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서울대학교 한국행정연구소> Journal of Policy Studies (JPS)> Staying in Class: Representative Bureaucracy and Student Praise and Punishment

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Staying in Class: Representative Bureaucracy and Student Praise and Punishment

Donald P. Haider-markel , Chelsie L. M. Bright , Steven M. Sylvester
  • : 서울대학교 한국행정연구소
  • : Journal of Policy Studies (JPS) 37권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 06월
  • : 27-40(14pages)
Journal of Policy Studies (JPS)

DOI


목차

Theoretical Significance
Hypotheses
Date Sources, Measurement Methods and Analytical Approach
Results and Discussion
Conclusion
References

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초록 보기

Our project investigates the impact of minority bureaucratic and political representation on the distribution of disciplinary measures in public schools, in contrast with its impact on gifted and talented class placement. It is motivated by the contrast in accumulating research on the consequences of minority bureaucratic representation between findings that minority teacher representation yields beneficial outcomes for minority students while minority representation on police forces does not yield beneficial outcomes for minority residents. Similarly, we note that public school teaching involves two kinds of organizational roles: one involving distribution of benefits (such as placement in gifted and talented programs) which is consistent with an educator role, while the other, involving the distribution of discipline, approximates a policing role, which could be less consistent with an educator role. In short, the educator role benefits the client and the policing role regulates the client. We theorize that (a) modeling the impact of greater minority representation on teaching staffs will yield contrasting results for these two roles, (b) that there will also be differences based on type of discipline at issue, and that (c) the role of minority representation on the school board must also be taken into account. We examine these issues by employing merged data from several data sources ranging from 2007 to 2010 for our analyses. Our results suggest that higher minority teacher representation does increase minority student placement in gifted programs, but does not significantly reduce punishment of minority students. Our analyses also suggest that future research needs to more fully incorporate contextual variables, such as school board representation and state policy. Scholars of representative bureaucracy should also consider the multiple organizational roles that many bureaucrats have.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 사회과학분야  > 행정학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 2799-9130
  • : 2765-2807
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1986-2022
  • : 507


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E-government is recognized as one of the top priorities among many countries and Uzbekistan is one such country that embarked on e-government implementation. Although a growing body of literature focused on the acceptance of e-government from the citizens' perspective in different countries, little is known about the Uzbek citizens' perceptions. In this context, this study aimed to investigate the underlying factors for citizens' intention to use e-government services called Single Portal of Interactive Public Services (SPIPS) in Uzbekistan. To that end, a theoretical model known as the Unified Model of E-government Adoption (UMEGA) was extended and employed. A survey was conducted for 390 Uzbek citizens to measure six constructs from UMEGA and two additional components, service quality and trust. Results from structural equation model showed that performance expectancy (β=0.680, p < 0.001) and trust (β=0.548, p < 0.001) had the greatest influence on intention to use e-government. These findings suggest policy recommendations for successful diffusion of e-government services in other developing countries and Central Asian countries including Uzbekistan.

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2Do Budget Stabilization Funds Invite Transparent Budget Reporting? Budget Stabilization Funds and Fiscal Behavior of States

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발행기관 : 서울대학교 한국행정연구소 간행물 : Journal of Policy Studies (JPS) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-18 (18 pages)

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This study explores how fiscal reserves, such as Budget Stabilization Funds (BSF) and General Fund Ending Balances (GFB), affect budget transparency and procyclical budget adjustments. To determine whether the effects of fiscal reserves depend on the types of budget actions, the study organizes budget actions according to 1) level, indicating the level at which budget actions take place, and 2) accessibility, denoting accessible budget-balancing strategies that face the least legal and political constraints. This classification of budget actions, which has not been attempted in prior research, enhances our understanding of government fiscal choices as it shows that the visibility and political costs of budget actions depend on available resources, levels, and accessibility. By using panel data from 45 US states from 2000 to 2019, the study finds that BSFs improve budget transparency, while decreasing budget cuts. The study also finds that BSF has a greater impact on budget transparency than revenue-raising actions. In contrast, an election year has a greater negative impact on budget cuts than budget transparency. These results support our classification of budget actions, predicting that budget cuts are used less in election years than in non-election years due to their visibility and political risk.

