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한국폐기물자원순환학회> 한국폐기물자원순환학회지> 배달 외식업 다회용기 활용을 위한 사용자 인식 분석: 서울시 소비자와 음식점을 중심으로

KCI등재

배달 외식업 다회용기 활용을 위한 사용자 인식 분석: 서울시 소비자와 음식점을 중심으로

User Awareness in using Multi-Use containers in Delivery Restaurants: Focusing on Consumers and Merchants in Seoul, South Korea

강신영 ( Shin Young Kang ) , 이지애 ( Ji Ae Lee ) , 양명석 ( Myungseok Yang ) , 박세원 ( Se Won Park )
  • : 한국폐기물자원순환학회
  • : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 06월
  • : 225-238(14pages)
한국폐기물자원순환학회지

DOI

10.9786/kswm.2022.39.3.225


목차

Ⅰ. 서 론
Ⅱ. 연구 내용 및 방법
Ⅲ. 결과 및 고찰
Ⅳ. 결 론
사 사
References

키워드 보기


초록 보기

The amount of synthetic resins in household waste, generated 7850.7 tons/day in South Korea, in 2020. As an effort to reduce disposable plastic waste, multi-use container related businesses are being promoted both at the domestic and international levels. In this basic study of infrastructure, a perception analysis of consumers and merchants was conducted through a survey to spread the use of multi-use containers in Korea. The survey sample included 800 consumers (300 from Seodaemun-gu; 500 from other regions) and 311 merchants (Seodaemun-gu) of Seoul. The survey was divided into three categories: “Usage/Operation status of food delivery service,” “Awareness regarding using multi-use containers,” and “Attitudes towards multi-use container infrastructure.” The results regarding “usage/operation status” of both consumers and merchants indicate that they were aware that the high proportion of delivery order frequency and sales is impacting their lives in diverse ways, and of the seriousness of the generation of disposable wastes. In terms of “Awareness of using multi-use containers,” the hygiene management of multi-use containers and partnership of infrastructure-related institutions were considered important. For important factors in standardizing containers, stainless steel was considered useful for sauces, side dishes, and stew/soups, and standardization of size needed to be prioritized. In addition, consumers' appropriate deposit level and convenience of return needed to be considered together. “Attitudes towards multi-use container infrastructure” displayed an the overall neutral attitude, although consumers had a slightly higher business affinity than merchants. In order to induce participation, it is necessary to consider providing incentives as well as granting responsibility for solving environmental problems. In the future, system improvement for standardization, such as establishing a logistics system and hygiene standards, should be carried out with pilot projects.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 공학분야  > 환경공학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 격월
  • : 2093-2332
  • : 2287-5638
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1984-2022
  • : 2963


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KCI등재

1메조세공 ZSM-5 촉매를 이용한 폐바이오매스 유래 퓨란 화합물과 바이오에탄올의 그린 파라자일렌 전환

저자 : 김한별 ( Hanbyeol Kim ) , 제정호 ( Jungho Jae )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 297-307 (11 pages)

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Growing interest has been shown in the production of petrochemical feedstocks and bio-plastic from lignocellulosic biomass. This study reports a novel method in which ZSM-5 catalysts with a hierarchical micro-mesoporous structure were applied to produce green p-xylene via the tandem reaction of Diels-Alder cycloaddition of biomass-derived 2,5- dimethylfuran and ethanol and subsequent dehydration. Specifically, this study investigated the effects of the catalyst synthesis method and Si/Al ratio on the catalytic performance for p-xylene production. Commercial ZSM-5 catalysts with various SiO2/Al2O3 ratios (e.g., 23, 30, 80) were used as parent materials and were subjected to NaOH treatment for forming mesopores by desilication. XRD, BET, and ammonia-TPD analyses were performed to observe the change in the degree of mesopore formation and the distribution of acid sites. A soft-templating method using an amphiphilic surfactant was also applied to synthesize an ordered mesoporous ZSM-5 for comparison with the desilicated ones. The ZSM-5 catalyst with the highest SiO2/Al2O3 ratio (80) and a number of hierarchical mesopores formed through alkali treatment exhibited the highest 2,5-dimethylfuran conversion (> 90%) and p-xylene selectivity (~55%) along with the production of useful alkyl aromatics (~20%). This high activity can be attributed to high hydrophobicity and high mesopore volume combined.

