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대한물리치료학회> 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT)> Immediate Effects of Foam Rolling and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility

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Immediate Effects of Foam Rolling and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility

Ji-eun Choi , Yul-hee Lee , Dong Yeop Lee , Jae Ho Yu , Jin Seop Kim , Seung Gil Kim , Jiheon Hong
  • : 대한물리치료학회
  • : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 06월
  • : 116-120(5pages)
대한물리치료학회지(JKPT)

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
METHODS
RESULTS
DISCUSSION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES

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Purpose: This study aimed to determine which interventions are effective in increasing hamstring flexibility due to changes in the range of motion (ROM) and pennation angle (PA) when foam rolling (FR) and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching were performed.
Methods: A total of 24 healthy participants who agreed to participate in the study were randomly chosen. The participants were divided into three groups of eight people: Control, FR, and PNF stretching groups. The hip flexion angle (ROM) and PA of the hamstrings were measured before and after the experiment. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze the ROM and PA for each group by comparing the before and after results. The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the increase in hamstring flexibility between the groups.
Results: A statistically significant difference was observed in the ROM and PA within all groups, and only the ROM was significant in the comparison between the three groups. In the comparison between the control and other two groups, a significant difference was noted in both the ROM and PA in the FR group and only the ROM in the PNF stretching group (p< 0.05). In the comparison between the FR and PNF stretching groups, no significant difference was observed (p >0.05).
Conclusion: These findings FR and PNF stretching increased the ROM; however, no change in PA was observed. Therefore, FR and PNF stretching were considered effective interventions in immediately increasing hamstring flexibility.

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간행물정보

  • : 의약학분야  > 재활의학
  • : KCI등재
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  • : 격월
  • : 1229-0475
  • : 2287-156x
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1989-2022
  • : 1597


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1A Study on the Manual Lymph Drainage and Programs for Specialist: a Literature Review

저자 : Jung-myo Shim , Gi-cheol Kim , Seong-jung Kim

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 129-134 (6 pages)

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It is necessary to produce properly educated Manual Lymph Drainage (MLD) specialists conducted by certified instructors. This study was conducted to introduce a comprehensive understanding, application, historical background, and effect of the MLD and to present a basis for using the frequency MLD as a basic resource for training professional. MLD, a field of manual therapy, is used to treat a variety of diseases such as joint disease, circulatory system disease, lymphedema, and pain et al. However, since there is no proper education for MLD in Korea, there is a need to provide education that meets internationally accepted standards. The Physical Therapists Association and related academic societies will need to prepare a system to train specialists on MLD and to recognize medical insurance through it.

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2A Survey of Satisfaction of Physical Therapy Course according to Teaching Ways after COVID-19

저자 : Han Do Lee , Ji Hong Lee , Hyeok Gyu Kwon

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 135-139 (5 pages)

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Purpose: We investigated the satisfaction of physical therapy course according to teaching ways after COVID-19.
Methods: 336 students in major of physical therapy were recruited in this study. Based on the classification of subjects in the national examination, the questionnaire was divided into 6 subjects in the basic field of physical therapy, 2 subjects in the field of physical therapy diagnostic evaluation, 8 subjects in the field of physical therapy intervention, and 3 subjects in other fields. The Likert scale was used.
Results: In the basic field of physical therapy, all subjects were shown the high score of the satisfactory in face-to-face classes except for the public health and medical law compared to the non-face-to-face classes and mixed classes. Regarding the field of physical therapy diagnostic evaluation, the principle of diagnostic evaluation was shown the high score of the satisfactory in face-to-face classes compared to the non-face-to-face classes and mixed classes. In the field of physical therapy intervention, all subjects were shown the high score of the satisfactory in face-to-face classes compared to the non-face-to-face classes and mixed classes.
Conclusion: We found that the face-to-face classes in most of subjects was shown the high score of satisfactory. We believed that our results can be used as basic data for physical therapy major learning methods.

