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한국폐기물자원순환학회> 한국폐기물자원순환학회지> 국내 재활용 처리 시설 발생 부산물 중 미세플라스틱 분석 연구

KCI등재

국내 재활용 처리 시설 발생 부산물 중 미세플라스틱 분석 연구

Analysis of Microplastics in by-products from Waste Recycling Treatment Facilities in Korea

조수진 ( Soojin Cho ) , 최자형 ( Jahyung Choi ) , 강영렬 ( Youngryeol Kang ) , 전태완 ( Taewan Jeon ) , 엄남일 ( Namil Um )
  • : 한국폐기물자원순환학회
  • : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 06월
  • : 239-255(17pages)
한국폐기물자원순환학회지

DOI

10.9786/kswm.2022.39.3.239


목차

Ⅰ. 서 론
Ⅱ. 시료 채취 및 분석 방법
Ⅲ. 결과 및 고찰
Ⅳ. 결 론
사 사
References

키워드 보기


초록 보기

Microplastics (MPs) are being widely detected in various ecosystems, including aquatic and terrestrial environments, which highlights the importance of MP management. MPs are released into the marine environment in various ways. Therefore, our study sought to characterize MPs discharged from different waste treatment facilities. This study focused on by-products of recycling facilities for synthetic polymer, synthetic fiber, rubber, and tire waste. The MPs in the samples were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed using TED-GC-MS and FTIR. The TED-GC-MS analysis results were as follows: Waste of Synthetic Polymer 2.02 μg/g (PP 1.46 μg/g, PE 0.56 μg/g), Waste of Synthetic Fiber 66.75 μg/g (PET 66.75 μg/g), Waste of Rubber N.D., Waste of Tyre 18.71 μg/g (PP 17.79 μg/g, PS 0.74 μg/g). The FTIR analysis results were divided into three sections: 0.02-0.1 mm (Section 1), 0.1-0.5 mm (Section 2), and 0.5-5.0 mm (Section 3). The number of microplastics for each sample was analyzed for WSP 24.01 ea/g (Section 1: 19.11 ea/kg, Section 2: 3.92 ea/ kg, Section 3: 0.98 ea/kg), WSF 501.44 ea/g, (Section 1: 302.40 ea/kg, Section 2: 187.02 ea/kg, Section 3: 12.02 ea/kg), WRB 10,510.01 ea/g (Section 1: 6,320.58 ea/kg, Section 2: 3,661.20 ea/kg, Section 3: 528.23 ea/kg), WTY 311.52 ea/ g (Section 1: 205.53 ea/kg, Section 2: 104.61 ea/kg, Section 3: 1.38 ea/kg). Therefore, a managements plan for waste treatment facilities must be prepared to reduce microplastics in Korea. Our findings provide a basis for the creation of such a plan in the future.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 공학분야  > 환경공학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 격월
  • : 2093-2332
  • : 2287-5638
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1984-2022
  • : 2983


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39권6호(2022년 12월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1폐기물매립지의 메탄 배출량 측정 정확도 향상을 위한 시·공간적 배출 특성 고찰

저자 : 송상훈 ( Sang-hoon Song ) , 김란희 ( Ran-hui Kim ) , 이남훈 ( Nam-hoon Lee ) , 박진규 ( Jin-kyu Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 477-488 (12 pages)

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First-order decay models have been used to estimate annual landfill methane emissions for national greenhouse gas inventories. These models vary greatly. Inaccurate input values or oversimplified processes, such as methane oxidation or dynamic methane emission rates, cause this downside. Direct field measurements can be used to predict total methane emissions more accurately. Methane emission rates fluctuate weekly and daily and are influenced by the soil cover and meteorological conditions such as barometric pressure, temperature, rain, and wind speed. Hotspot emissions contribute significantly to landfill methane emissions. To accurately estimate annual methane emissions, direct field measurements must account for meteorological effects and quantify hotspot emissions during landfill emission monitoring programs. In South Korea, there are no field-based calculations, hampering the development of a strategic strategy to reduce methane emissions from solid waste landfills. South Korea must develop innovative methods to quantify landfill methane emissions and a mitigation strategy.