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3Municipal Fiscal Performance: Mayors' Gender and Organizational Human Resources

저자 : Claudia N. Avellaneda , Ricardo A. Bello-gomez , Ricardo Correa Gomes

발행기관 : 서울대학교 한국행정연구소 간행물 : Journal of Policy Studies (JPS) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-25 (25 pages)

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Local governments strive to improve fiscal performance to effectively implement policy agendas and reduce dependence on central governments. Explaining fiscal performance has relied on intergovernmental relations and politically driven strategies and has given less attention to organizational human capital attributes. Mayors and municipal personnel with different attributes interact differently, thus affecting their contributions to fiscal performance. This study assesses the fiscal performance effects of mayors' gender and municipal personnel attributes and their interactions. We assess fiscal performance as fiscal capacity, autonomy, and solvency. Using 2003-2015 data from 822 Brazilian municipalities, we find results contingent on the assessed fiscal performance dimension. Female mayors are positively associated with fiscal capacity and autonomy but not with solvency. Personnel availability and salary are positively correlated with fiscal capacity and autonomy but negatively correlated with solvency. Under a female mayor, the fiscal performance contribution of available personnel increases, while average salary's fiscal performance contribution declines.

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4The Role of Organizational Slack and Human Capital in Managing Performance Shocks: An Analysis of US Nursing Homes and Hurricane Katrina

저자 : Austin Mccrea

발행기관 : 서울대학교 한국행정연구소 간행물 : Journal of Policy Studies (JPS) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-15 (15 pages)

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Public service organizations employ buffers to ward off disruptive performance shocks such as disasters, budget cuts, and uncertain events. Existing applications on buffering focus on how slack human resources are reallocated to high-risk areas during times of uncertainty to dampen the impact these events have on core organizational processes. Besides slack, the quality of human capital is also important. Skilled personnel have the technical acumen and expertise to help managers navigate through treacherous times and still deliver public services. Yet, existing work does not disentangle the distinct impact of these two buffers. Using a panel dataset of nursing homes in Louisiana and Mississippi, I explore how personnel slack and human capital helped mitigate the devastation that Hurricane Katrina had on a very fragile, dependent, and sensitive segment of the population. The findings suggest that human capital buffers the impact of Hurricane Katrina on health deficiencies and physical dependency. In contrast, slack capacity amplified the impact of Katrina on health deficiencies.

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5What Matters for the Successful Policy Transfer? Empirical Evidence From South Korea's Knowledge Sharing Program(KSP)

저자 : Suk-won Lee , Eunsol Kim , Kyeongrang Park , Jae Eun Shin

발행기관 : 서울대학교 한국행정연구소 간행물 : Journal of Policy Studies (JPS) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-15 (15 pages)

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The Republic of Korea's Knowledge Sharing Program(KSP) is a successful example of technical assistance aid providing policy advice, consultation, and training with increasing demand from many developing countries. However, the actual adoption of the “advised” policy or institution is not decided by the project output itself but is exposed to the influence of other environmental and contextual factors. With the KSP data from 2004 to 2013, this paper introduces empirical evidence into which factors are critical in policy advice-to-adoption process applying a bivariate censored probit model. The result demonstrates that the political environment, measured with the democracy index, has significant impact on policy adoption, with varying degrees of impact depending on democracy categorization. Budget and salience of the policy are also identified to have a significant impact, where direct management of the project leads to less follow-up but higher probability of successful adoption.

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The paper seeks to develop some preliminary ideas about the relation of corruption and incompetence, two different but perhaps related instances of political and administrative failure. We pose a corruption-competence nexus and suggest that corruption and incompetence are related in predictable ways. Indeed, in extreme cases of incompetence, incompetence often enables corruption due to a variety of factors including the inability to monitor corruption or to select quality advisors. We further suggest that a variety of factors mitigate the relation of incompetence and corruption, including level of political authority and impact, size of political and business networks, and availability of professionalized and empowered public service. To further examine the corruption-incompetence nexus, we use simple typology (e.g., corrupt-competent or corrupt-incompetent) to help organize and, to some extent, explain the forms of relationship between incompetence and corruption in the organizational setting. Four cases of U.S. mayors' performance are evaluated to better understand the propositions.