KCI등재

2플라스틱 폐기물 재활용 : PS-SO3H 섬유 제조 및 Cu2+ 흡착능 평가

저자 : 박가연 ( Gayeon Park ) , 나춘기 ( Choonki Na )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 308-314 (7 pages)

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Sulfonated polystyrene (PS-SO3H) fibers were prepared using plastic waste. The sulfonation of the PS-SO3H fibers was evaluated based on the adsorption of Cu2+ ions. The maximum adsorption capacity was 142.9 mg/g, based on the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 20 min. The adsorption system followed the secondorder kinetic model, indicating that the system was dominated by chemical adsorption. The adsorption elution cyclic results demonstrated that the adsorbent PS-SO3H fibers were effectively regenerated using a 0.2 M HCl solution. Therefore, adsorbent PS-SO3H fibers may be used repeatedly without a significant reduction in adsorption performance.

KCI등재

3유기물부하 증대방식이 음식물류 폐기물을 이용한 혐기성 소화공정에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김연수 ( Younsu Kim ) , 이채영 ( Chaeyoung Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 315-323 (9 pages)

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The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect on the operation of the continuous anaerobic digester according to the organic loading rate (OLR) increase method at the beginning of the operation in the anaerobic digestion process. To evaluate the effect of the OLR on the anaerobic digestion process, the method (R1) of reducing the dilution factor of the substrate and the method (R2) of reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) were applied on a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Methane production in the R2 reactor was the highest at 0.45 m3 CH4/kg VS at OLR 2.10 kg VS/m3·d, and the methane generation rate in the R1 reactor was the highest at 0.41 m3 CH4/kg VS at OLR 3.10 kg VS/m3·d. Additionally, at OLR of 1.7 kg VS/m3·d, VS and COD removal efficiencies were 88% and 69% for R1, respectively, and 95% and 96% for R2, respectively. This can be seen as the effect of an increase in the residence time of the anaerobic microorganisms in the R2 reactor, maintaining a relatively long HRT, and as the experiment progressed, it was confirmed that it showed a more stable behavior even with an increase in the organic matter load and fluctuations in the injection substrate. Therefore, an HRT reduction method can be suggested to increase the stability and efficiency of the initial operation during the anaerobic digestion of food waste. Since the inhibitory effect of methanogenic microorganisms occurs, it can be concluded that it is essential to maintain the ammonia nitrogen concentration below 3,000 mg/L for stable long-term operations.

KCI등재

4수도권매립지 침출수 처리장 통합 수온 관리 시스템 효과 분석: 생물학적 공정의 수온 저감효과를 중심으로

저자 : 서덕만 ( Deockman Seo ) , 박현 ( Hyeon Park ) , 서승범 ( Seung Beom Seo ) , 이상경 ( Sangkyung Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 324-332 (9 pages)

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This study aims to analyze the effects of water temperature reduction at SUDOKWON Landfill Site via the Integrated Water Temperature Management System (“the System” hereafter) on biological leachate treatment. The effect of reduced water temperature of the leachate treatment with the System is compared with the effect of the unaltered temperature without the System. The analysis shows that the System lowered the temperature by 3.4℃ on average, ranging from 1.6 ~ 5.7℃, resulting in the leachate treatment plant operating at the optimum temperature for biological process, which ranges from 33 ~ 38℃. By lowering the water temperature, the System was able to retain the performance of the biological process to treat the increased COD and T-N loads and maintain the same leachate treatment efficiency ratio. In addition, the System prevented foam overflow in the operation of the biological process basin, which contributed to the increase in the quantity of leachate treatment, as it allowed the biological process to be stably operated from April to September. The results of this research show that the System can be a good alternative solution to other treatment plants suffering from reduced efficiency due to high temperatures in the biological process of leachate treatment.