KCI등재

2수출·입 폐기물의 관리 개선 마련 연구: 관세·통계통합품목분류표(HSK)를 중심으로

저자 : 박윤수 ( Yoon Soo Park ) , 전태완 ( Tae-wan Jeon ) , 신선경 ( Sun-kyoung Shin ) , 엄남일 ( Nam-il Um )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 489-497 (9 pages)

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The export and import waste generated in Korea amounts to 2.63 million tons per year (about 4% of total industrial waste). During importing and exporting waste, an item code called the Harmonized System of Korea (HSK) is assigned to it through classification, inspection, and customs clearance procedures. This study prepared methods for identifying the current status of HSK, systematizing HSK, and effectively applying HSK. First, the following were investigated: the status of the HSK Code, the current status of HSK management in Korea, and HSK related to waste. As a result, Korea adopted the HSK classification table and operated with it as a notice by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. A system of 10 units is used, and there are about 339 HSK related to waste. Second, it was found that there were wastes without HSK or that some items did not match. 119 new HSK were proposed for 17 types of imported and exported waste. Third, it was found that, at times, responsible personnel made the wrong decision or intentionally entered incorrect HSK in the process of importing and exporting waste. Designated and ordinary industrial wastes under the “Waste Control Act” of Korea need to be linked with the HSK.

KCI등재

3우리나라 폐기물매립지 온실가스 감축방안 : 매립가스 유효활용의 발전 및 과제

저자 : 박진규 ( Jin-kyu Park ) , 송상훈 ( Sang-hoon Song ) , 김란희 ( Ran-hui Kim ) , 전연호 ( Yeon-ho Jeon ) , 이남훈 ( Nam-hoon Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 498-509 (12 pages)

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South Korea's most recent national inventory report found that landfills are the largest anthropogenic source of methane. Despite decades of closure, landfill methane emissions threaten human health and climate change. This study investigates landfill gas (LFG) valorization to reduce these emissions. This technique converts LFG into value-added chemicals like biomethane, syngas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen), methanol, and dimethyl ether. LFG valorization is an interesting approach to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and shift toward a low-carbon society, but it is not economically feasible. To reduce carbon emissions and boost LFG valorization in South Korea, a carbon tax and/or subsidies may be considered. Establishing a sustainable LFG valorization technology would provide enough momentum to create a circular carbon-based economy.

KCI등재

4전과정평가 기법을 활용한 커피박 자원화의 환경부하 저감효과 분석 : 일반합성목재와 커피박합성목재의 환경영향 비교를 중심으로

저자 : 이종효 ( Jong Hyo Lee ) , 황용우 ( Yong Woo Hwang ) , 황윤수 ( Youn Soo Hwang )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 510-520 (11 pages)

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In this study, we compare the environmental loads of the coffee waste wooden deck and the general wooden deck using the life cycle assessment (LCA). We estimate the coffee waste wooden deck's environmental advantages by LCA methodology. According to our findings, a coffee waste wooden deck reduces environmental load by 13.2% when compared to a general wooden deck. The reduction ratio for eutrophication potential was 20.4%, acidification potential was 19.4%, and global warming potential was 15.9%. Among the six environmental impact categories, abiotic depletion had the least reduction. In particular, while CO2 emission reduction may seem insignificant numerically from the functional unit's perspective, it can be considered a significant reduction effect given the characteristics of building materials. Assuming the trail construction, which has 3.6 m of width and 360 m of length (1,320 m2), the reduction effect of the environmental load is approximately 11.6 ton CO2-eq. Moreover, it reduces environmental load by 11.6 tons of CO2 equivalent per year and absorbs as much GHGs as 4,936 pine trees or 3,277 oak trees. This study helps management and policymakers visualize the impact of recycling coffee waste on the environment.

KCI등재

5바이오촤를 포함한 모르타르의 휨강도 특성

저자 : 엄희숙 ( Hee Suk Eom ) , 전병준 ( Byung Jun Jeon ) , 신동훈 ( Donghoon Shin )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 521-531 (11 pages)

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Biochar is a charcoal-like material that separates and stores the carbon component of organic biomass that is grown by absorbing the greenhouse gas emissions produced from burning fuel. Interestingly, when biochar is used as an additive during mortar production, the effect of the stored greenhouse gas is evident in the characteristics of the building. In this study, we experimentally evaluate the bending strength of mortar when biochar partially replaces the content of sand in mortar production. Under the condition that the ratio of cement to sand is 1: 3, in the range of 0% to 9.3% based on the mass of cement, we produce specimens in which some sand had been replaced with biochar in 4 cm × 16 cm × 1 cm. Following this, the bending strength of these specimens is measured using a three-point bending strength-measuring device at 7 days and 28 days respectively. Our findings reveal that at up to 7% of biochar replacement rate, it is possible to produce a greenhouse gas-stored mortar without loss of mortar strength; more so, we observed that the 5% biochar replacement rate demonstrates the highest bending strength showing that the advantage of strength improvement can also be utilized.