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3Scapulothoracic Mobilization for the Management of Lateral Epicondylalgia: a Case Report

저자 : Jong Won Kim , Tae Jun Heo , Ji-won Park

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 140-148 (9 pages)

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the scapulothoracic mobilization on subject with lateral epicondylalgia. This was done through lateral slide scapular test, grip strength, visual analogue scale, glenohumeral joint external rotation range of motion.
Methods: Before the experiment, Lateral slide scapular test, grip strength, visual analogue scale, glenohumeral joint external rotation range of motion were measured. Scapulothoracic joint mobilization was applied and then measurements were taken again to compared the changes.
Results: After applying the scapulothoracic joint mobilization, lateral slide scapular test, grip strength, visual analogue scale, glenohumeral joint external rotation range of motion significantly improved.
Conclusion: This study found that the scapulothoracic mobilization was effective in improving functional aspects and pain on subject with lateral epicondylalgia. The results suggest that the scapulothoracic joint mobilization is a significant considered intervention method that could be used for subject with lateral epicondylalgia.

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4The Effect of the Modified Bent Arm Torando Exercises to Weight Movement and Muscle Activity when Doing Drive Swing Motion from the Top to Impact Section

저자 : Sang Kyu Bae , Su Bin Yun , Jong Won Kim , Jong Kyung Lee , Ji-won Park

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 149-154 (6 pages)

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of the modified bent arm tornado exercise on weight shift movement and muscle activity of the impact section in the top of the drive swing.
Methods: Twenty subjects were divided professional golfer group and amateur golf group. Subjects were required to complete following modified bent arm tornado exercise. The activity and weight shift of the gluteus group and lower extremity muscles between the two groups were measured and the Wilcoxon rank test was analyzed.
Results: The distribution of weight shift in the professional golfer group was higher than that of the amateur golfer group (p<0.05). During the golf downswing of the professional golfer group, muscle activation of the lower extremities was higher than that of the amateur golfer group (p<0.05). The distribution of weight shift after exercise by the amateur golfer group was higher than before (p<0.05).
Conclusion: We could confirm was increased significantly of muscle activity and weight shift by applying modified bent arm tornado exercise through this study. This result suggests that exercise is needed to improve weight shift.

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5Effects of Cervical Stabilization Exercise with Visual Feedback on Foot Pressure Distribution in Subjects with an Forward Head Posture

저자 : Bon-wook Goo , Mi-young Lee

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 155-160 (6 pages)

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Purpose: This study was to identify the effect of cervical stabilization exercise with visual feedback on the craniovertebral angle and foot pressure in subjects with forward head posture.
Methods: Thirty healthy adults were recruited in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to the stabilization exercise with visual feedback (SE-VF) group (n=15) or stabilization exercise (SE) group (n=15). The SE-VF group performed cervical stabilization exercise while sitting on a chair without a backrest and checking their side profile in real time a monitor 3m away. The SE group performed the same cervical stabilization exercise as the SE-VF group accompanied by without visual feedback. Craniovertebral angle (CVA) was measured to quantify forward head posture, and the foot pressure of the subjects were evaluated.
Results: The foot pressure showed statistically significant differences pre and post in both midfoot and left metatarsal only in SE-VF group (p<0.05).
Conclusion: These findings of this study showed that the cervical stabilization exercise with visual feedback was effective for the foot pressure of subjects. In addition, based on the results of this study, it is suggested that visual feedback will be effective in cervical stabilization exercise.

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6Effect of Uneven Surface Gait Training on Ankle Muscle Activation and Balance in Stroke Patients

저자 : Young-ho Ji , Jae-kwang Lee , Jong-kyung Lee

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 161-167 (7 pages)

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of regular training on the uneven surface that stroke patients encounter in their daily life on their ankle joint muscle activity and balance ability. They were divided into two groups: the gait training group on uneven surfaces and the gait training group on normal surfaces.
Methods: In this study, 30 patients diagnosed with stroke and undergoing rehabilitation were selected. 15 people in the uneven surface gait training group and 15 people in the flat gait training group were selected. The muscle activation of the ankle muscles was measured when walking again on a even surface after walking on an uneven surface and on a flat ground. After each gait training, the limit of stability and Romberg test were performed to evaluate the balance ability.
Results: As a result of the experimental results before and after walking by group, the tibialis anterior muscle activity of the paralyzed side was significantly decreased in the uneven surface walking group. As a result of measuring balance ability after training, the limit of stability in all directions was significantly increased in the uneven surface gait training group, and the area and length moved significantly decreased in the uneven surface gait training group in the Romberg test as well (p<0.05).
Conclusion: After walking on uneven surface, it was confirmed that the muscle activity of the ankle joint decreased in normal flat walking, and thus the efficiency of muscle activity was increased. In addition, it was possible to confirm the improvement of the balance ability of the gait training on the uneven surface, and in conclusion, it could be confirmed that it had an effect on the improvement of the walking ability.

