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한국응용약물학회> Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지)> Behavioral Deficits in Adolescent Mice after Sub-Chronic Administration of NMDA during Early Stage of Postnatal Development

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Behavioral Deficits in Adolescent Mice after Sub-Chronic Administration of NMDA during Early Stage of Postnatal Development

Keremkleroo Jym Adil , Chilly Gay Remonde , Edson Luck Gonzales , Kyung-jun Boo , Kyong Ja Kwon , Dong Hyun Kim , Hee Jin Kim , Jae Hoon Cheong , Chan Young Shin , Se Jin Jeon
  • : 한국응용약물학회
  • : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 07월
  • : 320-327(8pages)
Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지)

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS
DISCUSSION
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
REFERENCES

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Neurodevelopmental disorders are complex conditions that pose difficulty in the modulation of proper motor, sensory and cognitive function due to dysregulated neuronal development. Previous studies have reported that an imbalance in the excitation/ inhibition (E/I) in the brain regulated by glutamatergic and/or GABAergic neurotransmission can cause neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric behavioral deficits such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). NMDA acts as an agonist at the NMDA receptor and imitates the action of the glutamate on that receptor. NMDA however, unlike glutamate, only binds to and regulates the NMDA receptor subtypes and not the other glutamate receptors. This study seeks to determine whether NMDA administration in mice i.e., over-activation of the NMDA system would result in long-lasting behavioral deficits in the adolescent mice. Both gender mice were treated with NMDA or saline at early postnatal developmental period with significant synaptogenesis and synaptic maturation. On postnatal day 28, various behavioral experiments were conducted to assess and identify behavioral characteristics. NMDAtreated mice show social deficits, and repetitive behavior in both gender mice at adolescent periods. However, only the male mice but not female mice showed increased locomotor activity. This study implies that neonatal exposure to NMDA may illicit behavioral features similar to ASD. This study also confirms the validity of the E/I imbalance theory of ASD and that NMDA injection can be used as a pharmacologic model for ASD. Future studies may explore the mechanism behind the gender difference in locomotor activity as well as the human relevance and therapeutic significance of the present findings.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 의약학분야  > 약화학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 1976-9148
  • : 2005-4483
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1993-2022
  • : 1811


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1Polyploidization of Hepatocytes: Insights into the Pathogenesis of Liver Diseases

저자 : Ju-yeon Kim , Haena Choi , Hyeon-ji Kim , Yelin Jee , Minsoo Noh , Mi-ock Lee

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 391-398 (8 pages)

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Polyploidization is a process by which cells are induced to possess more than two sets of chromosomes. Although polyploidization is not frequent in mammals, it is closely associated with development and differentiation of specific tissues and organs. The liver is one of the mammalian organs that displays ploidy dynamics in physiological homeostasis during its development. The ratio of polyploid hepatocytes increases significantly in response to hepatic injury from aging, viral infection, iron overload, surgical resection, or metabolic overload, such as that from non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLDs). One of the unique features of NAFLD is the marked heterogeneity of hepatocyte nuclear size, which is strongly associated with an adverse liver-related outcome, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation, and liver-related death. Thus, hepatic polyploidization has been suggested as a potential driver in the progression of NAFLDs that are involved in the control of the multiple pathogenicity of the diseases. However, the importance of polyploidy in diverse pathophysiological contexts remains elusive. Recently, several studies reported successful improvement of symptoms of NAFLDs by reducing pathological polyploidy or by controlling cell cycle progression in animal models, suggesting that better understanding the mechanisms of pathological hepatic polyploidy may provide insights into the treatment of hepatic disorders.

