putra , Tekat Dwi Cahyono

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 51권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 49-57 (9 pages)

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This research aimed to evaluate the durability of Samama (Anthocephalus macrophyllus) wood treated with boron preservatives, citric acid (CA), and heating against termites. Wood samples were impregnated firstly with 5% boron solutions, such as boric acid, borax and boric acid + borax combination at 1:1 (w/w). The second impregnation used 5% CA. The impregnations were conducted in a pressure tank at 7 kg/cm2 for 4 hours. After impregnation, the samples were heat treated at 80℃ or 160℃. All the treated and control samples were exposed to decay fungi, drywood termites and subterranean termites based on SNI 7207:2014 standard. The results showed that boron preservatives reduced fungal attacks on Samama wood. The combination treatment of boric acid, CA and heat treatment at 160℃ was also effective to increase the resistance of Samama wood against white- and brown rot fungi, and drywood termites. Heat treatment consistently improved the resistance of Samama wood from decay fungi.

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8Lateral Resistance of Reinforced Light-Frame Wood Shear Walls

저자 : Hyung Woo Lee , Sang Sik Jang

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 51권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 58-66 (9 pages)

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In light-frame timber construction, the shear wall is one of the most important components that provide resistance to lateral loads such as earthquakes or winds. According to KDS (Korea Design Standard) 42 50 10, shear walls are to be constructed using wood-based structural sheathing, with studs connected by 8d nails spaced 150 mm along the edge and 300 mm in the field. Even though small-scale residential timber building can be designed to exhibit seismic resistance using light-frame timber shear walls in accordance with KDS 42 50 10, only the abovementioned standard type of timber shear wall is available. Therefore, more types of timber shear walls composed of various materials should be tested to measure their seismic resistance, and the results should be incorporated into the future revision of KDS 42 50 10. In this study, the seismic resistance of shear walls composed of structural timber studs and wood-based structural sheathing with reinforced nailing is tested to evaluate the effects of the reinforcement. For the nailing reinforcement, shear wall specimens are constructed by applying nail spacings of 75-150 mm and 50-100 mm. For the shear wall specimens with one sheathing and reinforced nailing, the shear strengths are 1.7-2.0 times higher than that of the standard shear wall (nail spacing of 150-300 mm). The shear strength of the shear walls with sheathing on both sides is 2.0-2.7 times higher than that of the standard shear wall.

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9Erratum to: Insect Repellency and Crop Productivity of Essential Oil Films

저자 : Jin Gu Kim , Seok Gyu Kang , Md Munir Mostafiz , Jeong Min Lee , Kyeong-yeoll Lee , Tae Kyung Hwang , Jin Taeg Lim , Soo Yeon Kim , Won Hee Lee

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 51권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 67-67 (1 pages)

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10편집위원

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 51권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 68-68 (1 pages)

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12
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1Cover and Contents

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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2Aims and scope

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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3Monitoring of Moisture and Dimensional Behaviors of Nail-Laminated Timber (NLT)-Concrete Slab Exposed to Outdoor Air

저자 : Sung-wook Hwang , Hyunwoo Chung , Taekyeong Lee , Kyung-sun Ahn , Sung-jun Pang , Junsik Bang , Hyo Won Kwak , Jung-kwon Oh , Hwanmyeong Yeo

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 301-314 (14 pages)

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The moisture and dimensional behaviors of a nail-laminated timber (NLT)-concrete slab composed of an NLT-plywood composite and topping concrete are monitored for 385 days. The slab is developed for using as flexural elements such as floors. The humidity control of wood gently introduces significant fluctuations under the ambient relative humidity into the slab, and fluctuations in the relative humidity result in dimensional changes. The equilibrium moisture content of the slab increases from 6.7% to 15.3% during the monitoring period, resulting in a width (radial) strain of 0.58%. The length (longitudinal) strain is negligible, and the height (tangential) strain is excluded from the analysis because of abstruse signal patterns generated. Concrete pouring causes a permanent increase in the width of the NLT-plywood composite. However, the width deforms because the weight of the concrete mixture loosens the nail-laminated structure, not because of the significant amount of moisture in the mixture. The dimensional stabilization effect of the nail-laminated system is demonstrated as the composite strain is lower than the total strain of lumber and plywood, which are elements constituting the nail-laminated structure.

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4Termicidal Activity and Chemical Components of Wood Vinegar from Nipah Fruit against Coptotermes curvignathus

저자 : Hasan Ashari Oramahi , Mika Jessika Tindaon , Nurhaida Nurhaida , Farah Diba , Hikma Yanti

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 315-324 (10 pages)

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The termicidal activity and chemical components of wood vinegar from two sources of biomass, nipah fruit shells (NFS) and a mixture of shells and fiber (MSF), were evaluated against Coptotermes curvignathus. A no-choice test was carried out to evaluate their termicidal activity using filter paper samples treated with 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5% NFS or MSF vinegar. Both wood vinegars exhibited antitermitic activity against C. curvignathus. The results show that increased concentrations of NFS and MSF vinegar significantly increased termite mortality. In particular, the NFS vinegar caused complete mortality and the lowest filter paper mass losses at 2.18% when treated with 12.5% wood vinegar. The most abundant chemical compounds of NFS vinegar were cyclopropanecarbonyl chloride, 2,5-dichlorophenol, 2-propanone, acetic acid, propanoic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenal, and trans-geraniol. Meanwhile, the main compounds in the MSF vinegar were 1,2-ethanediol, formic acid, acetic acid, ethanoic acid, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, phenol, 2-methoxy phenol, and 4-methyl phenol.