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7Relationships among Lower Extremity Muscle Circumference, Proprioception, ROM, Muscle Strength, and Balance Control Ability in Young Adults

저자 : Young-jun Shin , Seong-gil Kim

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 168-174 (7 pages)

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between balance control ability and leg circumference, proprioception, range of motion (ROM), and muscle strength in young adults.
Methods: The subjects of this study were 30 university students who were enrolled in D university in Gyeongbuk province. We measured the dynamic balance and static balance using the Biorescue. The muscular strengths of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were measured using a muscle contraction dynamometer. The ROM and proprioception were measured using an inclinometer. Pearson correlation analysis was used to test the correlations between balance control ability and variables.
Results: Sway length was significantly correlated with knee and hip joint muscle strength, ROM, and proprioception of hip and ankle joints (p<0.05). Sway speed was significantly correlated with ROM and proprioception in hip joints (p<0.05). Limit of stability was significantly correlated with muscle strength and ROM in ankle joints, and proprioception in hip, knee, and ankle joints (p<0.05)
Conclusion: The sway length was most related to hip extension and ankle joint plantar flexion in the range of motion and ankle joint plantar flexion in proprioception. Overall, balance training for young adults will be of effective help if the treatment focuses on the knee and hip joints, range of motion and the ankle and hip joints' proprioception.

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8Correlation among Functional Leg Length Discrepancy, Muscle Activity, Muscle Contraction Onset Time and Vertical Ground Reaction Force during Simple Lifting Task

저자 : Ha Young Jin , Jin Tae Han

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 175-180 (6 pages)

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Purpose: Leg length discrepancy causes the posture deformation, gait asymmetry, and lower back pain. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation among functional leg length discrepancy (FLLD), muscle activity, muscle contraction onset time and vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) during simple lifting task.
Methods: Thirty-nine subjects participated in this study. FLLD was measured from the umbilicus to medial malleolus of left and right leg using a tape. The subjects performed to lift a 10 kg box from the floor to chest. The muscle activity and muscle contraction onset time of rectus abdominis, erector spinae and rectus femoris was measured using EMG system and vGRF was measured by two force plate. Pearson correlation was used to fine out the correlation among FDDL, muscle activity, muscle contraction onset time and vGRF during simple lifting task.
Results: Correlation between FLLD and difference of muscle activity of short-long side was very high (r>0.9) during simple lifting task. Correlation between FLLD and difference of muscle contraction onset time of short-long side was very high (r>0.9) during simple lifting task. And correlation between FLLD and difference of vGRF of short-long side was high (r>0.7) during simple lifting task.
Conclusion: This study suggests that there is high correlation between FLLD and muscle activity, muscle contraction onset time, and ground reaction force during simple lifting task. Therefore, FLLD could negatively affect the postural balance.

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9Effects of Ankle Invertor and Plantar Flexor Stretching on Balance and Walking Ability of Stroke Patients

저자 : Ji Yoon Song , Joong Hwi Kim

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 181-186 (6 pages)

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Purpose: This study was to applied to stretching plantar flexor and invertor at the same time to observe the effect of balance and walking ability.
Methods: Subjects were instructed patients with ankle limited of motion, 6 months after stroke. We classified 20 subjects into two groups (experimental group: stretching plantar flexor and invertor at the same time, control group: only stretching plantar flexor). each group included 10 subjects and applied ankle stretcher for 20 minutes, 5 times/week during 4 weeks (total 20 times).
Results: Both experimental group and control group showed significant increases in static balance, however, the significantly increases in step length and gait speed was observed only in the experimental group. There was no significant increases in step length and gait speed in the control group.
Conclusion: Simultaneous stretching of ankle invertor and plantar flexion is effective in improving balance and walking ability in chronic stroke patients.

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10Muscles Activation of Trunk and Lower-limb during Integrating Bridge Exercise Using Gym Ball in Healthy Individuals

저자 : Sue-min Lee , Duck-won Oh , Sung-min Son

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 187-191 (5 pages)

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Purpose: The purpose of our study aimed to identify the effect of static and dynamic bridge exercise with gym ball using gym ball on muscle activation of trunk and lower-limb in healthy individuals.
Methods: A total of 20 healthy adults participated in this study. The individuals performed general bridge exercise, static and dynamic bridge exercise using gym ball. During the three methods of bridge exercises, electromyography (EMG) data (% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) of the rectus abdominis, erector spinae, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius were recorded using a wireless surface EMG system.
Results: Rectus abdominis activation showed significantly greater during dynamic bridge exercise compared with general bridge exercise and dynamic bridge exercise. Erector spinae, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius were greater during static and dynamic bridge exercise compared with general bridge exercise.
Conclusion: Based on our results, bridge exercise using gym ball, particularly integrating lower-limb movement, could be a useful method to enhance muscle activation of trunk and lower-limb (rectus abdominis, erector spinae, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius).

