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한국운동생리학회> 운동과학> Therapeutic Sources of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration from Volumetric Muscle Loss: A Narrative Review

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Therapeutic Sources of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration from Volumetric Muscle Loss: A Narrative Review

Kwangjun Lee , Wonil Park , Kwang-seok Hong
  • : 한국운동생리학회
  • : 운동과학 31권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 08월
  • : 295-303(9pages)
운동과학

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
METHODS
RESULTS
CONCLUSIONS
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
ORCID
REFERENCES

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PURPOSE: Minor skeletal muscle injuries can be repaired, but more extensive volumetric muscle loss (VML) leads to a permanent functional disability with ambiguous therapeutic outcomes, and reconstructive surgical procedures are constrained by donor tissue scarcity. This review assessed the considerable attention paid to biomaterials in healing damaged skeletal muscle.
METHODS: A comprehensive search in PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Wiley Online Library was conducted to obtain previous studies exploring the state of biocompatible tissue scaffolds for VML recovery.
RESULTS: By regenerating the function of damaged skeletal muscle, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle construction could revolutionize the treatment of VML. However, transporting cells into the wounded muscle location presents a significant challenge because it may result in unfavorable immunological reactions. The development and validation of several biomaterials with varying physical and chemical natures to treat various muscle injuries have recently been undertaken to overcome this problem. This review discusses the relative benefits of satellite cells (SC), the most prevalent skeletal muscle stem cells employed to seed scaffolds.
CONCLUSIONS: Biomaterials can be used with skeletal muscle stem cells and growth factors to repair VML because of their customizable and desirable physicochemical qualities. Owing to the capacity of SCs for self-renewal and their undifferentiated state, these cells are excellent candidates for cell therapy. A large gap exists between understanding SC behavior and how it can be used to repair and regenerate human skeletal muscle tissue. Thus, this review sought to portray the current knowledge on the lifespan of SCs and their involvement in exercise-induced muscle regeneration and hypertrophy.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-1726
  • : 2384-0544
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2022
  • : 1134


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1Exercise Convergence Science for the Treatment of Mild Cognitive Impairment

저자 : Ji-eun Lee , Ho-seong Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 423-427 (5 pages)

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2운동과 장내 미생물: 연구방법의 발전과 연구동향

저자 : 백경완 ( Kyung-wan Baek ) , 안궁 ( Kung Ahn ) , 안용주 ( Yong Ju Ahn ) , 샹잉잉 ( Ying-ying Xiang ) , 김지석 ( Ji-seok Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 428-437 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: To suggest future research directions and current research trends based on representative studies of existing exercises and the gut microbiome. In addition, we reviewed methodologies to study the relationship between exercise and the gut microbiome.
METHODS: The research methodologies and results were integrated through a literature review of the latest “exercise and gut microbiome” studies and a narrative review.
RESULTS: Although exercise is indirectly related to the gut microbiome or immunity, evidence for a direct effect is still lacking. However, with the recent discovery of gut microbiomes that can help improve exercise performance, it is clear that exercise can positively alter the gut microbiome.
CONCLUSIONS: Strong evidence suggests that regular moderate exercise improves overall immune function and lowers the incidence of inflammation-related disease. In addition, certain microorganisms affect exercise performance.