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2The Role of Mitochondrial Biogenesis Dysfunction in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

저자 : Li-chan Tao , Ting-ting Wang , Lu Zheng , Fei Hua , Jian-jun Li

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 399-408 (10 pages)

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Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is described as abnormalities of myocardial structure and function in diabetic patients without other well-established cardiovascular factors. Although multiple pathological mechanisms involving in this unique myocardial disorder, mitochondrial dysfunction may play an important role in its development of DCM. Recently, considerable progresses have suggested that mitochondrial biogenesis is a tightly controlled process initiating mitochondrial generation and maintaining mitochondrial function, appears to be associated with DCM. Nonetheless, an outlook on the mechanisms and clinical relevance of dysfunction in mitochondrial biogenesis among patients with DCM is not completely understood. In this review, hence, we will summarize the role of mitochondrial biogenesis dysfunction in the development of DCM, especially the molecular underlying mechanism concerning the signaling pathways beyond the stimulation and inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, the evaluations and potential therapeutic strategies regarding mitochondrial biogenesis dysfunction in DCM is also presented.

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3Sinapic Acid Ameliorates REV-ERB α Modulated Mitochondrial Fission against MPTP-Induced Parkinson's Disease Model

저자 : Sang-bin Lee , Hyun Ok Yang

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 409-417 (9 pages)

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Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, and accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with progressive deterioration in PD patients. Previous studies have shown that sinapic acid has a neuroprotective effect, but its mechanisms of action remain unclear. The neuroprotective effect of sinapic acid was assayed in a PD mouse model generated by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) as well as in SH-SY5Y cells. Target protein expression was detected by western blotting. Sinapic acid treatment attenuated the behavioral defects and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the PD models. Sinapic acid also improved mitochondrial function in the PD models. MPTP treatment increased the abundance of mitochondrial fission proteins such as dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and phospho-Drp1 Ser616. In addition, MPTP decreased the expression of the REV-ERB α protein. These changes were attenuated by sinapic acid treatment. We used the pharmacological REV-ERB α inhibitor SR8278 to confirmation of protective effect of sinapic acid. Treatment of SR8278 with sinapic acid reversed the protein expression of phospho-Drp1 Ser616 and REV-ERB α on MPTP-treated mice. Our findings demonstrated that sinapic acid protects against MPTP-induced PD and these effects might be related to the inhibiting abnormal mitochondrial fission through REV-ERB α.

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4Bispecific Antibody-Bound T Cells as a Novel Anticancer Immunotherapy

저자 : Jaewon Cho , Nara Tae , Jae-hee Ahn , Sun-young Chang , Hyun-jeong Ko , Dae Hee Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 418-426 (9 pages)

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Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy is one of the promising anticancer treatments. It shows a high overall response rate with complete response to blood cancer. However, there is a limitation to solid tumor treatment. Additionally, this currently approved therapy exhibits side effects such as cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. Alternatively, bispecific antibody is an innovative therapeutic tool that simultaneously engages specific immune cells to disease-related target cells. Since programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an immune checkpoint molecule highly expressed in some cancer cells, in the current study, we generated αCD3xαPD-L1 bispecific antibody (BiTE) which can engage T cells to PD-L1+ cancer cells. We observed that the BiTE-bound OT-1 T cells effectively killed cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. They substantially increased the recruitment of effector memory CD8+ T cells having CD8+CD44+CD62Llow phenotype in tumor. Interestingly, we also observed that BiTE-bound polyclonal T cells showed highly efficacious tumor killing activity in vivo in comparison with the direct intravenous treatment of bispecific antibody, suggesting that PD-L1-directed migration and engagement of activated T cells might increase cancer cell killing. Additionally, BiTE-bound CAR-T cells which targets human Her-2/neu exhibited enhanced killing effect on Her-2-expressing cancer cells in vivo, suggesting that this could be a novel therapeutic regimen. Collectively, our results suggested that engaging activated T cells with cancer cells using αCD3xαPD-L1 BiTE could be an innovative next generation anticancer therapy which exerts simultaneous inhibitory functions on PD-L1 as well as increasing the infiltration of activated T cells having effector memory phenotype in tumor site.