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1Effects of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Ankle Function, Range of Motion, and Dynamic Balance in Patients with Chronic Ankle Instability

저자 : Su Bin Lee , Jung Won Kwon , Seong Ho Yun

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 91-97 (7 pages)

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Purpose: This study investigated the short-term effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on pain, the ankle instability, the ankle function, dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), and dynamic balance in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI).
Methods: Eighteen participants were divided into an experimental (n=9) and control group (n=9). The ESWT in the experimental group was applied to the lateral collateral ligament in combination with the tibialis anterior whereas the ESWT was applied to the lateral collateral ligament of the ankle alone in the control group. Pain, the ankle instability, the ankle function, dorsiflexion ROM, and dynamic balance were measured using the Visual analog scale, Cumberland ankle instability tool, American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, weight-bearing lunge, and Y-balance test, before and after ESWT intervention.
Results: Significant interactions (group × time) and time effects were observed in the dorsiflexion ROM and dynamic balance. Bonferroni's post-hoc analysis showed that the experimental group revealed a more significant change in dorsiflexion ROM and dynamic balance than the control group. There was a significant time effect in the pain, the ankle instability, and the ankle function, but no significant interaction (group × time) was observed.
Conclusion: The ESWT could improve the pain, ankle instability, ankle function, dorsiflexion ROM, and dynamic balance in patients with CAI. Furthermore, the ESWT combined with lateral ankle ligaments and tibialis anterior more improves the dorsiflexion ROM and dynamic balance.

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2Effects of Action Observation Training Combied with Auditory Cueing on Gait Ability in Patients with Stroke: a Preliminary Pilot Study

저자 : Hyeong-min Kim , Sung-min Son , Yu-min Ko

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 98-103 (6 pages)

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Purpose: New therapeutic approaches have emerged to improve gait ability in patients with brain damage, such as action observation learning (AOT), auditory cueing, motor imagery etc. We attempted to investigate the effects of AOT with auditory cueing (AOTAC) on gait function in patients with stroke.
Methods: The eighteen stroke patients with a unilateral hemiparesis were randomly divided into three groups; the AOTAC, AOT, and control groups. The AOTAC group (n=8) received training via observing a video that showed normal gait with sound of footsteps as an auditory cue; the AOT group (n=6) receive action observation without auditory stimulation; the control group (n=5) observed the landscape video image. Intervention time of three groups was 30 minutes per day, five times a week, for four weeks. Gait parameters, such as cadence, velocity, stride length, stance phase, and swing phase were collected in all patients before and after each training session.
Results: Significant differences were observed among the three groups with respect to the parameters, such as cadence, velocity, stride length, and stance/swing phase. Post-hoc analysis indicated that the AOTAC group had a greater significant change in all of parameters, compared with the AOT and control groups.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that AOTAC may be an effective therapeutic approach to improve gait symmetry and function in patients with stroke. We believe that this effect is attributable to the change of cortical excitability on motor related to cortical areas.

KCI등재

3Effects of Squat Exercise according to Weight Support on Balance and Gait in Patients after Total Hip Replacement: a Pilot Study

저자 : So Yeong Kim , Woon Su Cho , Byeong Geun Kim

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 104-109 (6 pages)

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Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study is to identify the problems and stability of a study to investigate “Effects of Squat Exercise according to Weight Support on Balance and Gait in Patients after Total Hip Replacement.” before proceeding with the study.
Methods: Twenty-two rehabilitation patients after THR surgery who met the selection criteria participated. The study subjects were randomly assigned to a squat group using a slider or a squat group using a reformer. The interventions were applied for two weeks. The patients were assessed using Berg balance scale (BBS), Timed up and go test (TUG), and 10-meter walking test (10MW).
Results: Although twenty-two study subjects participated in this study, eight study subjects participated dropouts occurred during the study period. There was a significant difference within the group in BBS and TUG in two groups (p< 0.05). The difference between the two groups was not significant in all outcome measures (p >0.05). The largest effect size was 1.21 and the smallest effect size was 0.39, all from the BBS.
Conclusion: This pilot study suggest that it is feasible with minor adjustment to conduct a larger scale, powered RCT to examine the efficacy of squat exercise according to weight support with patients after THR.

