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서울대학교 미국학연구소> 미국학> 인종 정체성과 정당단합투표: 미국 민주당 의원들의 의회 투표 변화

KCI등재

인종 정체성과 정당단합투표: 미국 민주당 의원들의 의회 투표 변화

Racial Identity and Party Unity Vote: Changes in Congressional Voting by U.S. Democrats

이종곤 ( Jongkon Lee )
  • : 서울대학교 미국학연구소
  • : 미국학 45권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 06월
  • : 25-63(39pages)
미국학

DOI


목차

Ⅰ. 서론
Ⅱ. 가설 설정
Ⅲ. 통계분석
Ⅳ. 결론
참고문헌

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Since the 2000s, the proportion of racial minorities in the U.S. Congress has grown rapidly and has begun to reach the “critical mass” that allows them to express independent opinions. In addition, President Barack Obama’s election and BLM movements triggered the “black” identity politics. Consequently, the Democratic Party has begun to face internal confrontation by racial minority groups with which it has coalesced: the larger the size of minority members in the House (especially African-Americans), the more they have been prone to vote against the party’s mainstream opinions. Furthermore, the racial confrontation has undermined the cooperation of female lawmakers; African-American female lawmakers have shown more similar voting behavior to African-American male lawmakers, and white female lawmakers have shown more similar voting behavior to white male lawmakers. However, such divisions within the Democratic Party were limited to the House of Representatives where racial minorities have grown significantly. In the Senate, the confrontation was not remarkable.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 사회과학분야  > 인문지리
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 반년간
  • : 1229-4381
  • : 2713-9794
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1977-2022
  • : 526


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1끝나지 않은 전쟁: 북부와 남부의 차별적 위기 인식과 재건의 비극

저자 : 허현 ( Hyun Hur )

발행기관 : 서울대학교 미국학연구소 간행물 : 미국학 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-41 (41 pages)

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This study investigates the causes of the American Civil War and the failure of the Reconstruction by paying special attention to the Northern and Southern senses of crisis about “the impending crisis” of the 1850s. Whereas the North had a passive attitude towards slavery because of its obsession with Unionism, the South was desperate enough to secede from the Union in defense of slavery. The Southern perception of crisis was due to their feeling of impotence in the face of apparently crumbling slavery after the election of Lincoln. This Southern urgency enabled the Confederates, even after Appomattox, to continue the war against the freed but helpless blacks, which heralded the tragedy of the Reconstruction.

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2아퐁 모이와 마주 보다: 『중국 귀부인』(2018)을 통해 보는 아시아 여성 주체와 새로운 관객성

저자 : 나은하 ( Eun Ha Na )

발행기관 : 서울대학교 미국학연구소 간행물 : 미국학 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 43-70 (28 pages)

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In light of emerging interest in the long-overlooked figure of Afong Moy, purported to be the very first Chinese woman to set foot in the United States, this essay analyzes Lloyd's Suh's 2018 play The Chinese Lady. Widely publicized as “The Chinese Lady,” Moy performed mundane rituals of Chinese culture before the American public in numerous venues including P. T. Barnum's famous American Museum from 1834 to 1851. The Chinese Lady reconstructs the highly racialized and gendered exhibition space to interrogate the convoluted relationship between the Asian female body on display and the audience. Focusing on the play's critique of the construction of Asian womanhood in a theatrical space, this essay argues for the importance of the subversive possibilities of performative acts and alternative ways of looking that goes beyond the coercive logic of objectification and the rigid binary of subject/object embedded in spectatorship.