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3노인운동지도자의 정량적 평가를 위한 척도 개발

저자 : 홍지영 ( Jeeyoung Hong ) , 김혜령 ( Haeryung Kim ) , 공현중 ( Hyoun-joong Kong )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 438-443 (6 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to quantitatively evaluate the exercise instructor's teaching ability and to verify its validity and reliability.
METHODS: The participants were 331 students enrolled in the college of physical education. The survey was conducted using Google Forms. The questionnaire contained 36 questions, comprising seven questions on professionalism; eight on emotional communication ability; nine on fidelity; and, twelve on safety. A 5-point Likert scale was used. Factor analysis was performed, and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated for the validity and reliability analyses of the research tool; additionally, correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed. All data were analyzed using the STATA 17.0 statistical program.
RESULTS: In the exercise instructor for older people evaluation questionnaire developed in this study, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) value was 0.8 (0.88-0.93) for all factors, demonstrating its validity for factors including professionalism, emotional communication ability, fidelity, and safety. Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.9031, indicating high reliability. A strong correlation exists between factors, and through regression analysis, age (.1874, p=.027), professionalism (.8049, p=.000), fidelity (.6009, p=.000). The adequacy of the evaluation questionnaire (1.8606, p=.000) had a statistically significant effect on safety.
CONCLUSIONS: This questionnaire can be used as a tool to improve the quality of the exercise instructors for older people and serve to recognize the appropriate instructional methods for prospective exercise instructors for older people.

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4The Impact of Ballet Program on Appetite Related Hormones, Insulin Resistance, and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

저자 : Woo-hyeon Son , Yi-sub Kwak , Kwi-baek Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 444-451 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: Postmenopausal status is associated with an age-related decline in hormones, abnormal appetite regulation, weight gain, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise is a useful non-pharmacological intervention that improves the levels of hormones involved in appetite regulation and weight management while reducing CVD risk factors. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of a ballet program on menopause-related changes in satiety or levels of appetite regulation hormones, including leptin and ghrelin, homeostatic model of assessing insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).
METHODS: The EX group performed the ballet program. In the fasting state, body composition; leptin, ghrelin, insulin, and glucose levels; and HOMA-IR values were assessed before and 12 weeks after the intervention.
RESULTS: A significant group by time interaction (p<.05) was noted for percentage body fat, leptin, insulin, and HOMA-IR, which significantly decreased (p<.05), and ghrelin, which significantly increased (p<.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that this ballet program may be an attractive and enjoyable intervention for improving menopause-associated appetite regulation hormone changes in postmenopausal women

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5하지 연부조직의 강직도가 K-7 축구선수들의 운동수행능력에 미치는 영향: 예비연구

저자 : 선세영 ( Se-young Seon ) , 박병재 ( Byoung-jae Park ) , 이광진 ( Kwang-jin Lee ) , 안근옥 ( Keun-ok An )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 452-458 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to verify the effect of soft tissue stiffness on joint range of motion and athletic performance in soccer players.
METHODS: Fifteen adult male soccer players participated in the study. After the warm-up, calf muscle and Achilles tendon stiffness were measured. Subsequently, range of motion of the ankle joint and 30 m sprint and vertical jump were performed. Exercise performance was assessed as a field test to create an experimental environment similar to that of actual training and competition.
RESULTS: Achilles tendon stiffness showed a significant correlation with the 30 m sprint and the vertical jump (p<.05). A moderate correlation was observed between the 30 m sprint and the vertical jump(p<.01). Soleus muscle stiffness was significantly correlated with the 30 m sprint(p<.05). No other correlations were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, it was confirmed that Achilles tendon stiffness affects exercise performance. In a follow-up study, it was necessary to confirm the effect of the stiffness of various soft tissues on exercise performance.

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6저항성 운동, 블랙마카와 복합처치가 라켓운동선수들의 혈중 근피로인자와 근기능에 미치는 영향

저자 : 박명훈 ( Myeong-hun Park ) , 임승택 ( Seung-taek Lim ) , 이진석 ( Jinseok Lee ) , 김병주 ( Byoung-ju Kim ) , 오성부 ( Sung-bu Oh ) , 강성훈 ( Sunghwun Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 459-468 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study was conducted with racket athletes at a university to determine the effect of combination of resistance exercise and black maca for four weeks on strength and endurance of trunk muscles and fatigue-related biomarkers.
METHODS: There were 16 university racket athletes classified into two groups: CO (control) (n=8) and RE (resistance exercise) (n=8). Body composition and muscle function were tested before the experiment (baseline), after four weeks (racket), and after ten weeks (racket+black maca). Before measuring body composition, we collected a blood sample to measure fatigue-related biomarkers such as myoglobin, creatine kinase (CK), lactic acid, and ammonia. Black maca was purchased from Essoco.
RESULTS: In both the CO and RE groups, racket+black maca lowered blood ammonia levels compared to that at the baseline (p<.05) and racket (p<.001). There were no differences in the other fatigue-related factors. In the muscle function test, the racket+black maca increased the extension and flexion strength compared to that at the baseline (p<.05), while only extension strength increased after racket (p<.05) in the RE group. In both groups, the racket+black maca increased the extension and flexion endurance compared to that at the baseline (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Black maca intake effectively lowered the blood ammonia levels and improved muscle function. The effect on muscle function enhanced significantly when combined with resistance exercises. These results suggest that combination of black maca and resistance exercise may help improve exercise performance.