KCI등재

5의료폐기물 소각 여열의 에너지 회수와 활용 방안 연구

저자 : 조문환 ( Mun-hwan Cho ) , 장용철 ( Yong-chul Jang )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 333-341 (9 pages)

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This study examines the energy utilization methods of waste heat from medical waste incineration facilities. The economic feasibility of converting energy from incineration surplus heat and its effect on reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) are also analyzed. The medical waste in 2019 was approximately 235,754 tons with an increase of 56% compared with 2013 (151,438 tons), while the treatment capacity of incineration facilities only slightly increased by 9.5% (equivalent to 20,000 tons/year). This study found that the ultimate analysis of the waste from five medical waste incinerators indicated ash 5.00%, moisture 20.07%, and combustibles 72.58%. The elemental composition was C 56.58%, H 8.46%, O 13.61%, N 0.81%, S 0.16%, and Cl 1.86%, in addition to a lower heating value of 6,353 kcal/kg (dry weight basis). The amount of combustible air required for incineration was 65,421.9 Sm3/kg·hr, resulting in the combustion gas of 71,271.2 Sm3/kg·hr. The calorific value of mixed gas was found to be 6,458.7 kcal/kg, and the recoverable calorie was 19.55 Gcal/hr or 157,182 Gcal/yr. Based on the heat recovery of the incineration facilities, the electricity sales, and heat sales are estimated to be 32,800 MW/year and 126,000 Gcal/year, respectively, equivalent to a total of KRW 6,876 million in revenue. The annual steam production is estimated to be 260,000 tons, equivalent to 17.55 million liters of heavy oil and 13.02 million LNG. GHGs by steam utilization can be approximately 48,000 tCO2-eq on a heavy-oil basis or 30,000 tCO2-eq on an LNG basis. When expanded to 190,000 tons of medical waste incineration in 2020, approximately 1.5 million tons of steam can be produced annually, replacing the energy of approximately 100 million liters based on heavy oil.

KCI등재

6콘크리트용 순환 잔골재 품질인증에 대한 운영실태조사 품질시험 부적합 사례 고찰

저자 : 전수민 ( Soomin Jeon )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 342-348 (7 pages)

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The quality test pass rate for fine aggregate used for concrete among quality-certified recycled aggregates is relatively low. This paper examines the failure rate and items of follow-up inspection tests conducted over the past three years for recycled fine aggregate for concrete. In addition, if two out of three tests are suitable for the certification of recycled aggregates, certification is performed. Considering that other certification systems fail one out of every two tests, it is possible to assume that tertiary test opportunities have a negative effect on quality securing recycled aggregates. Therefore, this study analyzed whether there is a statistically significant difference between the follow-up inspection test results for the twice- and thrice-tested certifications. In conclusion, this study found that the tertiary test did not negatively affect the quality of the recycled fine aggregate for concrete.

KCI등재

7점토점결 폐주물사의 Silica를 추출하여 합성된 Mesoporous silica의 표면 특성 및 안티몬(Sb) 흡착 성능 평가

저자 : 김수향 ( Su Hyang Kim ) , 오민아 ( Mina Oh ) , 조우리 ( Woori Cho ) , 임호진 ( Ho Jin Lim ) , 이정한 ( Jung Han Lee ) , 이재영 ( Jai-young Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 349-356 (8 pages)