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5Abiraterone Acetate Attenuates SARS-CoV-2 Replication by Interfering with the Structural Nucleocapsid Protein

저자 : Jinsoo Kim , Seok Young Hwang , Dongbum Kim , Minyoung Kim , Kyeongbin Baek , Mijeong Kang , Seungchan An , Junpyo Gong , Sangkyu Park , Mahmoud Kandeel , Younghee Lee , Minsoo Noh , Hyung-joo Kwon

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 427-434 (8 pages)

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The drug repurposing strategy has been applied to the development of emergency COVID-19 therapeutic medicines. Current drug repurposing approaches have been directed against RNA polymerases and viral proteases. Recently, we found that the inhibition of the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 structural nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) proteins decreased viral replication. In this study, drug repurposing candidates were screened by in silico molecular docking simulation with the SARS-CoV-2 structural N protein. In the ChEMBL database, 1994 FDA-approved drugs were selected for the in silico virtual screening against the N terminal domain (NTD) of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein. The tyrosine 109 residue in the NTD of the N protein was used as the center of the ligand binding grid for the docking simulation. In plaque forming assays performed with SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero E6 cells, atovaquone, abiraterone acetate, and digoxin exhibited a tendency to reduce the size of the viral plagues without affecting the plaque numbers. Abiraterone acetate significantly decreased the accumulation of viral particles in the cell culture supernatants in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, abiraterone acetate significantly decreased the production of N protein and S protein in the SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero E6 cells. In conclusion, abiraterone acetate has therapeutic potential to inhibit the viral replication of SARS-CoV-2.

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6CKD-581 Downregulates Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway by DACT3 Induction in Hematologic Malignancy

저자 : Soo Jin Kim , Suntae Kim , Yong June Choi , U Ji Kim , Keon Wook Kang

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 435-446 (12 pages)

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The present study evaluated the anti-cancer activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibiting CKD-581 in multiple myeloma (MM) and its pharmacological mechanisms. CKD-581 potently inhibited a broad spectrum of HDAC isozymes. It concentration-dependently inhibited proliferation of hematologic cancer cells including MM (MM.1S and RPMI8226) and T cell lymphoma (HH and MJ). It increased the expression of the dishevelled binding antagonist of β-catenin 3 (DACT3) in T cell lymphoma and MM cells, and decreased the expression of c-Myc and β-catenin in MM cells. Additionally, it enhanced phosphorylated p53, p21, cleaved caspase-3 and the subG1 population, and reversely, downregulated cyclin D1, CDK4 and the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family. Finally, administration of CKD-581 exerted a significant anti-cancer activity in MM.1S-implanted xenografts. Overall, CKD-581 shows anticancer activity via inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in hematologic malignancies. This finding is evidence of the therapeutic potential and rationale of CKD-581 for treatment of MM.

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7Comparative Study of Autophagy in Oxaliplatin-Sensitive and Resistant SNU-C5 Colon Cancer Cells

저자 : Sun-jin Boo , Mei Jing Piao , Kyoung Ah Kang , Ao Xuan Zhen , Pincha Devage Sameera Madushan Fernando , Herath Mudiyanselage Udari Lakmini Herath , Seung Joo Lee , Seung Eun Song , Jin Won Hyun

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 447-454 (8 pages)

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Few studies have evaluated the role of autophagy in the development of oxaliplatin (OXT) resistance in colon cancer cells. In this study, we compared the role of autophagy between SNU-C5 colon cancer cells and OXT-resistant SNU-C5 (SNU-C5/OXTR) cells. At the same concentration of OXT, the cytotoxicity of OXT or apoptosis was significantly reduced in SNU-C5/OXTR cells compared with that in SNU-C5 cells. Compared with SNU-C5 cells, SNU-C5/OXTR cells exhibited low levels of autophagy. The expression level of important autophagy proteins, such as autophagy-related protein 5 (Atg5), beclin-1, Atg7, microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B I (LC3-I), and LC3-II, was significantly lower in SNU-C5/OXTR cells than that in SNU-C5 cells. The expression level of the autophagy-essential protein p62 was also lower in SNU-C5/OXTR cells than in SNU-C5 cells. In SNUC5/OXTR cells, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly higher than that in SNU-C5 cells, and treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine restored the reduced autophagy levels. Furthermore, the expression of antioxidant-related nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 transcription factor, heme oxygenase-1, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase were also significantly increased in SNU-C5/OXTR cells. These findings suggest that autophagy is significantly reduced in SNU-C5/OXTR cells compared with SNU-C5 cells, which may be related to the production of ROS in OXT-resistant cells.