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3Seneca Falls, Another Feminine Mystique? A Historiography of the Nineteenth-century Woman Suffrage Movement

저자 : Arang Ha

발행기관 : 서울대학교 미국학연구소 간행물 : 미국학 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 71-99 (29 pages)

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The historiography of the American women's suffrage movement in the nineteenth century is marked by the rise and fall of its master narrative. Since the feminist movement and women's history were established simultaneously in the 1960s, the scholarship of the women's suffrage movement has reflected specific agendas of feminist politics of each age. In the late 1960s and 1970s, feminist historians invented the master narrative by conceptualizing the suffrage movement as first-wave feminism. After the late 1970s, scholars of race and racism began retrieving African American women's contributions to the suffrage movement, and since the mid-1990s, historians have expanded the scope of the suffrage movement by rediscovering its richer traditions. This recent tendency has raised fundamental questions regarding the legitimacy of the waves metaphor as a conceptual device. Facing these questions, the master narrative is being gradually undermined in the scholarship of the suffrage movement and American women's history in general.

KCI등재

4Science in the Public Sphere during the Cold War Era: In the Case of Classrooms, the Media, and Museums

저자 : Jieun Shin

발행기관 : 서울대학교 미국학연구소 간행물 : 미국학 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 101-142 (42 pages)

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The politics, economy, and culture of the Cold War reshaped science in America. The federal government wielded substantial influence over scientific practices with various federal agencies, and the wartime practice continued at the military-industry-university complex. Scientists, as “manpower” for international competition, stretched their leverage in political and public realms. Public perception of science also reflected the features of Cold War science. Public schools experienced the changes caused by the enactment of federal education policies, the rise of discipline-centered education, and new textbooks written by scientists. In mass media, two major topics of Cold War science, atom and space, frequently appeared in arousing ways, sometimes deviating from the expectation of public education. Finally, science museums emphasized their mission to educate broader audiences with new subjects and pedagogy. This study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of postwar America, bridging the scholars between American Studies and the history of science.

KCI등재

5전시(戰時) 대통령의 초당파적 리더십 연구: 한국 전쟁과 미국 정치를 둘러싼 트루먼(Truman) 사례를 중심으로

저자 : 서정건 ( Jungkun Seo )

발행기관 : 서울대학교 미국학연구소 간행물 : 미국학 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 143-170 (28 pages)

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How do presidents and political parties interact with each other? Existing literature on the American presidency has dealt with questions of active government, critical elections, political time, personality, and institutions. This study brings forth the Truman presidency during the Korean War to address a host of political dilemmas regarding democracy and war. Truman faced a choice between a world war and a limited war, a narrative reality between a come-from-behind victory and a decision to not run, a conflict between the Fair Deal and legislative veto, and the tension between being a midwesterner and pushing for internationalism. As we approach the 70th anniversary of the Korea-US alliance, it becomes all the more clear that it is no longer an option but a necessity that we fully understand the relationship between democratic polity and foreign policy in America.

KCI등재

6<엘비스>에 나타난 미국 록앤롤 음악의 양면성

저자 : 최영진 ( Youngjeen Choe )

발행기관 : 서울대학교 미국학연구소 간행물 : 미국학 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 171-202 (32 pages)

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This essay attempts to discuss how Elvis Presley placed himself in the rock and roll soundscape during and after the 1950s by delving into various changes that Baz Luhrman's Elvis (2022) represented through the chronicle of Elvis' music and life. It also inquires into how the racial boundary between black and white could be blurred in the music acts of rock and roll. This inquiry can raise the issue of reconfiguring Elvis as an ambivalent persona which could be brought out between music and the entertainment business. Futhermore, this personal ambivalence of Elvis goes in parallel with the ambivalence of rock and roll music. While rock and roll led to the various achievements of hard rock band music during the 1970s, it could also survive commercially by constantly evoking the nostalgic sensibility from past traces of its glory.

KCI등재

7Americanized Modernization: Educational Television of American Samoa and Guam in the 1960s

저자 : Wooyeong Kim

발행기관 : 서울대학교 미국학연구소 간행물 : 미국학 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 203-238 (36 pages)

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This study mainly examined the history of educational television in U.S. overseas territories to explore how educational television in American territories became an instrument for changes to the entire educational system. The establishment of educational television in U.S. overseas territories is critical since these provided some problems of the globalization of educational television in the Cold War era. Moreover, educational television has played a role to expand Americanization through the broadcasting of English programs to develop English proficiency for Samoan and Guamanian children. In addition, these projects helped U.S. overseas territories change their educational system through the launch of a governmental education center, educational broadcasting station, and standardized curriculum fit into the television program for teaching. These were the first examples of American educational aid projects that focused on the modernization of education in other territories that faced challenges in changing their traditional education.

