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한국연극교육학회> 연극교육연구> ‘사회적 애도하기’로서의 퍼포먼스 에리카 피셔 리히테(Erika Fischer-Lichte)의 수행성 개념을 중심으로

KCI등재

‘사회적 애도하기’로서의 퍼포먼스 에리카 피셔 리히테(Erika Fischer-Lichte)의 수행성 개념을 중심으로

Performance as ‘Social Mourning’ - Focused on the Concept of Performativity of Erika Fischer-Lichte

이경성 ( Lee Kyung-sung )
  • : 한국연극교육학회
  • : 연극교육연구 40권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 06월
  • : 5-39(35pages)
연극교육연구

DOI


목차

Ⅰ. 들어가는 글
Ⅱ. 사회적 애도하기
Ⅲ. 사회적 애도하기로서의 퍼포먼스
Ⅳ. 나오는 글

키워드 보기


초록 보기

‘Mourning’ is an expression of the sorrow of the living over the death. Through mourning that is carried out in an appropriate period and form, the living gain the power to reflect on the meaning of life anew and return to their daily lives. Mourning can be divided into private mourning and public mourning or social mourning. While private mourning is a tribute to the loss in one's personal relationships, public mourning is triggered by an event or death that is worthy of collective mourning for a society as a whole. Social mourning performs the function of healing the collective trauma of the community and has a positive function of strengthening the solidarity of the members. Also, mourning for the dead shows the moral maturity of a society.
Performing arts have often been used as a space to express common mourning due to the nature of its form in which the audience and performers collectively face each other in one space. In Korea, after the Sewol Ferry incident in 2014, many theatres dealt with the theme of the Sewol Ferry incident in various kinds of approach. Those attempts in performances were recognized as a process of sharing sorrow with audiences and healing social trauma in the community.
Erika Fischer-Richter explained the communication in which the audience and performer experience one event and exchange energy within the performance through the concept of 'Performativity'. In the performance of 'Performativity' which reveals self-referential and constitutive aspects, the audience is not trapped in the passivity of having to interpret the signs sent from the stage, but creates meaning by giving and receiving influences within the ‘Auto-formation feedback loop’. And in this process of constant exchange, both the audience and performers experience a transition to a new reality. These characteristics of performing arts create various artistic possibilities in which mourning rituals can be held in collective and also personal way simultaneously.
《Talking Of Her》(2016) in Korea and 《Elegy》(2015) in South Africa show how the performing arts fulfill the function of social mourning through artistic form. 《Talking Of Her》 shares the experiences of mourning with the audience by interviewing the mothers of the Sewol Ferry victims and relaying them back to the audience and uttering all the names of the 304 victims on stage. 《Elegy》 is a vocal performance to commemorate women who have been victims of misogyny in South African society, and has a form of linking the condolences with a voice without using any language. The formal strategy of creating an environment for mourning based on the physicality of voice and expression leads the audience to participate in mourning in their own subjective way. Based on this characteristic of 'Performativity', performing art can functions as a space where people can share and express social mournings mutually in various forms.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 연극영화
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 반년간
  • : 1738-155x
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1997-2022
  • : 375


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저자 : 나진환 ( Ra Jin-hwan )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 42권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 5-39 (35 pages)

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This paper is study on aesthetic of directing which composes sensuous Image centered on < Dante divine comedy- Part Hell >, < The Brothers Karamazov >, < Tolstoy's confession, conversation with Anna Karenina > from the perspective of empirical knowledge an approach of performance studies, Ethnoscenology.
This researcher's directing aesthetics uses the sensuous image created by the state formativeness of materiality that emphasizes theatricality above all else. This theatricality is created with the performative state at the center. In other words, it gives the relationship between these elements and becomes a subject that creates sensuous images through it. This also means pursuing theatricality that is differentiated from visual arts.
Perhaps this researcher's directing aesthetics can also be expressed in the term 'play of theaterism', which mobilizes all theatrical language. However, the use of these elements does not reveal the characteristics of synthesis of art or the totality like total art of Richard Wagner. It is melted by the ability that embodies the state of existence on the stage as a performer and is born as such a image.
Therefore, in the aesthetics of this director, first of all, how to use the existence of the body of the present being on the stage? How will Dasein on stage merge various materiality as a directing language into the performativeness of the body so that it can reveal mental materiality? How does the state of formativeness of materiality make the human mind and meaning sensuous? How can sensuous images realize the humanities of the body that can touch the senses of the body that reveal the archetypal instincts of the audience? The aesthetics of this directorto is challenged by theses questions.
In the end, 'theatricality' can be seen as a human-centered characteristic of theater in which actors, who are present on the stage, can create living traces of human existence, and can create the power of human existence. It is given a task that constantly researches the training methods for performer as a Dasein on the stage.