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8Efonidipine Inhibits JNK and NF-κB Pathway to Attenuate Inflammation and Cell Migration Induced by Lipopolysaccharide in Microglial Cells

저자 : Ngoc Minh Nguyen , Men Thi Hoai Duong , Phuong Linh Nguyen , Bich Phuong Bui , Hee-chul Ahn , Jungsook Cho

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 455-464 (10 pages)

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Efonidipine, a calcium channel blocker, is widely used for the treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In our preliminary study using structure-based virtual screening, efonidipine was identified as a potential inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3). Although its antihypertensive effect is widely known, the role of efonidipine in the central nervous system has remained elusive. The present study investigated the effects of efonidipine on the inflammation and cell migration induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using murine BV2 and human HMC3 microglial cell lines and elucidated signaling molecules mediating its effects. We found that the phosphorylations of JNK and its downstream molecule c-Jun in LPS-treated BV2 cells were declined by efonidipine, confirming the finding from virtual screening. In addition, efonidipine inhibited the LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory factors, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and nitric oxide. Similarly, the IL-1β production in LPS-treated HMC3 cells was also inhibited by efonidipine. Efonidipine markedly impeded cell migration stimulated by LPS in both cells. Furthermore, it inhibited the phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B, thereby suppressing nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in LPS-treated BV2 cells. Taken together, efonidipine exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-migratory effects in LPS-treated microglial cells through inhibition of the JNK/NF-κB pathway. These findings imply that efonidipine may be a potential candidate for drug repositioning, with beneficial impacts on brain disorders associated with neuroinflammation.

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9Anti-Tumor Effect of IDF-11774, an Inhibitor of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1, on Melanoma

저자 : Nan-hyung Kim , Jong Heon Jeong , Yu Jeong Park , Hui Young Shin , Woo Kyoung Choi , Kyeong Lee , Ai-young Lee

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 465-472 (8 pages)

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Melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancers. Hypoxia contributes to the aggressiveness of melanoma by promoting cancer growth and metastasis. Upregulation of cyclin D1 can promote uncontrolled cell proliferation in melanoma, whereas stimulation of cytotoxic T cell activity can inhibit it. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in melanoma metastasis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a main transcriptional mediator that regulates many genes related to hypoxia. CoCl2 is one of the most commonly used hypoxia-mimetic chemicals in cell culture. In this study, inhibitory effects of IDF-11774, an inhibitor of HIF-1α, on melanoma growth and metastasis were examined using cultured B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and nude mice transplanted with B16F10 melanoma cells in the presence or absence of CoCl2-induced hypoxia. IDF-11774 reduced HIF-1α up-regulation and cell survival, but increased cytotoxicity of cultured melanoma cells under CoCl2-induced hypoxia. IDF-11774 also reduced tumor size and local invasion of B16F10 melanoma in nude mice along with HIF-1α downregulation. Expression levels of cyclin D1 in melanoma were increased by CoCl2 but decreased by IDF-11774. Apoptosis of melanoma cells and infiltration of cytotoxic T cells were increased in melanoma after treatment with IDF-11774. EMT was stimulated by CoCl2, but restored by IDF-11774. Overall, IDF-11774 inhibited the growth and metastasis of B16F10 melanoma via HIF-1α downregulation. The growth of B16F10 melanoma was inhibited by cyclin D1 downregulation and cytotoxic T cell stimulation. Metastasis of B16F10 melanoma was inhibited by EMT suppression.