KCI등재

8Articulating the Transnational in Pearl Buck's The New Year

저자 : Hyeyurn Chung

발행기관 : 서울대학교 미국학연구소 간행물 : 미국학 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 239-258 (20 pages)

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In 1968, Pearl Buck published her third story about Korea, The New Year. In this work, the readers see how Korea and its people are inscribed with American “orientalist” discourse. At the same time, it makes clear that Korea's “exportation of American culture” has rendered post-war Seoul a “transnational space” of sorts (Cole and Haddad 4) and some of its people have taken on a “flexible citizenship” of a transnational subject who has multiple cultural literacies at their disposal. Thus, in my discussion of The New Year, I investigate how the competing discourses of the nation-state and the transnational are played out within the pages of this novel. I examine how Buck's narrative gestures towards the transnational just as it evokes the American nationalist discourse by which Korea and its people (especially its women) are relegated as the Oriental Other in relation to the American Self.

KCI등재

9레너드 장의 『식료품점』에 나타난 한국계 미국인의 인종화와 인종적 위치

저자 : 육성희 ( Sung Hee Yook )

발행기관 : 서울대학교 미국학연구소 간행물 : 미국학 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 259-289 (31 pages)

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This paper explores the process of racialization, and the racial position, of Korean Americans revealed through the Korean-Black conflict in Leonard Chang's The Fruit 'N Food. Racial discourses such as 'model minority myth,' 'yellow peril,' and 'middleman minority theory' capture the cultural and ethnic characteristics of Asian Americans while shaping them into stereotypical racial images. Drawing on these racial discourses, this paper examines how the 1st generation characters in the novel are formed as a race group and how 2nd generation character Tom confronts the racialization process and negotiates over his Korean American identity. By examining the Korean-Black conflict within the racism and racial hierarchy of American society, this paper investigates the racial position of Korean (Asian) Americans which forms a racial triangulation between Blacks and Whites and visualizes Whiteness and White power which has been invisible throughout the novel.

KCI등재

10Identity Immersion and Shame: Multiplicity and Shifting Narrative Distance in Ehrenreich's Nickel and Dimed

저자 : Joon Hyung Park

발행기관 : 서울대학교 미국학연구소 간행물 : 미국학 45권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 291-325 (35 pages)

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Against the backdrop of the tension between objectivity and multiplicity in journalism and rhetorical studies, this paper attempts to revisit Ehrenreich's Nickel and Dimed (2001). In her book, Ehrenreich represents her undercover journalistic experiment that investigates whether she can(not) get by as an unskilled, low-wage worker. I first examine how the myth of journalistic objectivity has been socially constructed in twentieth-century America and how the genre of identity immersion journalism is dedicated to debunking the myth. Challenging Gebhardt's critique of Ehrenreich's book for not fitting into the genre characteristics of identity immersion journalism, I seek to redefine it as the book's strength rather than its limitation. To support this, I explore how Ehrenreich uses rhetorical and representational devices for generating multiplicity and shifting narrative distances between the author, the reader, and characters in order to provoke her readers' empathy, guilt, and shame rather than journalistic conventions of objectivity, unity, and professionalism.

12
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This paper examines the spatial narration of Ursula K. Le Guin's American Taoist “home” by analyzing “The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas,” City of Illusions and other Hainish SFs. Suggesting that the European binary opposition is the cause of violence in Le Guin's Omelas, the paper considers the necessity of deconstructing the binary opposition by installing the Taoist thought. The paper further investigates the features of Le Guin's “home” in her Hainish SFs. Le Guin has taken a long journey to reconstruct her Taoist “home” for over 40 years. However, her Taoist home is not a complete mimic of Lao Tzu's Taoism, but is instead an American adaption.