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In this study, an environmentally friendly solution was devised by replacing the tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) used in the manufacture of mesoporous silica (SBA-15) with SiO2 from clay defective molding sand waste to produce a novel adsorbent (W-SBA-15). The prepared W-SBA-15 was used to remove antimony (Sb) from groundwater. The content of SiO2 in W-SBA-15 and its recyclability were evaluated. The surface properties of W-SBA-15 and SBA-15 were compared. The performance of the novel adsorbent (W-SBA-15) was compared with that of traditional SBA-15 made with TEOS and an adsorbent made of pure Jumunjin sand (J-SBA-15). The content of SiO2 in W-SBA-15 was 89%, and the concentration of harmful substances did not exceed the legal standard. Thus, the molding sand waste was considered to be suitable for synthesizing mesoporous silica. The surface properties of the W-SBA-15 prepared here were similar to those of the traditional mesoporous material according to SEM, TEM, BET, and FT-IR measurements. To evaluate the adsorption performance, a batch test evaluating Sb adsorption was performed under various concentration, time, pH, temperature, and isothermal adsorption equilibrium conditions. As a result, the Sb removal efficiency was in the order of SBA-15 > W-SBA-15 > J-SBA-15. The Sb removal efficiency of SBA-15 and W-SBA-15 was over 90%. Therefore, the W-SBA-15 prepared in this study can be used as an adsorbent.

KCI등재

8정읍 소화조 내부 프로펠러 배열 및 가동시간이 유동 및 슬러지 침전 양상에 미치는 영향에 대한 수치적 연구

저자 : 최성은 ( Seongeun Choi ) , 황진환 ( Jin Hwan Hwang ) , 김재영 ( Jae Young Kim ) , 김승환 ( Seunghwan Kim ) , 이상명 ( Sang Myung Lee ) , 이승철 ( Seung Chul Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 357-367 (11 pages)

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Mechanical stirring is one of the representative methods to mix and agitate the sludge inside a digester. It significantly affects the amount of biogas production by changing the number of propellers, the distance between the bottom and the propellers, and the distance between propellers and the operating cycle. Since the various factors affect the digester's efficiency, the optimal configuration of the mechanical agitators needs to be investigated in terms of the internal flow and turbulence structures inside the digester. We conducted a laboratory-scale digester experiment and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, which both have the 40:1 scale, to find the optimal configuration of the digester located in Jeongeup, South Korea. The validity of the CFD model was verified by the comparison between the observation data taken from the laboratory experiment and the CFD results. Then, the flow velocity and the amount of sludge over time inside the digester, which has the actual scale, were numerically quantified by the verified CFD model. In addition, the position of the dead zone inside the digester depending on the different positions of the propellers was estimated. We confirmed that the array of the propellers significantly affects the flow structure and sludge sedimentation inside the digester.

KCI등재

9석탄회를 이용한 일일복토재 물성에 대한 현장 적용 평가

저자 : 이웅걸 ( Woong-geol Lee ) , 김석규 ( Suk-kyu Kim ) , 김태형 ( Tae-hyeong Kim ) , 이병철 ( Byeongcheol Lee ) , 송현진 ( Hyeon-jin Song ) , 송명신 ( Myong-shin Song )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 368-375 (8 pages)

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In this study, coal ash buried in a landfill was recycled to manufacture an artificial daily covering material, and a field experiment was conducted to evaluate its usability. The coal ash used was fluidized-bed boiler coal ash and pulverized boiler coal ash. The artificial daily covering material produced was able to immobilize heavy metal ions. The unconfined compression strength was improved by the formation of C-S-H hydrate through the reaction of SiO2 in soil with calcium hydroxide. The permeability coefficient of each type of coal based covering was similar to that of the standard. Re-slurring was not performed, and the odor emission standard was satisfied. the wind tunnel tes showed a weight reduction of 2.9% to 8.7% at a wind speed of 25 m/s depending on the type of covering. This study found that artificial daily covering materials made using fluidizedbed boiler coal ash are not harmful to the environment, so they can be used to replace traditional daily covering materials.