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10Involvement of IKK/IkBα/NF-kB p65 Signaling into the Regulative Effect of Engeletin on MUC5AC Mucin Gene Expression in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

저자 : Rajib Hossain , Kyung-il Kim , Xin Li , Hyun Jae Lee , Choong Jae Lee

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 473-478 (6 pages)

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In this study, we examined whether engeletin exerts an effect on the gene expression of MUC5AC mucin, in human pulmonary epithelial NCI-H292 cells. The cells were pretreated with engeletin for 30 min and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), for the following 24 h. The effect of engeletin on PMA-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) signaling pathway was also investigated. Engeletin suppressed the mRNA expression and production of MUC5AC mucin, induced by PMA through the inhibition of degradation of inhibitory kappa Bα (IkBα) and NF-kB p65 nuclear translocation. These results suggest engeletin inhibits the gene expression of mucin through regulation of NF-kB signaling pathway, in human airway epithelial cells.

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1Strategies for Manipulating T Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy

저자 : Hyang-mi Lee

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 299-308 (10 pages)

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T cells are attractive targets for the development of immunotherapy to treat cancer due to their biological features, capacity of cytotoxicity, and antigen-specific binding of receptors. Novel strategies that can modulate T cell functions or receptor reactivity provide effective therapies, including checkpoint inhibitor, bispecific antibody, and adoptive transfer of T cells transduced with tumor antigen-specific receptors. T cell-based therapies have presented successful pre-clinical/clinical outcomes despite their common immune-related adverse effects. Ongoing studies will allow us to advance current T cell therapies and develop innovative personalized T cell therapies. This review summarizes immunotherapeutic approaches with a focus on T cells. Anti-cancer T cell therapies are also discussed regarding their biological perspectives, efficacy, toxicity, challenges, and opportunities.

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2Metabolic Bone Diseases and New Drug Developments

저자 : Vijayakumar Natesan , Sung-jin Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 309-319 (11 pages)

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Metabolic bone diseases are serious health issues worldwide, since several million individuals over the age of 50 are at risk of bone damage and should be worried about their bone health. One in every two women and one in every four men will break a bone during their lifetime due to a metabolic bone disease. Early detection, raising bone health awareness, and maintaining a balanced healthy diet may reduce the risk of skeletal fractures caused by metabolic bone diseases. This review compiles information on the most common metabolic bone diseases (osteoporosis, primary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, and fluorosis disease) seen in the global population, including their symptoms, mechanisms, and causes, as well as discussing their prevention and the development of new drugs for treatment. A large amount of research literature suggests that balanced nutrition and balanced periodic supplementation of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D can improve re-absorption and the regrowth of bones, and inhibit the formation of skeletal fractures, except in the case of hereditary bone diseases. Meanwhile, new and improved drug formulations, such as raloxifene, teriparatide, sclerostin, denosumab, and abaloparatide, have been successfully developed and administered as treatments for metabolic bone diseases, while others (romososumab and odanacatib) are in various stages of clinical trials.

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3Behavioral Deficits in Adolescent Mice after Sub-Chronic Administration of NMDA during Early Stage of Postnatal Development

저자 : Keremkleroo Jym Adil , Chilly Gay Remonde , Edson Luck Gonzales , Kyung-jun Boo , Kyong Ja Kwon , Dong Hyun Kim , Hee Jin Kim , Jae Hoon Cheong , Chan Young Shin , Se Jin Jeon

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 320-327 (8 pages)

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Neurodevelopmental disorders are complex conditions that pose difficulty in the modulation of proper motor, sensory and cognitive function due to dysregulated neuronal development. Previous studies have reported that an imbalance in the excitation/ inhibition (E/I) in the brain regulated by glutamatergic and/or GABAergic neurotransmission can cause neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric behavioral deficits such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). NMDA acts as an agonist at the NMDA receptor and imitates the action of the glutamate on that receptor. NMDA however, unlike glutamate, only binds to and regulates the NMDA receptor subtypes and not the other glutamate receptors. This study seeks to determine whether NMDA administration in mice i.e., over-activation of the NMDA system would result in long-lasting behavioral deficits in the adolescent mice. Both gender mice were treated with NMDA or saline at early postnatal developmental period with significant synaptogenesis and synaptic maturation. On postnatal day 28, various behavioral experiments were conducted to assess and identify behavioral characteristics. NMDAtreated mice show social deficits, and repetitive behavior in both gender mice at adolescent periods. However, only the male mice but not female mice showed increased locomotor activity. This study implies that neonatal exposure to NMDA may illicit behavioral features similar to ASD. This study also confirms the validity of the E/I imbalance theory of ASD and that NMDA injection can be used as a pharmacologic model for ASD. Future studies may explore the mechanism behind the gender difference in locomotor activity as well as the human relevance and therapeutic significance of the present findings.