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7한국 국가대표 남자 봅슬레이·스켈레톤 선수들의 경기력 및 체력 요인과의 관계

저자 : 민석기 ( Seok-ki Min ) , 임승택 ( Seung-taek Lim ) , 이광규 ( Kwang-kyu Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 469-480 (12 pages)

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PURPOSE: PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the relationship between performance-related factors and physical abilities in Korean national bobsled and skeleton athletes.
METHODS: Sixteen bobsled and skeleton athletes who participated in the 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympics as a Korean national team volunteered to participate in this study. The participants were evaluated in terms of performance-related factors, including anaerobic power, 5 bound jump (5 BJ), and sprinting speed by sections, and physical abilities, including isokinetic strength, 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) strength, body composition, anthropometry, and agility. Stepwise selection of multiple regression analyses was used to investigate the relationship between performance-related factors and physical ability.
RESULTS: Statistically significant correlations were observed between anaerobic power, sprinting speed by sections, 5 BJ and chest, isokinetic strength (knee, 180°/s), deadlift, and side-step.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the performance of Korean national bobsled and skeletal athletes is related to upper and lower body strength and agility. Thus, future training programs for bobsled and skeletal athletes should focus on improving strength and agility for performance enhancement.

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8대학생의 식사 속도와 대사증후군의 관계에 대한 신체활동 및 심폐체력의 역할

저자 : 강민정 ( Minjeong Kang ) , 강현식 ( Hyunsik Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 481-490 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study investigated whether physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) modulate the relationship between eating speed and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean university students.
METHODS: A total of 1,071 college students 751 males and 320 females participated in this study. The volume of PA (minutes per week) assessed by a self-reported questionnaire was classified as sufficient or insufficient based on the global recommendation of 150 minutes per week. Self-reported eating speed was classified as normal or fast. CRF was classified as low (lowest 25%), moderate (middle 50%), and high (highest 25%) based on the maximum volume of oxygen consumption determined during a graded treadmill running.
RESULTS: Bivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of fast eating for metabolic syndrome was 1.94 (95% confidence interval, CI=1.34-2.82, p<.001) in the total group and 1.75 (95% CI=1.18-2.59, p=.005) in male students only. Logistic regression showed that in the total group, fasting eating was associated with an increased risk of MetS (OR=1.780, 95% CI=1.223-2.259, p=.003) compared to individuals with normal eating speed (OR=1) even after adjustments for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol intake. Additionally, male students with fast eating were at increased risk of MetS (OR=1.750, 95% CI=1.181-2.529, p=.005) compared to their counterparts with normal eating speed even after adjustments for all the covariates. Moderation analyses by Andrew F. Hayes showed that the effect of eating speed on MetS risk differed by physical activity (β=-0.389, 95% CI=-0.706- 0.071, p=.017) and CRF levels (β=-0.307, 95% CI=-0.496-0.118, p=.002) even after adjustments for all the covariates.
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings of the study suggest that both regular PA and CRF can play a preventive role against MetS associated with fast eating in Korean college students.