KCI등재

10한국과 일본의 일회용 플라스틱 관리 정책 비교 분석

저자 : 전인서 ( In-seo Jeon ) , 황수정 ( Su-jeong Hwang ) , 박정현 ( Jeong-hyeon Park ) , 장용철 ( Yong-chul Jang ) , 권영선 ( Youngsun Kwon ) , 김병환 ( Byeonghwan Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 376-388 (13 pages)

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The consumption and disposal of single-use plastics (SUP) has become a critical issue of environmental concern in international solid waste communities. Many countries have begun adopting regulatory measures to reduce consumption and disposal of SUPs, including banning their production, restricting their uses, imposing plastic taxes, implementing ecofriendly designs, and encouraging proper recycling methods. In this study, we analyzed policy measures and recent efforts in SUP management between Korea and Japan by life-cycle stage. In Korea, the regulatory measures have focused on single-use plastic bags and cups, over-packaging, strengthened extended producer responsibility, and the introduction of bioplastics. However, there is still a lack of definition, scope, and detailed strategy for banning SUPs, restricting their use, and resource circulation. Japan recently legislated the Plastic Resource Circulation Promotion Act and bioplastic roadmap to properly manage SUPs. Based on comparative analysis, more policy countermeasures and efforts to reduce SUPs are still needed for mitigating environmental burdens. Such countermeasures may include legally defining SUPs and highlighting their scope of use, banning the production of extended SUP items with industry cooperation and consultation, reducing consumption of SUPs by implementing multi-use cups and containers supported by civil society and local governments, using recycled content in products, and introducing bioplastics. The results of this study will be beneficial for policy-makers, the plastic industry, and the scientific community by providing a comparative analysis and showing recent trends of SUP policy measures in Korea and Japan toward a circular economy society.

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KCI등재

1해양 플라스틱 폐기물의 소수성 유기오염물질 흡착 특성과 운반 매체로써의 역할

저자 : 김용진 ( Yong-jin Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 185-193 (9 pages)

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This study analyses, the characteristics of plastics as adsorbents and the mechanisms of adsorption between plastics and hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs). As the characteristics of the adsorption material, the degree of crystallinity, glass transition temperature, and contact angle with water of the plastics were investigated, and influence factors on the adsorption of various HOPs and the role of plastics as a carrier of HOPs were suggested. As factors affecting the adsorption of organic pollutants onto plastics, the physical and chemical properties of the plastic as adsorption material (i.e. size, polarity, crystallinity, glass transition temperature, presence and type of functional groups, etc.), characteristics of organic pollutants (i.e. concentration, hydrophobicity, surface charge, functional groups, etc.) and water quality (i.e. pH, temperature, ionic strength, coexisting organic pollutants, etc.) are presented. As a result, it was confirmed that organic pollutants are transferred/diffused not only in the organisms but also throughout the world due to plastic wastes in marine.

KCI등재

2한국의 2017-2019년 플라스틱 물질흐름분석

저자 : 장용철 ( Yongchul Jang ) , 손민희 ( Minhee Son ) , 박주영 ( Jooyoung Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 194-206 (13 pages)

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As one of the world's top producers and top consumers of plastics, Korea has been experiencing problems with regard to the management of waste plastics since 2018, such as collection service disruptions, illegal abandonment and exports of waste, and marine pollution. To gain a complete understanding of Korea's contemporary management of plastics, this study quantified national plastic flows across production, use, and end-of-life management between 2017 and 2019. In 2017, Korea produced 17.5 million metric tons of plastic resins, more than half of which was exported, and consumed 7 million metric tons of plastic products including 3.2 million metric tons of packaging. On a per-capita basis, Korea's plastic consumption and waste generation were higher than that of other major economies, such as Japan, China, the United States, and Europe, which implies considerable potential for plastic consumption reduction. Despite the high level of waste generation, Korea has increased the level of material recycling while minimizing the landfill rate by implementing various policies, such as waste levies, voluntary agreements, and extended producer responsibility. For more sustainable plastic management, Korea must make additional efforts to reduce plastic consumption and promote high-quality recycling, for example through circular design, business models with less packaging, and advanced technologies.