KCI등재

6파일럿 스케일 버너에서 바이오 중유 및 바이오 원유 혼합연료의 연소 특성

저자 : 정연우 ( Yeonwoo Jeong ) , 류영현 ( Younghyun Ryu ) , 최상규 ( Sangkyu Choi ) , 최연석 ( Yeonseok Choi ) , 한소영 ( Soyoung Han ) , 응웬반꾸잉 ( Quynhvan Nguyen )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 532-542 (11 pages)

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Carbon neutrality is a balance between emitting carbon and absorbing carbon from the soil, forest, and oceans. To achieve carbon neutrality by 2050, a variety of research on energy such as solar, wind, hydrogen, biomass, and waste energy has been performed worldwide. Bio-fuel oil and bio-crude oil are considered promising energy resources to achieve carbon neutrality because they can be effectively used not only for heat energy but also for transport fuel. In this study, an experiment on the combustion characteristics of bio-fuel oil and bio-crude oil blends was conducted. The mixtures of biofuel and conventional diesel fuel were also studied. A conventional oil burner with a 35 kW capacity was modified into a downward injection type and to adopt an air-blast atomizing nozzle. Bio-fuel oil was made from waste oil and bio-crude oil was derived from coffee grounds. The temperature distributions in the combustion chamber and the gaseous emissions were compared at various blending ratios. When the bio-fuel oil was blended with bio-crude oil from the coffee ground, nearly complete combustion was observed, except for the 100% bio-crude oil, with the emission of a large amount of CO. It was also shown that as the ratio of bio-crude oil was increased, NO concentration increased due to the nitrogen content in the bio-crude oil. In the cases where biofuel was blended with diesel fuel, all cases showed close to complete combustion, where the temperature of the combustion chamber was raised with an increasing ratio of diesel.

KCI등재

7Powder-Type 산화칼슘(CaO)을 이용한 육불화황(SF6) 분해 부산물의 고정화 연구

저자 : 류재용 ( Jae Yong Ryu )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 543-552 (10 pages)

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Climate change represents a worldwide warning on global warming and has elevated awareness on the global climate crisis. As a result, worldwide changes to tackle climate change have been initiated. In compliance with the Paris agreement, Korea has declared Carbon Net Zero and implemented legislative changes. Regarding the greenhouse gas emissions in Korea, the mineral industry plays a large role among other industries. A huge amount of greenhouse gases is emitted during the decarboxylation and calcination processes in the cement production process. Therefore, to address the climate crisis, the cement industry also needs to develop technologies to promote carbon neutrality. This study was conducted to explore ways to control SF6, of which GWP is the highest, using cement kiln and thermal plasma, and to recycle the byproduct of pyrolysis into an eco-friendly cement supplementary material by immobilizing it with calcium oxide. The destruction and removal efficiency of SF6 was 100%, while the immobilization reaction rate calculated from the concentration change of the by-product was 99.4%. As a by-product of the immobilization reaction, cement subsidiary raw materials such as fluorite (CaF2) and anhydrite (CaSO4) were generated, and it is thought that recycling of these raw materials is possible.

KCI등재

8폐자원에너지 시설의 환경성 및 경제성 평가에 따른 지원방안 연구

저자 : 박세인 ( Se-in Park ) , 이유민 ( Youmin Lee ) , 남궁훤 ( Hueon Namkung ) , 강준구 ( Jun-gu Kang ) , 전태완 ( Taewan Jeon )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 553-561 (9 pages)

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Although the need for new and renewable energy is increasing, support for waste-to-energy facilities has been reduced as the related laws have been amended. Accordingly, there are concerns about the weakening of the competitiveness of waste-to-energy facilities. Therefore, this research conducted a study on the support methodology for waste-to-energy facilities. To provide support for waste-to-energy facilities, it is necessary to evaluate the related facilities based on common factors. In this study, for the evaluation of waste-to-energy facilities, the environmental indicator was calculated by using the environmental properties of the facility as a factor, while the benefit calculated by examining the energy production of the waste-to-energy facility was used as the economic indicator. In addition, the numerical values of each indicator were simplified through normalization, and the scores of the environmental and economic indicators were calculated by scoring the normalized values. For the calculated result, the sum of the environmental and economical scores was used as the overall score of the facility by applying the indicator reflection ratio.