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2연극교육에서의 몸의 교육적 의미 - 몸을 통한 창의성 발현을 중심으로

저자 : 함현경 ( Ham Hyun-kyoung ) , 조준희 ( Cho Joon-hui )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 42권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 41-74 (34 pages)

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This study aims to clarify that the body-centered theater education can contribute to the manifestation of creativity by studying the educational meaning of the body in the context of 'imagination through the body' of theater education. To this end, first, with Merleau-Ponty's body philosophy, the essential characteristics of the body reconsidered in theater education are the body as a subject of perception, and the being-to-the-world with orientation that is from being in the world to the world. In other words, we could see that the body which can create our own life is our fundamental way of being. With a theoretical basis of this concept of the body, the meaning of imagination by the body was analyzed, focusing on the process of 'making improvisation' in theater education. Imagination by the body is an integration of imagination and perception, not dichotomous division, so the meaning of the body as a subject of imagination can be newly understood. In addition, it can be seen that the imagination by the body is not separated from reality, but is complementary to the reality that it affects, and so it is expressed as the orientation of the body, which is the being-to-the-world. Based on this understanding, I examined the implications of the realizing imagination by the body in theater education. The realization of imagination by the body in theater education allows students to recover their bodies as perceptual subjects by the restoration of the world in which they exist, and to choose and create their own lives independently. As a result, the continuous experience of realizing the being-to-the-world of the body can create a virtuous cycle, facilitating the body's transition expressing creativity. In other words, the educational meaning of the body in theater education can be found from the relationship that realizes the body which is a unique human way of being and also can express creativity. Through this study, it is expected that a new creative theater education methodology centered on the body will be studied by improving the educational meaning of the body in theater education.

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3피나 바우쉬의 시노그라피 고찰 - 롤프 보르직과 페터 팝스트의 작품을 중심으로

저자 : 임일진 ( Im Il-jin )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 42권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 75-101 (27 pages)