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3시멘트 제조업과 비철금속 잉곳 및 합금 제조업에서 발생되는 분진 폐기물의 폭발성 특성 평가

저자 : 이준규 ( Jun-kyu Lee ) , 김민정 ( Min-jung Kim ) , 박윤수 ( Yoon-soo Park ) , 김태성 ( Tae-sung Kim ) , 전태완 ( Tae-wan Jeon ) , 최효현 ( Hyo-hyun Choi )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 207-216 (10 pages)

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This study evaluated the explosive hazardous properties and the likelihood of dust explosion in four types of waste dust collected from industrial sites. Waste dust samples were collected from the cement manufacturing industry, aluminum, and aluminum alloy ingot manufacturing industry, and copper alloy and non-ferrous product manufacturing industry. We evaluated whether the dust waste contained explosive substances using a standard method. Additionally, the factors that may affect the dust explosion, the presence of combustible substances, average particle size, particle size distribution, particle shape, moisture content, and calorific value were also evaluated. It was confirmed that the likelihood of dust explosion of dust waste generated in the aluminum and aluminum alloy manufacturing industry is higher than that of dust waste generated in other industries.

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4해양에 유입된 플라스틱이 해수면 온도 변화에 미치는 영향 - Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) 펠릿을 이용한 모델 실험 -

저자 : 이혜성 ( Hye-sung Lee ) , 김용진 ( Yong-jin Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 217-224 (8 pages)

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An increase in plastic on the sea surface may affect the absorption depth of solar radiation energy, resulting in changes in the sea surface temperature (SST), stratification, and mixed layer depth. This study evaluated the relationship between the rise of SST according to the concentration of plastic on the sea surface, as well as the effects of these temperature increases on phytoplankton concentrations and climate change. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has lower specific heat than water. Therefore, adding LPDE to distilled water increased the heating rate of the water, and significant differences were observed between the temperatures of LPDE-treated and untreated distilled water. Furthermore, our findings suggested that the water temperature was affected by the total amount of added LDPE regardless of the size of the LDPE. The concentration of Chl-a in seawater tended to increase as the amount of added LDPE increased. Therefore, ocean plastic will increase the SST, which, in turn, increases phytoplankton, and, again, the increased phytoplankton densities are likely to increase SST. This chain effect could exacerbate climate change.

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5배달 외식업 다회용기 활용을 위한 사용자 인식 분석: 서울시 소비자와 음식점을 중심으로

저자 : 강신영 ( Shin Young Kang ) , 이지애 ( Ji Ae Lee ) , 양명석 ( Myungseok Yang ) , 박세원 ( Se Won Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 225-238 (14 pages)

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The amount of synthetic resins in household waste, generated 7850.7 tons/day in South Korea, in 2020. As an effort to reduce disposable plastic waste, multi-use container related businesses are being promoted both at the domestic and international levels. In this basic study of infrastructure, a perception analysis of consumers and merchants was conducted through a survey to spread the use of multi-use containers in Korea. The survey sample included 800 consumers (300 from Seodaemun-gu; 500 from other regions) and 311 merchants (Seodaemun-gu) of Seoul. The survey was divided into three categories: “Usage/Operation status of food delivery service,” “Awareness regarding using multi-use containers,” and “Attitudes towards multi-use container infrastructure.” The results regarding “usage/operation status” of both consumers and merchants indicate that they were aware that the high proportion of delivery order frequency and sales is impacting their lives in diverse ways, and of the seriousness of the generation of disposable wastes. In terms of “Awareness of using multi-use containers,” the hygiene management of multi-use containers and partnership of infrastructure-related institutions were considered important. For important factors in standardizing containers, stainless steel was considered useful for sauces, side dishes, and stew/soups, and standardization of size needed to be prioritized. In addition, consumers' appropriate deposit level and convenience of return needed to be considered together. “Attitudes towards multi-use container infrastructure” displayed an the overall neutral attitude, although consumers had a slightly higher business affinity than merchants. In order to induce participation, it is necessary to consider providing incentives as well as granting responsibility for solving environmental problems. In the future, system improvement for standardization, such as establishing a logistics system and hygiene standards, should be carried out with pilot projects.

