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한국목재공학회> 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)> Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Citrus × natsudaidai (Yu. Tanaka) Hayata Peels at Different Ripening Stage

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Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Citrus × natsudaidai (Yu. Tanaka) Hayata Peels at Different Ripening Stage

Jiyoon Yang , Won-sil Choi , Su-yeon Lee , Minju Kim , Mi-jin Park
  • : 한국목재공학회
  • : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 07월
  • : 272-282(11pages)
목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)

DOI

10.5658/WOOD.2022.50.4.272


목차

1. INTRODUCTION
2. MATERIALS and METHODS
3. RESULTS and DISCUSSION
4. CONCLUSIONS
CONFLICT of INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
REFERENCES

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The essential oil extracted from Citrus × natsudaidai (Yu. Tanaka) Hayata peels is known to have various biological properties. However, the chemical composition of essential oil is influenced by the ripening stages of fruits, which then affects related biological activities. This study investigates the antioxidant activities of essential oils extracted from Citrus × natsudaidai peels at different ripening stages (immature, mature, and overripe). The essential oils were extracted using the hydro-distillation method. As a result of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, d-limonene was dominant and was increased as matured. However, γ-terpinene was decreased. The antioxidant properties and their total phenolic content (TPC) were influenced by the ripening stages. The TPC was highest in the immature stage of essential oil (1,011.25 ± 57.15 mg GAE/100 g). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was excellent in the immature stage (EC50 = 15.91 ± 0.38 mg/mL). 2,2’-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity was superior in overripe stage (EC50 = 20.43 ± 0.37 mg/mL). The antioxidant activity measured using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay showed higher values for the essential oils in immaturity (1,342.37 ± 71.07 mg Fe2+/100 g). Comprehensively, the essential oil in the immature stage showed the best antioxidant activity. Finally, knowing the chemical composition and antioxidant activity at different ripening stages will provide data for selecting the right fruit.

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간행물정보

  • : 공학분야  > 토목공학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 1017-0715
  • : 2233-7180
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1973-2022
  • : 2618


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1Cover and Contents

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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2Aims and scope

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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3Monitoring of Moisture and Dimensional Behaviors of Nail-Laminated Timber (NLT)-Concrete Slab Exposed to Outdoor Air

저자 : Sung-wook Hwang , Hyunwoo Chung , Taekyeong Lee , Kyung-sun Ahn , Sung-jun Pang , Junsik Bang , Hyo Won Kwak , Jung-kwon Oh , Hwanmyeong Yeo

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 301-314 (14 pages)

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The moisture and dimensional behaviors of a nail-laminated timber (NLT)-concrete slab composed of an NLT-plywood composite and topping concrete are monitored for 385 days. The slab is developed for using as flexural elements such as floors. The humidity control of wood gently introduces significant fluctuations under the ambient relative humidity into the slab, and fluctuations in the relative humidity result in dimensional changes. The equilibrium moisture content of the slab increases from 6.7% to 15.3% during the monitoring period, resulting in a width (radial) strain of 0.58%. The length (longitudinal) strain is negligible, and the height (tangential) strain is excluded from the analysis because of abstruse signal patterns generated. Concrete pouring causes a permanent increase in the width of the NLT-plywood composite. However, the width deforms because the weight of the concrete mixture loosens the nail-laminated structure, not because of the significant amount of moisture in the mixture. The dimensional stabilization effect of the nail-laminated system is demonstrated as the composite strain is lower than the total strain of lumber and plywood, which are elements constituting the nail-laminated structure.

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4Termicidal Activity and Chemical Components of Wood Vinegar from Nipah Fruit against Coptotermes curvignathus

저자 : Hasan Ashari Oramahi , Mika Jessika Tindaon , Nurhaida Nurhaida , Farah Diba , Hikma Yanti

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 315-324 (10 pages)

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The termicidal activity and chemical components of wood vinegar from two sources of biomass, nipah fruit shells (NFS) and a mixture of shells and fiber (MSF), were evaluated against Coptotermes curvignathus. A no-choice test was carried out to evaluate their termicidal activity using filter paper samples treated with 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5% NFS or MSF vinegar. Both wood vinegars exhibited antitermitic activity against C. curvignathus. The results show that increased concentrations of NFS and MSF vinegar significantly increased termite mortality. In particular, the NFS vinegar caused complete mortality and the lowest filter paper mass losses at 2.18% when treated with 12.5% wood vinegar. The most abundant chemical compounds of NFS vinegar were cyclopropanecarbonyl chloride, 2,5-dichlorophenol, 2-propanone, acetic acid, propanoic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenal, and trans-geraniol. Meanwhile, the main compounds in the MSF vinegar were 1,2-ethanediol, formic acid, acetic acid, ethanoic acid, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, phenol, 2-methoxy phenol, and 4-methyl phenol.