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The distinction between modern and contemporary theater does not depend solely on a specific time or historical event. It is because theatrical people, passing through the latter half of the 19th century, called all the existing (theatrical) materials to the stage without clear distinction, in the position of rejecting the modern and the later aspects of modernism and its phenomenon. Through (avant-garde) experiments, various art media such as dance, art, theater, film, and music have re-established new aesthetic relationships beyond traditionally stylized genre boundaries. The tendency to transcend boundaries between art genres is consistently shown in contemporary art - clearly distinct from contemporary art. The trans-boundary nature of art gave the right to no longer be faithful to the grammar of each genre. This summons not only the producers, the subject of artistic activity, but also the audience, the audience, to the center of the performance. Returning to the category of theater, today's stage is freed from conveying, reproducing, or indicating the truth that already exists outside of performance, that is, away from meaning and symbolism, and with respect to artistic phenomena, the interaction and effect of both actors and audiences. He is developing a new aesthetic of sympathy and communication, paying attention to emotions, influences, and sensory experiences. This is not limited to the field of silk art, but is a phenomenon that appears throughout culture in the ideological context of postmodernism in the late 20th century.
Scenography, which developed mainly from ballet, a classical dance from dance, showed an unconventional scenography that maximized aesthetic completion and creativity by breaking away from the existing realism dance stage through Pina Bausch's stage. In Pina Bausch's world of work centered on people and nature, the function of scenography is absolute and creative. Focusing on Pina Bausch's relationship between her dance and scenography, it will be possible to explore new possibilities in expressionism and symbolic visual effects. Pina Bausch explores the role and function of scenography in Pina Bausch's works, which seeks to try out genres while breaking away from conventional expression, blending all artistic genres, and by finding and analyzing cases where scenography is implemented on the actual stage as an independent dance language. It aims to examine the significance of the stage art of the scenography of the importance of scenography in the Pina Bausch performance will enable us to discuss in more detail the meaning and direction of contemporary dance that can be considered in the performing arts, and the deconstruction and combination of genre characteristics will suggest a new expansion of scenography. Studying Pina Bausch's scenography as an aesthetic point of view while approaching and analyzing the meaning and essence of innovative scenography shown by Pina Bausch of Wuppertal Tanztheater in the performing arts including theater as well as modern dance in Germany from the perspective of stage art. Thus, the characteristics and contents of a dynamic yet minimal expressionist space composition will be investigated. Pina Bausch's stage art is a new genre of contemporary dance in the 20th century, based on a new expressionist dance drama that presents a new paradigm of dramatic space. It is a dramatic form. The most striking feature in the formal aspect of New Expressionism is that it acquires multi-faceted symbolism through various expression strategies. The multifaceted stage space that Pina Bausch pursues, including formal beauty and symbolism, and transformation of theatrical space through body movements, can be understood through the consideration of Neo-Expressionist stage art.
The spatial composition of the Neo-Expressionist dance drama, along with the dance script, is realistic and provides the audience with something to imagine. It refers to a form of performance combining dance, dialogue, singing, traditional theater, props, and costumes, giving priority to content rather than form. In other words, dance as a narrative play emphasizes theater and scene elements, and as a fusion of dance and theater that pursues a dramatic means of expression, it represents the uniqueness of the dance form and the aesthetics of dance.
The role and function of the scenography of non-genre characteristics such as dance, art, music, and theater that can be seen in Pina Bausch performances are analyzed through specific performance cases of Pina Bausch, and through this, New Expressionism in German Expressionist Dance and Art We looked into how style works and functions through the works of stage artists Rolf Borzik and Peter Popst, who were in charge of Pina Bausch's scenography.

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저자 : 장우현 ( Jang Woo-hyeon )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 42권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 103-132 (30 pages)

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Etude, the core of Stanislavsky's system, has been studied by many researchers and applied in the field. Considering that the Stanislavsky system and etude are methodologies with scientific characteristics in which structure and steps are presented, exploratory research is needed to understand etude and develop a new training model. Therefore, the goal of this study is to program the etude as well as the basic training concepts of acting education into the basic elements of the etude and program them as an integrated process between the elements.
Therefore, in this study, the basic elements of the proposed eight etudes of concentration, relaxation, imagination, relationship, self-awareness, adaptation, evaluation, and exchange were re-categorized, and these concepts were newly structured by connecting them to the theory of counseling psychology. In addition, a training model for each element was presented, and students' feedback on the systematicity and accessibility of the training model was confirmed through lecture examples. It is hoped that the results of this study will be understood as a new approach to etude and will serve as empirical data for active research on related topics.

KCI등재

5포스트드라마 언어의 수행성 - 비트겐슈타인의 '언어게임'에 의거하여

저자 : 김가람 ( Kim Garam )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 42권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 133-153 (21 pages)

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This research attempts to analyze the performativity of theatrical languages in post-drama by the philosopher Wittgenstein's theory of “Language game”. Since Hans Thies Lehmanna established the concept of post-drama in 1999, discussions have been active on the performativity. Based on Wittgenstein's book 『Philosophical Investigations』, this thesis seeks to study how post-drama is creating a new language game with audiences.
Furthermore, it will study how the post-drama language, which focuses on performativity, has a common meaning among its members. Theatrical languages of post-drama are not limited to dictionary meanings, but rather expand the language's expression in its own way. The audiences understand the meaning of the actors' actions through their senses and it creates a “public language” by bringing out rules among the members who exist together in the space. In conclusion, post-drama does not rule out the use of language, but produces results that emphasize the “Performativity of language” by expanding its meaning more actively. Through this process, the language standardization and violence of traditional narrative structures are disbanded, and the original meaning is expanded to guide changes in the audience's lives.