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6국내 재활용 처리 시설 발생 부산물 중 미세플라스틱 분석 연구

저자 : 조수진 ( Soojin Cho ) , 최자형 ( Jahyung Choi ) , 강영렬 ( Youngryeol Kang ) , 전태완 ( Taewan Jeon ) , 엄남일 ( Namil Um )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 239-255 (17 pages)

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Microplastics (MPs) are being widely detected in various ecosystems, including aquatic and terrestrial environments, which highlights the importance of MP management. MPs are released into the marine environment in various ways. Therefore, our study sought to characterize MPs discharged from different waste treatment facilities. This study focused on by-products of recycling facilities for synthetic polymer, synthetic fiber, rubber, and tire waste. The MPs in the samples were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed using TED-GC-MS and FTIR. The TED-GC-MS analysis results were as follows: Waste of Synthetic Polymer 2.02 μg/g (PP 1.46 μg/g, PE 0.56 μg/g), Waste of Synthetic Fiber 66.75 μg/g (PET 66.75 μg/g), Waste of Rubber N.D., Waste of Tyre 18.71 μg/g (PP 17.79 μg/g, PS 0.74 μg/g). The FTIR analysis results were divided into three sections: 0.02-0.1 mm (Section 1), 0.1-0.5 mm (Section 2), and 0.5-5.0 mm (Section 3). The number of microplastics for each sample was analyzed for WSP 24.01 ea/g (Section 1: 19.11 ea/kg, Section 2: 3.92 ea/ kg, Section 3: 0.98 ea/kg), WSF 501.44 ea/g, (Section 1: 302.40 ea/kg, Section 2: 187.02 ea/kg, Section 3: 12.02 ea/kg), WRB 10,510.01 ea/g (Section 1: 6,320.58 ea/kg, Section 2: 3,661.20 ea/kg, Section 3: 528.23 ea/kg), WTY 311.52 ea/ g (Section 1: 205.53 ea/kg, Section 2: 104.61 ea/kg, Section 3: 1.38 ea/kg). Therefore, a managements plan for waste treatment facilities must be prepared to reduce microplastics in Korea. Our findings provide a basis for the creation of such a plan in the future.

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7음식물류폐기물 건조 공정에서 발생하는 건조응축수의 생물학적처리 운영 조건 도출 연구

저자 : 송재준 ( Jea-jun Song ) , 정진도 ( Jin-do Chung )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 256-266 (11 pages)

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This study was conducted to derive operating conditions for biological wastewater treatment targeting highconcentration dry condensate generated in the drying process of food waste. In the biological treatment of dry condensate, lab. scale (40 L/d) bioreactor was manufactured and used in the study to evaluate the water quality of the treated water according to the change in operating conditions and to derive stable operating factors. Changes in the influencing factors inside the aeration tank according to the change of BOD load, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and F/M ratio were observed during the operation of the lab. scale bioreaction process. Thereafter, the treatment efficiency was evaluated by measuring the water quality concentration of the treated water. As a result of the study, the water quality of the treated water was BOD 71.14 ± 10.19 mg/L, TOC 49.54 ± 9.64 mg/L, T-N 33.78 ± 5.00 mg/L, T-P 3.35 ± 1.24 mg/L was evaluated as the highest treatment efficiency, under the HRT 5 day, BOD Load 0.30 ± 0.02 kg BOD/d, F/M ratio 0.40 ± 0.02 kg BOD/kg MLSS/d operating condition. It is concluded that the results of this study can be used as data for ensuring stable treated water quality and complying with the emission standards at real plant.