KCI등재

9코로나 19 고발열 의료폐기물이 소각시설 대기오염물질 배출특성에 미치는 영향

저자 : 이은송 ( Eunsong Lee ) , 김진태 ( Jintae Kim ) , 이정규 ( Jungyu Lee ) , 신완호 ( Wanho Shin ) , 한소영 ( Soyoung Han ) , 홍원석 ( Wonseok Hong ) , 윤진한 ( Jinhan Yun )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 562-571 (10 pages)

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This study evaluated the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on nitrogen oxides emissions from a medical waste incinerator. During the summer vacation season and year-end periods, the amount of medical waste as well as COVID- 19 patients dramatically increased by 2 to 6 times. In addition, nitrogen oxide emissions increased by approximately 30 % due to the injection of high calorific medical waste into the medical waste incinerator. The increase in medical waste calorific value is attributed to the exclusion of diapers from the medical waste classification and the composition of synthetic resins in waste transport containers. By applying the energy conservation law, the estimated waste calorific value for the months with the highest and lowest nitrogen oxides emissions were ~5,250 kcal/kg and 4,760 kcal/kg, respectively. The correlation between waste calorific value and nitrogen oxide was confirmed. However, the calorific value of medical waste varies for each transport container, and there is a limit in constantly controlling the calorific value of the injected waste. Therefore, to minimize the environmental impact of medical waste incinerators, it is necessary to apply combustion optimization technologies such as flue gas recirculation and air staging combustion to control air pollution.

KCI등재

10천연 가죽 폐기물을 이용한 가스켓 시트 제조에서 가죽 폐기물 및 실리카 충진제별 물성 변화 연구

저자 : 정득준 ( Deukjun Jeong ) , 김관용 ( Gwanyong Kim ) , 이상철 ( Sangchul Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 572-579 (8 pages)

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This study is on an upcycle technology for manufacturing gasket sheets using solid waste generated in the manufacturing process of natural leather. Regarding the manufacturing of rubber gasket sheets based on dry manufacturing technology, we studied the crosslinking characteristics and mechanical characteristics of shaving scrap and trimming scrap according to the types of natural leather waste, where the effect of the type of silica used as a reinforcing filler was investigated. As a result, research on industrial recycling items that reduce carbon usage and do not generate wastewater was conducted.

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KCI등재

1해양 플라스틱 폐기물의 소수성 유기오염물질 흡착 특성과 운반 매체로써의 역할

저자 : 김용진 ( Yong-jin Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 185-193 (9 pages)

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This study analyses, the characteristics of plastics as adsorbents and the mechanisms of adsorption between plastics and hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs). As the characteristics of the adsorption material, the degree of crystallinity, glass transition temperature, and contact angle with water of the plastics were investigated, and influence factors on the adsorption of various HOPs and the role of plastics as a carrier of HOPs were suggested. As factors affecting the adsorption of organic pollutants onto plastics, the physical and chemical properties of the plastic as adsorption material (i.e. size, polarity, crystallinity, glass transition temperature, presence and type of functional groups, etc.), characteristics of organic pollutants (i.e. concentration, hydrophobicity, surface charge, functional groups, etc.) and water quality (i.e. pH, temperature, ionic strength, coexisting organic pollutants, etc.) are presented. As a result, it was confirmed that organic pollutants are transferred/diffused not only in the organisms but also throughout the world due to plastic wastes in marine.