KCI등재

2인종 정체성과 정당단합투표: 미국 민주당 의원들의 의회 투표 변화

저자 : 이종곤 ( Jongkon Lee )

발행기관 : 서울대학교 미국학연구소 간행물 : 미국학 45권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 25-63 (39 pages)

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Since the 2000s, the proportion of racial minorities in the U.S. Congress has grown rapidly and has begun to reach the “critical mass” that allows them to express independent opinions. In addition, President Barack Obama's election and BLM movements triggered the “black” identity politics. Consequently, the Democratic Party has begun to face internal confrontation by racial minority groups with which it has coalesced: the larger the size of minority members in the House (especially African-Americans), the more they have been prone to vote against the party's mainstream opinions. Furthermore, the racial confrontation has undermined the cooperation of female lawmakers; African-American female lawmakers have shown more similar voting behavior to African-American male lawmakers, and white female lawmakers have shown more similar voting behavior to white male lawmakers. However, such divisions within the Democratic Party were limited to the House of Representatives where racial minorities have grown significantly. In the Senate, the confrontation was not remarkable.

KCI등재

31960년대 미국 단체교섭 제도의 개혁 시도와 실패

저자 : 정영우 ( Yongwoo Jeung )

발행기관 : 서울대학교 미국학연구소 간행물 : 미국학 45권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 65-89 (25 pages)

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This paper investigates the crisis of the U.S. collective bargaining platform during the 1960s. The collective bargaining platform, created as a key political institution to guarantee industrial peace in the New Deal era, became dysfunctional in face of technological changes of the 1950s and 1960s. U.S. labor conflicted with U.S. management over the ways in which the outmoded institution could be updated to meet new challenges. This paper analyzes the labor-management conflicts in a tripartite experiment under Kennedy and the political dynamics it created to better understand the rise of industrial pluralism and industrial adversarialism that characterizes U.S. industrial relations.

KCI등재

4어드릭의 『채색된 북』에 나타난 존재의 연결과 아니시나아베 사유

저자 : 정진만 ( Jin Man Jeong )

발행기관 : 서울대학교 미국학연구소 간행물 : 미국학 45권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 91-117 (27 pages)

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This essay explores how Louise Erdrich's The Painted Drum represents the Anishinaabe worldview of “the good life” (mino-bimaadiziwin) and its significance for the Ojibwes' survival as it focuses on the eponymous drum as a non-human thing and its interrelations with other people who suffer losses all on their own. The essay argues that The Painted Drum envisions the Ojibwes' recovery from their personal and communal losses through their awakening to the idea of “connection” within Anishinaabe mino-bimaadiziwin: the connection between humans and non-humans, death and life, destruction and creation, transcendence and immanence. Reifying such diverse connections, the novel invites the reader to acknowledge the conception of the relational world and the necessity of respecting all animate and inanimate beings.

KCI등재

5서니 다시 읽기: 이창래의 『제스처 라이프』 속 행복한 대상과 정동적 전복성

저자 : 조은영 ( Eunyoung Jo )

발행기관 : 서울대학교 미국학연구소 간행물 : 미국학 45권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 119-143 (25 pages)

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Prior studies on A Gesture Life primarily revolve around Franklin Hata and occasionally touch on Kkutaeh, leaving Hata's adopted daughter Sunny largely overlooked or circumscribed to Hata's perspective. This paper draws on Sara Ahmed's conception of the happy object and the futility of tracing Sunny's narrative and the affective subversion that it exerts on Hata's bid for assimilationist happiness against a predominantly white backdrop. The paper re-reads Sunny's rebelliousness and supposed inability to adjust to life within Hata's social circle as precarious yet persistent forces that destabilize Hata's attempt to achieve the unattainable happiness of belonging as defined by those for whom happiness and belonging function as rituals of exclusion. The paper argues that Sunny's subversive presence redirects Hata's self-defeating single-mindedness toward alternative possibilities of being and connection outside the confines of the American Dream, thereby expanding the articulation and imagination of minority communities in Asian American literature.

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