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2Moving Luther Gulick to Asia: Span of Control and Performance in Korean Quasi-Governmental Organizations

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발행기관 : 서울대학교 한국행정연구소 간행물 : Journal of Policy Studies (JPS) 37권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 13-26 (14 pages)

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In the early era of the study of public management, Luther Gulick (1937) argued that span of control determines organizational performance. Theoretically, span of control has a non-linear relationship with performance as its marginal benefit diminishes due to transaction costs. Meier and Bohte (2000) revisited this argument and showed empirical evidence that an optimal span of control enhances organizational performance using hundreds school districts in the United States. However, it is necessary to expand the scope of study to examine whether Gulick's theory can be generalizable to public service organizations in non-western countries. Using Korean quasi-governmental organizations, this study explores how span of control affects performance and whether the effect differs depending on structural levels and performance indicators (archival performance scores by the government and customer satisfaction). Four years pooled data for 101 Korean quasi-governmental organizations were analyzed using multivariate models. The findings show that a wider span of control at top-level management is positively associated with the government's performance scores, but it is negatively associated at mid-level management. On the other hand, span of control has no significant relationship with customer satisfaction. The findings of this study contribute to the generalizability of Gulick's theory in a new context, and highlight that the impact of span of control on performance can differ based on structural levels and who evaluates organizations.

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3Staying in Class: Representative Bureaucracy and Student Praise and Punishment

저자 : Donald P. Haider-markel , Chelsie L. M. Bright , Steven M. Sylvester

발행기관 : 서울대학교 한국행정연구소 간행물 : Journal of Policy Studies (JPS) 37권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 27-40 (14 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

Our project investigates the impact of minority bureaucratic and political representation on the distribution of disciplinary measures in public schools, in contrast with its impact on gifted and talented class placement. It is motivated by the contrast in accumulating research on the consequences of minority bureaucratic representation between findings that minority teacher representation yields beneficial outcomes for minority students while minority representation on police forces does not yield beneficial outcomes for minority residents. Similarly, we note that public school teaching involves two kinds of organizational roles: one involving distribution of benefits (such as placement in gifted and talented programs) which is consistent with an educator role, while the other, involving the distribution of discipline, approximates a policing role, which could be less consistent with an educator role. In short, the educator role benefits the client and the policing role regulates the client. We theorize that (a) modeling the impact of greater minority representation on teaching staffs will yield contrasting results for these two roles, (b) that there will also be differences based on type of discipline at issue, and that (c) the role of minority representation on the school board must also be taken into account. We examine these issues by employing merged data from several data sources ranging from 2007 to 2010 for our analyses. Our results suggest that higher minority teacher representation does increase minority student placement in gifted programs, but does not significantly reduce punishment of minority students. Our analyses also suggest that future research needs to more fully incorporate contextual variables, such as school board representation and state policy. Scholars of representative bureaucracy should also consider the multiple organizational roles that many bureaucrats have.

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Recent laws and court rulings have increased legal protections for faith-based organizations that refuse to provide services to certain individuals based on deeply held religious beliefs. Using data from a 2019 email correspondence study, we examine if religiously-affiliated foster care agencies respond to inquiries from white same-sex couples differently from public and secular foster care agencies. This paper provides preliminary, descriptive results that public sector discrimination can vary by the type of organization that is providing the service. We find suggestive evidence that religiously-affiliated foster care agencies are less likely to respond to same-sex male couples. However, this study lacks sufficient statistical power to find conclusive evidence of differential treatment by type of organization, which highlights the challenges of conducting correspondence studies that examine intersectional discrimination. Despite this limitation, we argue that it is increasingly important for scholars of public administration and public policy to examine and understand how discrimination in the public sector may vary by group membership or organizational type. While exploring this intersectional discrimination may be limited in certain contexts, understanding how and why organizations and public servants are more or less likely to respond to particular groups is an important first step in designing interventions or crafting policies to reduce differential treatment.

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