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4Repeated Morphine Administration Increases TRPV1 mRNA Expression and Autoradiographic Binding at Supraspinal Sites in the Pain Pathway

저자 : Thi-lien Nguyen , Yun-son Nam , Seok-yong Lee , Choon-gon Jang

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 328-333 (6 pages)

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Repeated morphine administration induces tolerance to its analgesic effects. A previous study reported that repeated morphine treatment activates transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) expression in the sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglion, and spinal cord, contributing to morphine tolerance. In the present study, we analyzed TRPV1 expression and binding sites in supraspinal pain pathways in morphine-tolerant mice. The TRPV1 mRNA levels and binding sites were remarkably increased in the cortex and thalamus of these animals. Our data provide additional insights into the effects of morphine on TRPV1 in the brain and suggest that changes in the expression of, and binding to TRPV1 in the brain are involved in morphine tolerance.

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5Peroxiredoxin 6 Overexpression Induces Anxiolytic and Depression-Like Behaviors by Regulating the Serotonergic Pathway in Mice

저자 : Sun Mi Gu , Eunhye Yu , Young Eun Kim , Seong Shoon Yoon , Dohyun Lee , Jin Tae Hong , Jaesuk Yun

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 334-339 (6 pages)

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Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is a bifunctional protein with both glutathione peroxidase and calcium-independent phospholipase activity. Recently, we reported that PRDX6 plays an important role in dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. However, the relationship between PRDX6 function and emotional behavior remains elusive. In the present study, we examined depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in PRDX6-overexpressing transgenic (PRDX6-Tg) mice using the forced swim test, tail suspension test, open field paradigm, and elevated plus-maze. PRDX6-Tg mice exhibited depression-like behaviors and low anxiety. In particular, female PRDX6-Tg mice exhibited anxiolytic behavior in the open field test. Furthermore, the serotonin content in the cortex and 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced head twitch response were both reduced in PRDX6-Tg mice. Interestingly, levels of dopa decarboxylase expression in the cortex were decreased in male PRDX6-Tg mice but not in female mice. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of PRDX6 in 5-HT synthesis and suggest that PRDX6 overexpression can induce depression-like behaviors via downregulation of the serotonergic neuronal system.

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6PRR16/Largen Induces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition through the Interaction with ABI2 Leading to the Activation of ABL1 Kinase

저자 : Gyeoung Jin Kang , Jung Ho Park , Hyun Ji Kim , Eun Ji Kim , Boram Kim , Hyun Jung Byun , Lu Yu , Tuan Minh Nguyen , Thi Ha Nguyen , Kyung Sung Kim , Hiệu Phùng Huy , Mostafizur Rahman , Ye Hyeon Kim ,

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 340-347 (8 pages)

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Advanced or metastatic breast cancer affects multiple organs and is a leading cause of cancer-related death. Cancer metastasis is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal metastasis (EMT). However, the specific signals that induce and regulate EMT in carcinoma cells remain unclear. PRR16/Largen is a cell size regulator that is independent of mTOR and Hippo signalling pathways. However, little is known about the role PRR16 plays in the EMT process. We found that the expression of PRR16 was increased in mesenchymal breast cancer cell lines. PRR16 overexpression induced EMT in MCF7 breast cancer cells and enhances migration and invasion. To determine how PRR16 induces EMT, the binding proteins for PRR16 were screened, revealing that PRR16 binds to Abl interactor 2 (ABI2). We then investigated whether ABI2 is involved in EMT. Gene silencing of ABI2 induces EMT, leading to enhanced migration and invasion. ABI2 is a gene that codes for a protein that interacts with ABL proto-oncogene 1 (ABL1) kinase. Therefore, we investigated whether the change in ABI2 expression affected the activation of ABL1 kinase. The knockdown of ABI2 and PRR16 overexpression increased the phosphorylation of Y412 in ABL1 kinase. Our results suggest that PRR16 may be involved in EMT by binding to ABI2 and interfering with its inhibition of ABL1 kinase. This indicates that ABL1 kinase inhibitors may be potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of PRR16-related breast cancer.