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5Influence of Alkali and Silane Treatment on the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Grewia serrulata Fibres

저자 : Bhupesh Jain , Ravindra Mallya , Suhas Yeshwant Nayak , Srinivas Shenoy Heckadka , Shrinivasa Prabhu , G. T. Mahesha , Gaurav Sancheti

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 325-337 (13 pages)

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Grewia serrulata fibres were chemically treated with 3%, 6%, and 9% NaOH for the duration of 4 h. Additionally, the NaOH-treated fibres were also treated with 3 - (trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (silane). Properties such as density and tensile strength of the treated fibres were compared against the untreated fibres. The highest density was obtained in the case of 9% NaOH + silane treated fibres, which was 26.47% higher than untreated fibres, implying effective removal of hemicellulose. Likewise, the highest tensile strength was also obtained in the case of 9% NaOH + silane treated fibres. The increment observed in the tensile strength of the natural fibres was related to the removal of impurities, hemicellulose, and stress-raisers as well as deposition over the fibre surface that smoothed it. These observations were further validated by estimating changes in chemical constituents due to chemical treatment along with characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

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6Antioxidative and Circadian Rhythm Regulation Effect of Quercus gilva Extract

저자 : Jin-sung Huh , Sora Lee , Dong-soo Kim , Myung Suk Choi , Hyunmo Choi , Kyung-ha Lee

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 338-352 (15 pages)

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Herein, water and ethanol extracts were obtained from the leaves, branches, kernels, and pericarp of Quercus gilva and subsequently analyzed for antioxidant activity and circadian rhythm regulation effects. Candidate components that may affect circadian rhythm and antioxidant activity were investigated to discover potential functional materials. Antioxidant activity was analyzed via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity assays, showing that the hot water extract exhibited higher activity than that of the ethanol extract. In particular, the branch extract showed high antioxidant activity. By measuring total contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins, the hot water branch extract showed the highest concentrations, highlighting their significant contribution to the antioxidant activity. Examination of the circadian rhythm regulation of each extract showed that the ethanol extract exhibited greater impacts on the circadian rhythm amplitude compared to the water extract. The branch ethanol extract induced circadian rhythm amplitude changes via clock gene Bmal1 expression regulation. Determination of 12 phenolic compound concentrations showed that the branch ethanol extract contained many phenolic compounds, including catechin. This suggests that these compounds affected circadian rhythm regulation. In conclusion, the hot water branch extract has potential as an natural antioxidant material, while the corresponding ethanol extract has potential as a functional material for regulating circadian rhythm.

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7Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction Studies on Crystalline Domains in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins at Low Molar Ratio

저자 : Eko Setio Wibowo , Byung-dae Park , Valerio Causin , Dongyup Hahn

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 353-364 (12 pages)

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The crystalline domain of thermosetting urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins at low formaldehyde-to-urea (F/U) molar ratios (≤ 1.0) is known to be responsible for their poor performance as wood adhesives. Crystallization has been observed in 1.0 F/U UF resins during the addition reaction stage and at the end of the synthesis process (neat UF resins). The crystallinity and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the uncured neat UF resins, on the other hand, differed significantly from those of the cured neat UF resins, raising the possibility that their crystal structures were also different. This study demonstrates for the first time that the crystalline domains in 1.0 F/U UF resins generated from uncured and cured samples are identical. Despite having a lower crystallinity value, the synchrotron XRD patterns of purified neat UF resins were equivalent to the XRD patterns of cured neat UF resins. Transmission electron microscope images of the cured UF resins showed that the crystals were lamellar structures. This finding suggests that the crystal at low molar ratio UF resins are isotropic polycrystals with random orientation.

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8Investigation of Sound Absorption Ability of Hinoki Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) Cubes

저자 : Eun-suk Jang

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 365-374 (10 pages)

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Today, commercialized Hinoki cypress cubes are used for fragrance, humidification, and pillows in Korea. In this study, the sound absorption ability of Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) cubes was examined. The three groups of Hinoki cypress cubes were prepared depending on their dimension (L: 9 × 9 × 9, M: 7 × 7 × 7, S: 4 × 4 × 4 mm). Their sound absorption coefficient was examined after filling 6, 8, 10, and 12 cm height in impedance tubes, respectively. Overall, the sound absorption ability depending on dimension was superior in the M group compared to the L and S groups. Also, as the filling height increased, the sound absorption capacity increased. In sum, noise reduction coefficients (NRC) of all Hinoki cypress cubes were 0.41-0.59. Thus, this research found that Hinoki cypress cubes have a sound-absorbing function.

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9Editorial Board & Organization and staffs

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 375-375 (1 pages)

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KCI등재SCOUPUS

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저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 376-376 (1 pages)

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