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6거리극의 미학 - 프랑스의 경우를 중심으로

저자 : 조만수 ( Cho Man-soo )

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Since the 1970s, the aesthetic attempt to theatrical performance going outside the walls of the theater has developed into a new genre called 'street theatre' with the support of the cultural democracy policy of the Mittérrand Party government. Through the 1980s, street theater has been structured and institutionalized, and today France has become one of the countries where street theater is most loved by the public.
Street theater aims to change the experience of the world rather than the radical tendency to change the world in the 60s and 70s. It is to make a world of dreams and a poetic world unfold in the street, the space of everyday life.
The most important thing in street theater aesthetics is to define the space called 'street'. The street is “a social space and a public space, a space where each individual accepts and welcomes the existence of others beyond their own domain. In this public space, the audience is not an individual. Street theater does not express the inner side of an individual. There is no pre-prepared audience to see a play on the street. There is a passant or population on the street. The aesthetic attempt of street theater is to make this population the public. Thus, Michel Crispin defined the audience of street theater as public-population.
After all, street theater is a mutual communication in which the audience as a group experiences urban life in a new way in a public space. The audience public as a group forms a 'Adventure Community' that dramatizes daily life.

1
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KCI등재

1'사회적 애도하기'로서의 퍼포먼스 에리카 피셔 리히테(Erika Fischer-Lichte)의 수행성 개념을 중심으로

저자 : 이경성 ( Lee Kyung-sung )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 40권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 5-39 (35 pages)

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'Mourning' is an expression of the sorrow of the living over the death. Through mourning that is carried out in an appropriate period and form, the living gain the power to reflect on the meaning of life anew and return to their daily lives. Mourning can be divided into private mourning and public mourning or social mourning. While private mourning is a tribute to the loss in one's personal relationships, public mourning is triggered by an event or death that is worthy of collective mourning for a society as a whole. Social mourning performs the function of healing the collective trauma of the community and has a positive function of strengthening the solidarity of the members. Also, mourning for the dead shows the moral maturity of a society.
Performing arts have often been used as a space to express common mourning due to the nature of its form in which the audience and performers collectively face each other in one space. In Korea, after the Sewol Ferry incident in 2014, many theatres dealt with the theme of the Sewol Ferry incident in various kinds of approach. Those attempts in performances were recognized as a process of sharing sorrow with audiences and healing social trauma in the community.
Erika Fischer-Richter explained the communication in which the audience and performer experience one event and exchange energy within the performance through the concept of 'Performativity'. In the performance of 'Performativity' which reveals self-referential and constitutive aspects, the audience is not trapped in the passivity of having to interpret the signs sent from the stage, but creates meaning by giving and receiving influences within the 'Auto-formation feedback loop'. And in this process of constant exchange, both the audience and performers experience a transition to a new reality. These characteristics of performing arts create various artistic possibilities in which mourning rituals can be held in collective and also personal way simultaneously.
《Talking Of Her》(2016) in Korea and 《Elegy》(2015) in South Africa show how the performing arts fulfill the function of social mourning through artistic form. 《Talking Of Her》 shares the experiences of mourning with the audience by interviewing the mothers of the Sewol Ferry victims and relaying them back to the audience and uttering all the names of the 304 victims on stage. 《Elegy》 is a vocal performance to commemorate women who have been victims of misogyny in South African society, and has a form of linking the condolences with a voice without using any language. The formal strategy of creating an environment for mourning based on the physicality of voice and expression leads the audience to participate in mourning in their own subjective way. Based on this characteristic of 'Performativity', performing art can functions as a space where people can share and express social mournings mutually in various forms.