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5Influence of Alkali and Silane Treatment on the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Grewia serrulata Fibres

저자 : Bhupesh Jain , Ravindra Mallya , Suhas Yeshwant Nayak , Srinivas Shenoy Heckadka , Shrinivasa Prabhu , G. T. Mahesha , Gaurav Sancheti

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 325-337 (13 pages)

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Grewia serrulata fibres were chemically treated with 3%, 6%, and 9% NaOH for the duration of 4 h. Additionally, the NaOH-treated fibres were also treated with 3 - (trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (silane). Properties such as density and tensile strength of the treated fibres were compared against the untreated fibres. The highest density was obtained in the case of 9% NaOH + silane treated fibres, which was 26.47% higher than untreated fibres, implying effective removal of hemicellulose. Likewise, the highest tensile strength was also obtained in the case of 9% NaOH + silane treated fibres. The increment observed in the tensile strength of the natural fibres was related to the removal of impurities, hemicellulose, and stress-raisers as well as deposition over the fibre surface that smoothed it. These observations were further validated by estimating changes in chemical constituents due to chemical treatment along with characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

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6Antioxidative and Circadian Rhythm Regulation Effect of Quercus gilva Extract

저자 : Jin-sung Huh , Sora Lee , Dong-soo Kim , Myung Suk Choi , Hyunmo Choi , Kyung-ha Lee

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 338-352 (15 pages)

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Herein, water and ethanol extracts were obtained from the leaves, branches, kernels, and pericarp of Quercus gilva and subsequently analyzed for antioxidant activity and circadian rhythm regulation effects. Candidate components that may affect circadian rhythm and antioxidant activity were investigated to discover potential functional materials. Antioxidant activity was analyzed via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity assays, showing that the hot water extract exhibited higher activity than that of the ethanol extract. In particular, the branch extract showed high antioxidant activity. By measuring total contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins, the hot water branch extract showed the highest concentrations, highlighting their significant contribution to the antioxidant activity. Examination of the circadian rhythm regulation of each extract showed that the ethanol extract exhibited greater impacts on the circadian rhythm amplitude compared to the water extract. The branch ethanol extract induced circadian rhythm amplitude changes via clock gene Bmal1 expression regulation. Determination of 12 phenolic compound concentrations showed that the branch ethanol extract contained many phenolic compounds, including catechin. This suggests that these compounds affected circadian rhythm regulation. In conclusion, the hot water branch extract has potential as an natural antioxidant material, while the corresponding ethanol extract has potential as a functional material for regulating circadian rhythm.

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7Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction Studies on Crystalline Domains in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins at Low Molar Ratio

저자 : Eko Setio Wibowo , Byung-dae Park , Valerio Causin , Dongyup Hahn

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 353-364 (12 pages)

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The crystalline domain of thermosetting urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins at low formaldehyde-to-urea (F/U) molar ratios (≤ 1.0) is known to be responsible for their poor performance as wood adhesives. Crystallization has been observed in 1.0 F/U UF resins during the addition reaction stage and at the end of the synthesis process (neat UF resins). The crystallinity and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the uncured neat UF resins, on the other hand, differed significantly from those of the cured neat UF resins, raising the possibility that their crystal structures were also different. This study demonstrates for the first time that the crystalline domains in 1.0 F/U UF resins generated from uncured and cured samples are identical. Despite having a lower crystallinity value, the synchrotron XRD patterns of purified neat UF resins were equivalent to the XRD patterns of cured neat UF resins. Transmission electron microscope images of the cured UF resins showed that the crystals were lamellar structures. This finding suggests that the crystal at low molar ratio UF resins are isotropic polycrystals with random orientation.

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8Investigation of Sound Absorption Ability of Hinoki Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) Cubes

저자 : Eun-suk Jang

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 365-374 (10 pages)

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Today, commercialized Hinoki cypress cubes are used for fragrance, humidification, and pillows in Korea. In this study, the sound absorption ability of Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) cubes was examined. The three groups of Hinoki cypress cubes were prepared depending on their dimension (L: 9 × 9 × 9, M: 7 × 7 × 7, S: 4 × 4 × 4 mm). Their sound absorption coefficient was examined after filling 6, 8, 10, and 12 cm height in impedance tubes, respectively. Overall, the sound absorption ability depending on dimension was superior in the M group compared to the L and S groups. Also, as the filling height increased, the sound absorption capacity increased. In sum, noise reduction coefficients (NRC) of all Hinoki cypress cubes were 0.41-0.59. Thus, this research found that Hinoki cypress cubes have a sound-absorbing function.