KCI등재

2한국의 2017-2019년 플라스틱 물질흐름분석

저자 : 장용철 ( Yongchul Jang ) , 손민희 ( Minhee Son ) , 박주영 ( Jooyoung Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 194-206 (13 pages)

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As one of the world's top producers and top consumers of plastics, Korea has been experiencing problems with regard to the management of waste plastics since 2018, such as collection service disruptions, illegal abandonment and exports of waste, and marine pollution. To gain a complete understanding of Korea's contemporary management of plastics, this study quantified national plastic flows across production, use, and end-of-life management between 2017 and 2019. In 2017, Korea produced 17.5 million metric tons of plastic resins, more than half of which was exported, and consumed 7 million metric tons of plastic products including 3.2 million metric tons of packaging. On a per-capita basis, Korea's plastic consumption and waste generation were higher than that of other major economies, such as Japan, China, the United States, and Europe, which implies considerable potential for plastic consumption reduction. Despite the high level of waste generation, Korea has increased the level of material recycling while minimizing the landfill rate by implementing various policies, such as waste levies, voluntary agreements, and extended producer responsibility. For more sustainable plastic management, Korea must make additional efforts to reduce plastic consumption and promote high-quality recycling, for example through circular design, business models with less packaging, and advanced technologies.

KCI등재

3시멘트 제조업과 비철금속 잉곳 및 합금 제조업에서 발생되는 분진 폐기물의 폭발성 특성 평가

저자 : 이준규 ( Jun-kyu Lee ) , 김민정 ( Min-jung Kim ) , 박윤수 ( Yoon-soo Park ) , 김태성 ( Tae-sung Kim ) , 전태완 ( Tae-wan Jeon ) , 최효현 ( Hyo-hyun Choi )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 207-216 (10 pages)

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This study evaluated the explosive hazardous properties and the likelihood of dust explosion in four types of waste dust collected from industrial sites. Waste dust samples were collected from the cement manufacturing industry, aluminum, and aluminum alloy ingot manufacturing industry, and copper alloy and non-ferrous product manufacturing industry. We evaluated whether the dust waste contained explosive substances using a standard method. Additionally, the factors that may affect the dust explosion, the presence of combustible substances, average particle size, particle size distribution, particle shape, moisture content, and calorific value were also evaluated. It was confirmed that the likelihood of dust explosion of dust waste generated in the aluminum and aluminum alloy manufacturing industry is higher than that of dust waste generated in other industries.

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4해양에 유입된 플라스틱이 해수면 온도 변화에 미치는 영향 - Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) 펠릿을 이용한 모델 실험 -

저자 : 이혜성 ( Hye-sung Lee ) , 김용진 ( Yong-jin Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 217-224 (8 pages)

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An increase in plastic on the sea surface may affect the absorption depth of solar radiation energy, resulting in changes in the sea surface temperature (SST), stratification, and mixed layer depth. This study evaluated the relationship between the rise of SST according to the concentration of plastic on the sea surface, as well as the effects of these temperature increases on phytoplankton concentrations and climate change. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has lower specific heat than water. Therefore, adding LPDE to distilled water increased the heating rate of the water, and significant differences were observed between the temperatures of LPDE-treated and untreated distilled water. Furthermore, our findings suggested that the water temperature was affected by the total amount of added LDPE regardless of the size of the LDPE. The concentration of Chl-a in seawater tended to increase as the amount of added LDPE increased. Therefore, ocean plastic will increase the SST, which, in turn, increases phytoplankton, and, again, the increased phytoplankton densities are likely to increase SST. This chain effect could exacerbate climate change.

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5배달 외식업 다회용기 활용을 위한 사용자 인식 분석: 서울시 소비자와 음식점을 중심으로

저자 : 강신영 ( Shin Young Kang ) , 이지애 ( Ji Ae Lee ) , 양명석 ( Myungseok Yang ) , 박세원 ( Se Won Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 225-238 (14 pages)

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The amount of synthetic resins in household waste, generated 7850.7 tons/day in South Korea, in 2020. As an effort to reduce disposable plastic waste, multi-use container related businesses are being promoted both at the domestic and international levels. In this basic study of infrastructure, a perception analysis of consumers and merchants was conducted through a survey to spread the use of multi-use containers in Korea. The survey sample included 800 consumers (300 from Seodaemun-gu; 500 from other regions) and 311 merchants (Seodaemun-gu) of Seoul. The survey was divided into three categories: “Usage/Operation status of food delivery service,” “Awareness regarding using multi-use containers,” and “Attitudes towards multi-use container infrastructure.” The results regarding “usage/operation status” of both consumers and merchants indicate that they were aware that the high proportion of delivery order frequency and sales is impacting their lives in diverse ways, and of the seriousness of the generation of disposable wastes. In terms of “Awareness of using multi-use containers,” the hygiene management of multi-use containers and partnership of infrastructure-related institutions were considered important. For important factors in standardizing containers, stainless steel was considered useful for sauces, side dishes, and stew/soups, and standardization of size needed to be prioritized. In addition, consumers' appropriate deposit level and convenience of return needed to be considered together. “Attitudes towards multi-use container infrastructure” displayed an the overall neutral attitude, although consumers had a slightly higher business affinity than merchants. In order to induce participation, it is necessary to consider providing incentives as well as granting responsibility for solving environmental problems. In the future, system improvement for standardization, such as establishing a logistics system and hygiene standards, should be carried out with pilot projects.