KCI등재

2배우에 대한 생성존재론적 해명 질 들뢰즈의 '기계' 개념으로 본 배우의 신체

저자 : 김미현 ( Kim Mi-hyun ) , 최찬열 ( Choi Chan-yeoul )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 40권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 41-64 (24 pages)

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Theater of representation is, above all, words and language. This is a Theater subordinated to the text. Here, the focus is the writer who writes text. The director must be faithful to the writer's intention written in text. The director should visualize it on stage. And the actor must act to express the director's instructions. However, a text-oriented literary play, It's not a play that representation the meaning given by the dramaturge, It is a play as an art that a new meaning becoming by itself. It is necessary that new understanding of acting skills as a body activity
However, there were two major cultural upheavals in human history. At this time, an interesting philosophical concept directly related to the body emerged. These are opposing machine concepts which were proposed by Descartes and Deleuze(and Guattari), The subordinate relationship between the mind and the body seen in Descartes philosophy resembles the relationship between the writer or director and actor in a literature theater. The writer and director appear behind the actors as the subjects who control them. In contemporary play, they pay attention to the virtuality ability of the actor. "It is the special materiality of the body of motivated and constantly moving. In this way, the actor's actions directly affect the audience's body and permeate them.
Grotowski tried to return to his body before being captured by civilization through negative acting skill. Here and now, what's important is the power of nature wriggling through the body, in other words is the life. According to Deleuze's body theory, the actor's body consists of an actuality layer and a virtuality layer. Thus, the two-dimensions of the body work differently. However, Deleuze calls the body of the virtuality layer a 'body without organ'. This concept was taken from Artaud. Deleuze-Artaud's body without organ, In other words, the body that resists organic organization tries to escape of the fixed state of the organism and move on to the field of creation and change In this respect, it most clearly shows the implications of body in contemporary theater with the body of Grotowski-Merleau-Ponty. Artaud was a severely schizophrenic. However he thought that the schizophrenic was not just himself, but everyone who was obsessed with a particular habit, one particular way of life. And a theater changes the senses and bodily rhythms of those who are accustomed to old habits. Furthermore, he thought that a play would change lives itself. The human body moves in and out of the arrangement much more flexibly than any other body and does a deterritorialization movement. Thus, the first thing we should consider is the human body. Among them, it is definitely the body of an actor. This is because actors are the masters of transformation. In reality, during the performance, the actor becomes a Transformer. In Deleuze's terminology, Actors can be seen as monsters. The most symbolic representation a 'body' of Deleuze's concept of machine is actor-body.
In a performance, an actor's body has a relationship with other bodies. It causes changes in sensibility and expansion of intelligence by going back and forth between bodies. Through this, it encourages the subject to change and furthermore draws an line of escape to find new possibilities in life.

KCI등재

3연극의 텍스트로서 시노그라피

저자 : 임일진 ( Im Il-jin )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 40권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 65-87 (23 pages)

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In his book Poetics, the Greek philosopher Aristotle cites composition, character, thought, speech, music, and spectacle as elements of tragedy. This is a very important element that composes a traditional play based on a play, and it occupies a very important part even after many years. In modern times, we know theater as a comprehensive art that combines various arts such as directing, acting, stage, costume, and lighting, and the approach to the reality of theater is very superficial or not specific as much as complex and diverse artistic elements.
In the traditional theater space based on plays, scenography has been rapidly changing based on the concepts of image theater and post-drama since the 1970s. This process goes back a long way, and it can be said that Gordon Craig and Adolf Appia at the end of the 19th century started with symbolist stage art that rejected the existing production method.
In the study of contemporary performing arts, the role and expression of scenography can be seen to be in line with the changes in theatre, which have been passed down since Aristotle. As the text of modern theater, scenography is It goes beyond the visual explanation of the existing text and the artistic expression of the background, and presents an independent genre as artistic imagination and aesthetic achievement. This means that in contemporary performing arts, scenography not only visually reinterprets the text of a play, but also attempts a new way of expression that constitutes an independent semantic system. very important in that It can be said that the concept and change of modern scenography is at the center of the mask texts and non-verbal elements in plays, which have been actively shown in Western theater for a long time, and are inextricably linked with each other.
Accordingly, new possibilities of scenography as a non-verbal theater space can be confirmed by examining the changing expression styles of scenography since modern times and further examining the expansion of scenography as post-drama and post-drama.

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