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9부상 경험이 있는 선수들의 감정상태에 따른 통증 인지의 정도

저자 : 오성민 ( Sungmin Oh ) , 전형필 ( Hyung-pil Jun )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 491-498 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to verify whether the degree of pain cognition by injury-experienced athletes in a sports setting varies depending on their emotional status, and to compare the values between the VAS (subjective pain score) and RIII reflex (objective pain data).
METHODS: Injured (n=15) and non-injured (n=15) experienced athletes participated in the experimental procedures with pain stimulation, RIII reflex, and VAS measurement, while emotional images (neutral, pleasure, and unpleasure) were randomly presented. The RIII reflex was measured simultaneously with TENS stimulation of the sural nerve while the OASIS images were presented, and the VAS was measured between the sets of images. Data were collected using electromyography (EMG) and VAS.
RESULTS: The relationship between the group and the VAS score according to the emotional state was significant (p=.028), and the relationship between the group and the RIII reflex depending on the emotional state was not significant (p=.344). Furthermore, the relationship of the group “emotion” measurement was not significant (p=.081), but the results indicate toward a correlation.
CONCLUSIONS: Athletes recognized more pain at the same intensity when their emotional state was unpleasant, but the RIII reflex was measured constantly so they could recognize less pain in an emotionally stable state. Despite some associations, no difference was observed in the degree of pain recognition based on injury experience.

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10범이론적 모델에 근거한 청소년 학생 운동선수의 식이행동변화단계에 따른 영양지수 및 식이효능감 비교

저자 : 김나한 ( Nahan Kim ) , 홍광석 ( Kwang-seok Hong ) , 정인경 ( In-kyung Jung )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 499-510 (12 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the direction of nutrition management and education for adolescent athletes based on the transtheoretical model (TTM).
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 205 male adolescent athletes using questionnaires in Seoul and Gyeonggi provinces. Differences in nutritional indices, dietary behaviors, and dietary self-efficacies were compared according to the stage of dietary behavior change, and significance was verified using analysis of variance and chi-square tests.
RESULTS: According to the stage of change in dietary behavior, a significant difference was observed in the grade and score of the nutrition quotient (NQ), and the nutritional status and quality of meals were extremely poor in the precontemplation and contemplation groups. Dietary self-efficacy differed significantly according to the stage of change in dietary behavior. Compared to the pre-contemplation and contemplation stage groups, the action and maintenance stage groups had a higher willingness to practice desirable dietary behaviors and overcome barriers.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we demonstrated that individualized nutritional intervention based on TTM was an effective strategy for healthy dietary behavior and had a positive impact on adolescent athletes' sports performance. Furthermore, nutrition education should include content that enhances students' dietary self-efficacy.

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1Suggestions for Exercise Science's Promotion to a Top-Tier Journal in the Category of Sports Science

저자 : Sun Huh

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 279-281 (3 pages)

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2마른 비만의 대사 및 심혈관계 질환 위험성과 선제적 예방을 위한 운동 중재

저자 : 지민제 ( Minje Ji ) , 조채은 ( Chaeeun Cho ) , 이세원 ( Sewon Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 282-294 (13 pages)

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PURPOSE: Normal weight obesity (NWO) is characterized by a normal body mass index but a high body fat mass percentage and low skeletal muscle mass, thereby increasing the risk of cardiometabolic dysfunction and morbidity. However, the effects of exercise intervention in reducing the risk of cardiometabolic disease in NWO have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, this review aimed to summarize the potential cardiometabolic disease risk and to provide implications of exercise interventions for the proactive prevention of cardiometabolic disease risk in NWO.
METHODS: We searched and summarized the literature on the cardiometabolic risk factors in NWO. In addition, we summarized literature investigating the effects of exercise intervention on the cardiometabolic risk factors in NWO. We performed the literature search using PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases.
RESULTS: NWO was associated with increased visceral fat, ectopic fat, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and subclinical atherosclerosis compared with normal weight lean. NWO requires exercise interventions that induce alterations in body composition, such as decreased body fat percentage and increased muscle mass. Resistance exercise (RE) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) can improve lipid components and alter body composition in NWO. In addition, low-intensity blood flow restriction resistance exercise (BFR-RE) may enhance muscular strength and anaerobic power in NWO.
CONCLUSIONS: The cardiometabolic disease risk is increased in NWO. We suggest that exercise interventions (RE, HIIE, and BFR-RE) may effectively prevent cardiometabolic disease risk and alter body composition in NWO. As this has potential implications for exercise interventions in NWO, further investigations are needed to find the optimal exercise for proactive prevention of cardiometabolic risk in NWO.