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9Editorial Board & Organization and staffs

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 375-375 (1 pages)

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10Copyright

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 376-376 (1 pages)

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1
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1Cover and Contents

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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2Aims and scope

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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3Nanocomposite Electrode Materials Prepared from Pinus roxburghii and Hematite for Application in Supercapacitors

저자 : Dibyashree Shrestha

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 219-236 (18 pages)

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Wood-based nanocomposite electrode materials were synthesized for application in supercapacitors by mixing nanostructured hematite (Fe2O3) with highly porous activated carbon (AC) produced from the wood-waste of Pinus roxburghii. The AC was characterized using various instrumental techniques and the results showed admirable electrochemical properties, such as high surface area and reasonable porosity. Firstly, AC was tested as an electrode material for supercapacitors and it showed a specific capacitance of 59.02 Fg-1 at a current density of 1 Ag-1, cycle life of 84.2% after 1,000 cycles (at a current density of 3 Ag-1), and energy density of 5.1 Wh/kg at a power density of 135 Wkg-1. However, when the AC was composited with different ratios of Fe2O3 (1:1, 2:1, and 1:2), there was an overall improvement in its electrochemical performance. Among the 3 ratios, 2:1 (AC:Fe2O3) had the best specific capacitance of 102.42 Fg-1 at 1 Ag-1, cycle life of 94.4% capacitance after 1,000 cycles (at a current density of 3 Ag-1), and energy density of 8.34 Wh/kg at a power density of 395.15 Wkg-1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte in a 3-electrode experimental setup with a high working voltage of 1.55 V. Furthermore, when Fe2O3 was doubled, 1:2 (AC:Fe2O3), the electrochemical capacitive performance of the electrode twisted and deteriorated due to either the accumulation of Fe2O3 particles within the composite or higher bulk resistance value of pure Fe2O3.

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4Experimental Study of Bending and Bearing Strength of Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) from Japanese Larch Veneer Strand

저자 : Seichang Oh

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 237-245 (9 pages)

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This study examined the structural performance of experimental parallel strand lumber (PSL) from a Larch veneer strand. The prototype of PSL from a Larch veneer strand was manufactured in the experimental laboratory and tested. The bending and dowel bearing strength were determined from the modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and dowel bearing strength based on a 5% offset yield load. The test results indicated that the average MOR of PSL was higher than that of 2 × 4 dimension lumber, and the average MOE of PSL was lower than that of 2 × 4 dimension lumber. A linear relationship was observed between the MOR and MOE. The allowable bending stress of PSL was derived as specified in ASTM D2915 and compared with other research. The dowel bearing strength of PSL in parallel to the grain was approximately double that perpendicular to the grain of PSL. A comparison of several theoretical calculations based on each national code for the dowel bearing strength was conducted, and some theoretical equations produced results closer to the experimental results when it was parallel to the grain, but the difference was higher in the case perpendicular to the grain. The test results showed that PSL made with Japanese larch veneer strands appeared to be suitable for a raw material of structural composite lumber (SCL) appeared to be used as a raw material for SCL.

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5Tomosynthesis Feasibility Study for Visualization of Interiors of Wood Columns Surrounded with Walls

저자 : Jun Jae Lee , Chul-ki Kim

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 246-255 (10 pages)

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The need for non-destructive testing and evaluation of Korean traditional wooden buildings is increasing because of their widespread deterioration. Among all types of deterioration, termite damage in wooden columns is the most difficult to detect with the naked eye because it starts inside the wood, and the initial deterioration is small. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is the best technology to investigate the inner state of wood that has less damage, but applying it to wooden columns between walls is challenging. Therefore, the feasibility of tomosynthesis, which is a method to reconstruct a coronal section of a subject with a few X-ray projections from a limited angle of rotation, was studied as an alternative to CT. Pine (P. densiflora) with three artificial holes was prepared as a specimen to evaluate the quality of reconstructed tomosynthesis images according to the different number of projections. The quality of the tomosynthesis images in the in-focus plane was evaluated using the contrast-to-noise ratios, while a vertical resolution between the images was assessed by determining the artificial spread function. The quality of the tomosynthesis image in the in-focus plane increased as the number of projections increased and then remained constant as the number of projections reached 21 or over. In the case of vertical resolution, there was no significant difference when 21 projections or more were used to reconstruct the images. A distinct difference between coronal section images was found when the distance was more than 10 mm from one plane to another plane.