KCI등재

4Effects of Sling Exercise on Pain, Trunk Strength, and Balance in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain

저자 : Dal-ju Mun , Hyun-ju Oh , Sang-ho Lee

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 110-115 (6 pages)

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sling exercise on pain, trunk strength, and balance in patients with chronic low back pain in their 40s and 50s.
Methods: Twenty patients with chronic low back pain were divided into two groups, 10 patients in the exercise group using a sling and 10 patients in the waist stabilization exercise group, applying a random assignment, draw-out method, and sling exercise was applied for 50 minutes a day, 3 times a week, for a total of 5 weeks. For data analysis, a corresponding t-test was performed for within-group changes and an independent t-test was performed for inter-group changes, and the significance level was α=0.05.
Results: After 5 weeks, there were significant differences in all items of within-group changes, and the inter-group changes after 5 weeks demonstrated significant differences in pain, trunk flexion strength, and balance.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that exercise using a sling had positive effects on pain, trunk flexion strength, and balance changes in chronic low back pain patients. It is suggested that sling exercise can be used as an intervention method for pain reduction and functional improvement of patients with chronic low back pain in clinical practice.

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5Immediate Effects of Foam Rolling and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility

저자 : Ji-eun Choi , Yul-hee Lee , Dong Yeop Lee , Jae Ho Yu , Jin Seop Kim , Seung Gil Kim , Jiheon Hong

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 116-120 (5 pages)

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Purpose: This study aimed to determine which interventions are effective in increasing hamstring flexibility due to changes in the range of motion (ROM) and pennation angle (PA) when foam rolling (FR) and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching were performed.
Methods: A total of 24 healthy participants who agreed to participate in the study were randomly chosen. The participants were divided into three groups of eight people: Control, FR, and PNF stretching groups. The hip flexion angle (ROM) and PA of the hamstrings were measured before and after the experiment. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze the ROM and PA for each group by comparing the before and after results. The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the increase in hamstring flexibility between the groups.
Results: A statistically significant difference was observed in the ROM and PA within all groups, and only the ROM was significant in the comparison between the three groups. In the comparison between the control and other two groups, a significant difference was noted in both the ROM and PA in the FR group and only the ROM in the PNF stretching group (p< 0.05). In the comparison between the FR and PNF stretching groups, no significant difference was observed (p >0.05).
Conclusion: These findings FR and PNF stretching increased the ROM; however, no change in PA was observed. Therefore, FR and PNF stretching were considered effective interventions in immediately increasing hamstring flexibility.

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6Effects of Progressive Core and Ankle Muscle Strengthening Exercises Using Thera-Band on Body Balance

저자 : Kwang-sub Lee , Ji-won Wang , Dong Yeop Lee , Jae Ho Yu , Jin Seop Kim , Seung Gil Kim , Ji Heon Hong

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 34권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 121-127 (7 pages)

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Purpose: This study aims to compare the effect on balance during core and ankle muscle strengthening exercises using the Thera-Band.
Methods: 21 healthy college students were recruited. The participants were divided into a core strengthening group (CSG), an ankle strengthening group (ASG), and a non-exercise group (NEG). CSG and ASG were performed twice a week for a total of 4 weeks, and static and dynamic balance were measured before and after the intervention. The static balance were measured as stability index and weight distribution index using Tetrax®. The dynamic balance was measured in each direction by the Y balance test. The Thera-Band intensity was increased after 2 weeks of exercise, and the exercise was subsequently performed.
Results: Participants showed static balance with Tetrax®, a significant difference was noted between normal eye closes and pillow with eye closes in ASG (p<0.05). In the case of dynamic balance with the Y balance test, a significant difference was observed in posterolateral direction (PL) and composite score (CS) between each group for the pre- and post-intervention differences (p<0.05). A significant difference was observed between PL and CS in CSG (p<0.05).
Conclusion: These findings show that the progressive Thera-Band exercise had a positive effect on balance abilities. It was confirmed that core strengthening was effective for dynamic balance, and ankle strengthening was effective for static balance.

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