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8해안 산업도시 음식물류폐기물의 연간 성상 및 바이오가스 발생 특성

저자 : 박상혁 ( Sang Hyeok Park ) , Abu Hanifa Jannat , 황석환 ( Seokhwan Hwang )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 267-279 (13 pages)

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Korea recycles approximately four million tons of food waste (FW) annually. Around 80% of this waste is treated as animal feed and compost. As the demand for animal feed and compost from FW decreases, there is an increasing need to find innovative solutions for this waste. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is currently the most realistic solution, and Korea has plans to construct more AD facilities by 2030. Before these facilities can be built, it is essential to study the indicators and frequencies representative of the characteristic changes in FW. The current literature is lacking in this area, as many studies only focus on a few critical indicators over short periods of time. This study aims to overcome this lack of information by analyzing two processes. The first process analyzes the monthly and seasonal variations in FW characteristics of Pohang city for one year. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed, and their data was analyzed to provide basic information for AD design. The second process evaluates different methods of estimating methane production to determine which is the most suitable. The FW characterization study was conducted twice a month and the BMP analysis was conducted once a month. An analysis of the physicochemical parameters for one year indicated an average pH of 4.82, an average moisture content of 80.68%, an average volatile solid (VS) value of 174.48 g/L, an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 275.48 g/L, the average carbohydrate, protein, and lipid contents in VS basis were 41.87%, 33.59 %, and 14.34% respectively, and the average BMP was 259.97 ± 12.96 mL/g COD. Principal component analysis of FW characteristics resulted in two significantly different clusters - one for winter and spring and the other for summer and fall. The ANOSIM R-value for these characteristics was 0.821 (p < 0.01). Methane production levels were estimated from FW characteristics using COD, organic composition, and heat value basis. The data indicated that estimating methane production from FW using an organic composition basis rendered more accurate results than the other two methods. These results are beneficial for designing and managing food waste using AD processes as understanding the substrate characteristic change is important to maintaining stability.

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9열수가압탄화에 의해 제조한 폐목재 바이오차(Bio-char) 활성탄의 특성화에 관한 연구

저자 : 원민희 ( Minhee Won ) , 조우리 ( Woori Cho ) , 장진만 ( Jin Man Chang ) , 박지수 ( Park Ji Soo ) , 이재영 ( Jai-young Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 280-289 (10 pages)

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The market for activated carbon is growing due to environmental awareness and strengthening of environmental regulations. Biochar is a solid carbide that is produced through a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. Wood is an ideal raw material for activated carbon and biomass waste wood because it has low energy consumption rates and does not require pre-treatment to remove moisture. The activated carbon samples in this study were prepared by a chemical activation process using KOH, which is mainly used for activation. The study analyzed the specific surface area, pore volume, pore size, and pore distribution by selecting four samples with high iodine adsorption capacity among the prepared activated carbon samples. The specific surface area for all four samples was between 1192.2 and 1387.1 m2/g, all of which were over 1,000 m2/g, and the pore volume was between 0.6510 and 0.8030 cm3/g. During this process, micropores with an average pore size of 21 to 25 A were formed. SEM photography revealed that these pores were uniform and that the number of pores increased according to activation levels of the carbon samples. When the iodine adsorptivity and specific surface area of commercial activated carbon was compared with that of activated carbon prepared by waste wood biochar with KOH, the specific surface area was higher in the activated carbon samples prepared by waste wood biochar with KOH. These results indicate that the adsorption of activated carbon by waste wood biochar with KOH is successful when applied to activated carbon samples.

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10Cost-effective Application of Fenton Oxidation Process to the Biologically Treated Leachate Containing Refractory Organics and Nitrite

저자 : Yun-min Song , Jong-hyuk Seok

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 290-296 (7 pages)

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This paper presents an economic application of Fenton oxidation process to biological treatment effluent containing high-strength nitrite and refractory organics. To cope with two major drawbacks in applying Fenton oxidation process to the nitrite-rich effluent simultaneously, i.e. expensive reagent and excessive sludge production, we examined two pretreatment methodologies prior to the application of Fenton process in the following way. First, residual nitrite in the biologically treated leachate (BTL) was removed with iron-catalyzed air oxidation (ICAO) as a cost-effective pretreatment. The time necessary for ICAO reaction is approx. 5 hr. Secondly, to reduce organic loads iron sludge was regenerated for an alternative coagulant. With the regenerated iron sludge, the dose of Fenton's regent can be reduced by half to remove residual COD in the BTL.

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