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6Study of Characterization of Activated Carbon from Coconut Shells on Various Particle Scales as Filler Agent in Composite Materials

저자 : Rudi Dungani , Sasa Sofyan Munawar , Tati Karliati , Jamaludin Malik , Pingkan Aditiawati , Sulistyono

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 256-271 (16 pages)

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Activated carbon (AC) derived from coconut shells (CS-AC) was obtained through pyrolysis at 700℃ and subsequently activated with H3PO4. AC was ground in a Wiley mill several times to form powder particles at particle scales of 80, 100, and 200 meshes. The characterization of the AC was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and surface area analysis (SBET). The CS-AC-200 mesh resulted in a higher percentage of mesopores and surface area. This particle size had a larger surface area with angular, irregular, and crushed shapes in the SEM view. The smaller particles had smoother surfaces, less wear, and increased curing depth and ratio of the hardness of the resin composite. Based on the characterization results of the AC, it is evident that CS-AC with a 200 mesh particle size has the potential to be used as a filler in biocomposites.

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7Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Citrus × natsudaidai (Yu. Tanaka) Hayata Peels at Different Ripening Stage

저자 : Jiyoon Yang , Won-sil Choi , Su-yeon Lee , Minju Kim , Mi-jin Park

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 272-282 (11 pages)

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The essential oil extracted from Citrus × natsudaidai (Yu. Tanaka) Hayata peels is known to have various biological properties. However, the chemical composition of essential oil is influenced by the ripening stages of fruits, which then affects related biological activities. This study investigates the antioxidant activities of essential oils extracted from Citrus × natsudaidai peels at different ripening stages (immature, mature, and overripe). The essential oils were extracted using the hydro-distillation method. As a result of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, d-limonene was dominant and was increased as matured. However, γ-terpinene was decreased. The antioxidant properties and their total phenolic content (TPC) were influenced by the ripening stages. The TPC was highest in the immature stage of essential oil (1,011.25 ± 57.15 mg GAE/100 g). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was excellent in the immature stage (EC50 = 15.91 ± 0.38 mg/mL). 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity was superior in overripe stage (EC50 = 20.43 ± 0.37 mg/mL). The antioxidant activity measured using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay showed higher values for the essential oils in immaturity (1,342.37 ± 71.07 mg Fe2+/100 g). Comprehensively, the essential oil in the immature stage showed the best antioxidant activity. Finally, knowing the chemical composition and antioxidant activity at different ripening stages will provide data for selecting the right fruit.

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8Peracetic Acid Treatment as an Effective Method to Protect Wood Discoloration by UV Light

저자 : Kyoung-chan Park , Byeongho Kim , Hanna Park , Se-Yeong Park

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 283-298 (16 pages)

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Wood has always been used for various day-to-day applications such as interior or exterior construction materials, and household products. However, it can undergo photodegradation and discoloration by environmental factors including ultraviolet (UV) light, and thus has shortened its service life. Bleaching or delignification of wood surfaces is a suitable solution to stabilize wood against weathering by UV because these techniques can alter or remove the chromophores in lignin, which is a main factor of wood discoloration. To improve the color stability of wood surface according to the lifespan, surface delignification was conducted using peracetic acid (PAA) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) on the woods of Larix kaempferi and Quercus mongolica. After the PAA treatment, L* increased considerably from 60-70 to 90-95. Furthermore, wood surface color did not change significantly after UV exposure. The color differences (ΔE*) between before and after PPA treatment of wood showed the 4.8-12.2 of L. kaempferi, and 1.7-3.7 of Q. mongolica, respectively. The lignin-related peaks in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra disappeared with increased duration of PAA treatment. These results confirmed that the lignin component was partially or completely removed after the PAA treatment; the color differences (ΔE*) clearly showed that there was a reduction in redness (a*) and yellowness (b*), and an increase in lightness (L*) owing to the removal of lignin. Based on these results, this study demonstrated that the partial removal of lignin from wood surfaces is a fundamental method for resolving photo-degradation.

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9Erratum to: Gallotannins from Nut Shell Extractives of Camellia oleifera

저자 : Yi-chang He , Mei-jie Wu , Xiao-lin Lei , Jie-fang Yang , Wei Gao , Young-soo Bae , Tae-hee Kim , Sun-eun Choi , Bao-tong Li

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 299-299 (1 pages)

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10Erratum to: Identification of Sapstain Fungi on Weathered Wooden Surfaces of Buildings at Jangheung and Jeju Island

저자 : Jeonghee Yun , Hee Chang Shin , Won Joung Hwang , Sae-min Yoon , Yeong-suk Kim

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 50권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 300-300 (1 pages)

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