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3Therapeutic Sources of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration from Volumetric Muscle Loss: A Narrative Review

저자 : Kwangjun Lee , Wonil Park , Kwang-seok Hong

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 295-303 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: Minor skeletal muscle injuries can be repaired, but more extensive volumetric muscle loss (VML) leads to a permanent functional disability with ambiguous therapeutic outcomes, and reconstructive surgical procedures are constrained by donor tissue scarcity. This review assessed the considerable attention paid to biomaterials in healing damaged skeletal muscle.
METHODS: A comprehensive search in PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Wiley Online Library was conducted to obtain previous studies exploring the state of biocompatible tissue scaffolds for VML recovery.
RESULTS: By regenerating the function of damaged skeletal muscle, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle construction could revolutionize the treatment of VML. However, transporting cells into the wounded muscle location presents a significant challenge because it may result in unfavorable immunological reactions. The development and validation of several biomaterials with varying physical and chemical natures to treat various muscle injuries have recently been undertaken to overcome this problem. This review discusses the relative benefits of satellite cells (SC), the most prevalent skeletal muscle stem cells employed to seed scaffolds.
CONCLUSIONS: Biomaterials can be used with skeletal muscle stem cells and growth factors to repair VML because of their customizable and desirable physicochemical qualities. Owing to the capacity of SCs for self-renewal and their undifferentiated state, these cells are excellent candidates for cell therapy. A large gap exists between understanding SC behavior and how it can be used to repair and regenerate human skeletal muscle tissue. Thus, this review sought to portray the current knowledge on the lifespan of SCs and their involvement in exercise-induced muscle regeneration and hypertrophy.

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4실험실 측정지표를 활용한 4주간의 훈련이 여자 중거리 선수의 경기 기록에 미치는 영향: 사례 보고

저자 : 이상현 ( Sang-hyun Lee ) , 김수진 ( Su-jin Kim ) , 김영식 ( Young-Sik Kim ) , 김창선 ( Chang-sun Kim ) , 곽효범 ( Hyo-bum Kwak ) , 강주희 ( Ju-hee Kang ) , 박동호 ( Dong-ho Park )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 304-311 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of a 4-week training using a laboratory index on the competition record of elite female middle-distance runners.
METHODS: A female, middle-distance, trained runner with the following characteristics: age, 20 years; height, 168.7 cm; weight, 64.3 kg; 27.2% fat; and VO2max, 56.4 VO2 mL/kg/min; volunteered to participate in this study. Before the training program, the participant took part in a 1,500-m track and field national event in April and the onset of blood lactate threshold was analyzed using (OBVA/ vOBLA), VO2max/vVO2max, and tVO2max tests. After completing the 4-week training program, the participant again took part in the 1,500-m track and field national event in May and her parameters were reassessed using the OBVA/vOBLA, VO2max/vVO2max, and tVO2max tests.
RESULTS: Pre- and post-training indicate that vVO2max did not improve; however, tVO2max (206 seconds pre-training vs. 251.51 seconds post-training) and VO2max (56.4 vs. 59.3 VO2 mL/kg/min)significantly. However, this improvement in relative VO2 was due to weight loss, and the absolute value of VO2 (3.63 vs. 3.62 L/min) did not change. The 1,500-m race record in track and field events decreased significantly from a pre-training value of 5 minutes 03 seconds to a post-training value of 4 minutes 52 seconds.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that utilizing laboratory indicators including vOBLA, vVO2max, and tVO2max may be extremely valuable when prescribing training programs for middle-distance runners.