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6국내 재활용 처리 시설 발생 부산물 중 미세플라스틱 분석 연구

저자 : 조수진 ( Soojin Cho ) , 최자형 ( Jahyung Choi ) , 강영렬 ( Youngryeol Kang ) , 전태완 ( Taewan Jeon ) , 엄남일 ( Namil Um )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 239-255 (17 pages)

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Microplastics (MPs) are being widely detected in various ecosystems, including aquatic and terrestrial environments, which highlights the importance of MP management. MPs are released into the marine environment in various ways. Therefore, our study sought to characterize MPs discharged from different waste treatment facilities. This study focused on by-products of recycling facilities for synthetic polymer, synthetic fiber, rubber, and tire waste. The MPs in the samples were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed using TED-GC-MS and FTIR. The TED-GC-MS analysis results were as follows: Waste of Synthetic Polymer 2.02 μg/g (PP 1.46 μg/g, PE 0.56 μg/g), Waste of Synthetic Fiber 66.75 μg/g (PET 66.75 μg/g), Waste of Rubber N.D., Waste of Tyre 18.71 μg/g (PP 17.79 μg/g, PS 0.74 μg/g). The FTIR analysis results were divided into three sections: 0.02-0.1 mm (Section 1), 0.1-0.5 mm (Section 2), and 0.5-5.0 mm (Section 3). The number of microplastics for each sample was analyzed for WSP 24.01 ea/g (Section 1: 19.11 ea/kg, Section 2: 3.92 ea/ kg, Section 3: 0.98 ea/kg), WSF 501.44 ea/g, (Section 1: 302.40 ea/kg, Section 2: 187.02 ea/kg, Section 3: 12.02 ea/kg), WRB 10,510.01 ea/g (Section 1: 6,320.58 ea/kg, Section 2: 3,661.20 ea/kg, Section 3: 528.23 ea/kg), WTY 311.52 ea/ g (Section 1: 205.53 ea/kg, Section 2: 104.61 ea/kg, Section 3: 1.38 ea/kg). Therefore, a managements plan for waste treatment facilities must be prepared to reduce microplastics in Korea. Our findings provide a basis for the creation of such a plan in the future.

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7음식물류폐기물 건조 공정에서 발생하는 건조응축수의 생물학적처리 운영 조건 도출 연구

저자 : 송재준 ( Jea-jun Song ) , 정진도 ( Jin-do Chung )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 256-266 (11 pages)

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This study was conducted to derive operating conditions for biological wastewater treatment targeting highconcentration dry condensate generated in the drying process of food waste. In the biological treatment of dry condensate, lab. scale (40 L/d) bioreactor was manufactured and used in the study to evaluate the water quality of the treated water according to the change in operating conditions and to derive stable operating factors. Changes in the influencing factors inside the aeration tank according to the change of BOD load, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and F/M ratio were observed during the operation of the lab. scale bioreaction process. Thereafter, the treatment efficiency was evaluated by measuring the water quality concentration of the treated water. As a result of the study, the water quality of the treated water was BOD 71.14 ± 10.19 mg/L, TOC 49.54 ± 9.64 mg/L, T-N 33.78 ± 5.00 mg/L, T-P 3.35 ± 1.24 mg/L was evaluated as the highest treatment efficiency, under the HRT 5 day, BOD Load 0.30 ± 0.02 kg BOD/d, F/M ratio 0.40 ± 0.02 kg BOD/kg MLSS/d operating condition. It is concluded that the results of this study can be used as data for ensuring stable treated water quality and complying with the emission standards at real plant.