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5Association Serum Lipid Levels with Periodontal Disease in Korean Adults Over the Age of 50: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2016-2018

저자 : Young-ran Yeun , Yi Sub Kwak , Hye-young Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 312-318 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: Although the prevalence of periodontal disease in adults over the age of 50 is rapidly increasing, the association between serum lipid levels and periodontal disease in Korean adults over the age of 50 still remains to investigate. Thus, the aim was to determine the effect of serum lipid levels on periodontal disease in older adults over the age of 50 using data from the seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
METHODS: The study used the data of 809 adults aged ≥50 years targeted in the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2016-2018. Levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density- lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol), and low density-lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol) and periodontal conditions were measured. Complex-sample chi square test and linear regression were used to analyze the relationship serum lipid levels with periodontal disease.
RESULTS: The results of chi square tests showed that the prevalence of periodontal disease among the elderly ≥50 years were statistically significant differences according to gender, age, education level, marital status, and smoking status. After adjusting for all confounding factors, HDL-cholesterol alleviated periodontal disease, while LDL-cholesterol exacerbates periodontal disease. However, total cholesterol and triglycerides were not connected with periodontal disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, controlling HDL and LDL cholesterol levels through physical exercise could be a preventative measure for periodontal disease.

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6지구성 운동과 메스암페타민 투여가 수컷 Sprague-Dawley 쥐의 해마에서 혈뇌장벽 관련 인자 및 BDNF 발현에 미치는 영향

저자 : 정수련 ( Su-ryun Jung )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 319-327 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of short-term endurance exercise and methamphetamine administration on blood-brain barrier (BBB)-related marker and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.
METHODS: Forty male SD-rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups and treated for 2 weeks. For the methamphetamine group, 1 mg/ kg (+)-S-Methamphetamine hydrochloride (METH) was intraperitoneally injected daily, and an endurance exercise was performed at 21 m/min for 60 minutes. All treatments were performed daily, and METH or saline was administered after exercise. After 2 weeks of treatment, the head was decapitated under anesthesia, and the hippocampus was separated for western blotting.
RESULTS: Two weeks of endurance exercise significantly increased the expression of occludin and claudin-5 in the hippocampus of the rats. Similarly, phosphorylation of CREB/BDNF and AKT/GSK3 signaling pathways were significantly increased. This phenomenon was also observed in the exercise and METH co-treatment groups. However, the single treatment of 1 mg/kg METH did not affect tight junction protein and BDNF expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Endurance exercise increased the expression of BBB-related proteins and neurogenesis-related molecules, which were not inhibited by METH administration.

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7점증운동부하 검사 동안 걷기와 달리기 형태별 국가대표 경보선수들의 심폐기능평가 비교

저자 : 성봉주 ( Bong-ju Sung ) , 이민호 ( Min-ho Lee ) , 이광규 ( Kwang-kyu Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 328-336 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify a sport-specific assessment for elite race-walking athletes by comparing physiological responses between walking and running graded exercise test (GXT) protocols.
METHODS: Six elite race-walking athletes completed both walking and running protocols in a randomized crossover design with 1 week interval between trials. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), ventilation (VE), and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout and after each trial, and blood lactate levels were collected during the recovery period.
RESULTS: There were significant differences in VO2max, VE, and HR values between the walking and running protocols (p<.001). During the recovery period, VO2max, VE, HR, and blood lactate levels were significantly different in each measurement (p<.001); however, there was no difference between the walking and running protocols.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, both the walking and running GXT protocols were inappropriate for assessing elite race-walking athletes. This study suggests that a supplement GXT protocol is required to specifically assess elite race-walking athletes.