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8해안 산업도시 음식물류폐기물의 연간 성상 및 바이오가스 발생 특성

저자 : 박상혁 ( Sang Hyeok Park ) , Abu Hanifa Jannat , 황석환 ( Seokhwan Hwang )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 267-279 (13 pages)

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Korea recycles approximately four million tons of food waste (FW) annually. Around 80% of this waste is treated as animal feed and compost. As the demand for animal feed and compost from FW decreases, there is an increasing need to find innovative solutions for this waste. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is currently the most realistic solution, and Korea has plans to construct more AD facilities by 2030. Before these facilities can be built, it is essential to study the indicators and frequencies representative of the characteristic changes in FW. The current literature is lacking in this area, as many studies only focus on a few critical indicators over short periods of time. This study aims to overcome this lack of information by analyzing two processes. The first process analyzes the monthly and seasonal variations in FW characteristics of Pohang city for one year. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed, and their data was analyzed to provide basic information for AD design. The second process evaluates different methods of estimating methane production to determine which is the most suitable. The FW characterization study was conducted twice a month and the BMP analysis was conducted once a month. An analysis of the physicochemical parameters for one year indicated an average pH of 4.82, an average moisture content of 80.68%, an average volatile solid (VS) value of 174.48 g/L, an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 275.48 g/L, the average carbohydrate, protein, and lipid contents in VS basis were 41.87%, 33.59 %, and 14.34% respectively, and the average BMP was 259.97 ± 12.96 mL/g COD. Principal component analysis of FW characteristics resulted in two significantly different clusters - one for winter and spring and the other for summer and fall. The ANOSIM R-value for these characteristics was 0.821 (p < 0.01). Methane production levels were estimated from FW characteristics using COD, organic composition, and heat value basis. The data indicated that estimating methane production from FW using an organic composition basis rendered more accurate results than the other two methods. These results are beneficial for designing and managing food waste using AD processes as understanding the substrate characteristic change is important to maintaining stability.

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9열수가압탄화에 의해 제조한 폐목재 바이오차(Bio-char) 활성탄의 특성화에 관한 연구

저자 : 원민희 ( Minhee Won ) , 조우리 ( Woori Cho ) , 장진만 ( Jin Man Chang ) , 박지수 ( Park Ji Soo ) , 이재영 ( Jai-young Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 280-289 (10 pages)

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The market for activated carbon is growing due to environmental awareness and strengthening of environmental regulations. Biochar is a solid carbide that is produced through a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. Wood is an ideal raw material for activated carbon and biomass waste wood because it has low energy consumption rates and does not require pre-treatment to remove moisture. The activated carbon samples in this study were prepared by a chemical activation process using KOH, which is mainly used for activation. The study analyzed the specific surface area, pore volume, pore size, and pore distribution by selecting four samples with high iodine adsorption capacity among the prepared activated carbon samples. The specific surface area for all four samples was between 1192.2 and 1387.1 m2/g, all of which were over 1,000 m2/g, and the pore volume was between 0.6510 and 0.8030 cm3/g. During this process, micropores with an average pore size of 21 to 25 A were formed. SEM photography revealed that these pores were uniform and that the number of pores increased according to activation levels of the carbon samples. When the iodine adsorptivity and specific surface area of commercial activated carbon was compared with that of activated carbon prepared by waste wood biochar with KOH, the specific surface area was higher in the activated carbon samples prepared by waste wood biochar with KOH. These results indicate that the adsorption of activated carbon by waste wood biochar with KOH is successful when applied to activated carbon samples.

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10Cost-effective Application of Fenton Oxidation Process to the Biologically Treated Leachate Containing Refractory Organics and Nitrite

저자 : Yun-min Song , Jong-hyuk Seok

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 290-296 (7 pages)

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This paper presents an economic application of Fenton oxidation process to biological treatment effluent containing high-strength nitrite and refractory organics. To cope with two major drawbacks in applying Fenton oxidation process to the nitrite-rich effluent simultaneously, i.e. expensive reagent and excessive sludge production, we examined two pretreatment methodologies prior to the application of Fenton process in the following way. First, residual nitrite in the biologically treated leachate (BTL) was removed with iron-catalyzed air oxidation (ICAO) as a cost-effective pretreatment. The time necessary for ICAO reaction is approx. 5 hr. Secondly, to reduce organic loads iron sludge was regenerated for an alternative coagulant. With the regenerated iron sludge, the dose of Fenton's regent can be reduced by half to remove residual COD in the BTL.

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