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8지체장애 노인의 저강도 신체활동과 모든 원인 사망과의 연관성

저자 : 이인환 ( Inhwan Lee ) , 강현식 ( Hyunsik Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 337-344 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between light intensity physical activity (LPA) and all-cause mortality in older adults with physical disability.
METHODS: Data from the 2008 Living Profiles of Older People Survey involving 14367 Korean adults aged ≥60 y (13417 without disabilities and 950 with disabilities) were used. Participants were divided into active and inactive groups based on weekly LPA and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), according to disability status and physical activity levels.
RESULTS: During 3.3±0.4 years follow-up period, 1024 deaths occurred from all causes. Among non-disabled people, the inactive group showed a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR=1.282, 95% CI=1.122-1.465, p<0.001) than the active group (reference=1) in LPA. Similarly, for MVPA, the risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher in the inactive group (HR=1.522, 95% CI=1.230-1.882, p<0.001) than in the active group (reference=1). However, among physically disabled people, the inactive group correspondingly showed a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR=2.735, 95% CI=1.761-4.246, p<0.001) than the active group, while there was no significant difference between both groups in MVPA.
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that promoting LPA may play an important role in preventing premature death from all-cause mortality in older adults with physical disability.

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9지속적인 매트 필라테스 운동이 여대생의 기초체력, 코어 안정성 및 허리 통증에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김효진 ( Hyojin Kim ) , 김창선 ( Changsun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 345-356 (12 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 wks of mat Pilates exercise on back pain, muscle mass, isokinetic muscle function, and core stability in healthy college female.
METHODS: Twenty healthy college females (aged 21.7±2.5 y) were recruited for the study. The participants were divided into two groups: mat Pilates exercise group (MP, n=10) and non-Pilates control group (CON, n=10). The MP group participated in the mat Pilates exercise program for 60 min a day, 3 d per week for 8 wks. Back pain and basal physical fitness were assessed before and after the experimental period. Left and right core stabilities at 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, and 180° were measured using Centaur (BFMC, Germany). Isokinetic muscle function (60°/s) of both the knee and trunk was also measured using the isokinetic dynamometer Cybex.
RESULTS: After mat Pilates exercise for 8 wks, there was a significant interaction between the MP and CON groups in back pain during daily activity and lower back stiffness (p<.05), respectively. There was also a significant interaction between the two groups in the left and right core stability at 45°, 90°, 135°, and 180° (p<.05, p<.01, p<.001), respectively. Additionally, there was a significant interaction between the two groups in the right knee and left knee isokinetic extensor muscle strength (p<.05, p<.001, respectively). However, there was no significant interaction between the two groups in trunk isokinetic extensor and flexor muscle strength (NS). There were no significant interactions between two groups in the muscle mass of total body, trunk, and legs (NS), respectively. Regarding basic physical fitness, there were significant interaction effects between the two groups in cardiovascular fitness, sagittal reach, and sit-ups (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that continued mat Pilates exercise can improve back pain and core stability with enhancement of leg isokinetic muscle strength independent of the muscle mass of the total body, trunk, and legs.

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10한국 성인과 노인의 신체활동과 대사증후군의 연관성: 국민건강영양조사 2014-2017 가속도계 자료를 이용하여

저자 : 임정준 ( Jungjun Lim ) , 김준식 ( Joon-sik Kim ) , 김연수 ( Yeonsoo Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 357-363 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults and older adults.
METHODS: A total of 2,191 adults and older adults from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2014 to 2017 were analyzed. Participants were categorized into three groups ('Inactive', 'Active', 'Highly active') according to physical activity guidelines. A chi-square test was performed to confirm whether the physical activity guidelines were met according to metabolic syndrome and the difference between metabolic syndrome according to age group. Logistic regression was used to predict the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome.
RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome differed according to whether physical activity guidelines were met in older adults, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors varied according to age group. Compared to the Inactive group, the odds ratios (OR) for metabolic syndrome were 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]:0.56-0.95) and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.47-0.88) in adults in the Active and Highly active groups, respectively; and 0.46 (95% CI:0.28-0.78) and 0.39 (95% CI:0.22-0.69) in older adults in the Active and Highly active groups, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: As the level of physical activity increased, the OR of having metabolic syndrome and its risk factors decreased: this relationship was stronger in older adults than in adults. Therefore, physical activity guidelines should be met to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome.

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