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7Benzyl Isothiocyanate-Induced Cytotoxicity via the Inhibition of Autophagy and Lysosomal Function in AGS Cells

저자 : Wah Wah Po , Won Seok Choi , Tin Myo Khing , Ji-yun Lee , Jong Hyuk Lee , Joon Seok Bang , Young Sil Min , Ji Hoon Jeong , Uy Dong Sohn

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 348-359 (12 pages)

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Gastric adenocarcinoma is among the top causes of cancer-related death and is one of the most commonly diagnosed carcinomas worldwide. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) has been reported to inhibit the gastric cancer metastasis. In our previous study, BITC induced apoptosis in AGS cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of BITC on autophagy mechanism in AGS cells. First, the AGS cells were treated with 5, 10, or 15 μM BITC for 24 h, followed by an analysis of the autophagy mechanism. The expression level of autophagy proteins involved in different steps of autophagy, such as LC3B, p62/SQSTM1, Atg5-Atg12, Beclin1, p-mTOR/mTOR ratio, and class III PI3K was measured in the BITC-treated cells. Lysosomal function was investigated using cathepsin activity and Bafilomycin A1, an autophagy degradation stage inhibitor. Methods including qPCR, western blotting, and immunocytochemistry were employed to detect the protein expression levels. Acridine orange staining and omnicathepsin assay were conducted to analyze the lysosomal function. siRNA transfection was performed to knock down the LC3B gene. BITC reduced the level of autophagy protein such as Beclin 1, class III PI3K, and Atg5-Atg12. BITC also induced lysosomal dysfunction which was shown as reducing cathepsin activity, protein level of cathepsin, and enlargement of acidic vesicle. Overall, the results showed that the BITC-induced AGS cell death mechanism also comprises the inhibition of the cytoprotective autophagy at both initiation and degradation steps.

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8Characterization of KRC-108 as a TrkA Kinase Inhibitor with Anti-Tumor Effects

저자 : Hyo Jeong Lee , Yeongyu Moon , Jungil Choi , Jeong Doo Heo , Sekwang Kim , Hari Krishna Nallapaneni , Young-won Chin , Jongkook Lee , Sun-young Han

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 360-367 (8 pages)

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Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) protein is a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by the NTRK1 gene. TrkA signaling mediates the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of neurons and other cells following stimulation by its ligand, the nerve growth factor. Chromosomal rearrangements of the NTRK1 gene result in the generation of TrkA fusion protein, which is known to cause deregulation of TrkA signaling. Targeting TrkA activity represents a promising strategy for the treatment of cancers that harbor the TrkA fusion protein. In this study, we evaluated the TrkA-inhibitory activity of the benzoxazole compound KRC-108. KRC-108 inhibited TrkA activity in an in vitro kinase assay, and suppressed the growth of KM12C colon cancer cells harboring an NTRK1 gene fusion. KRC-108 treatment induced cell cycle arrest, apoptotic cell death, and autophagy. KRC-108 suppressed the phosphorylation of downstream signaling molecules of TrkA, including Akt, phospholipase Cγ, and ERK1/2. Furthermore, KRC-108 exhibited antitumor activity in vivo in a KM12C cell xenograft model. These results indicate that KRC-108 may be a promising therapeutic agent for Trk fusion-positive cancers.

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9High Levels of Hyaluronic Acid Synthase-2 Mediate NRF2-Driven Chemoresistance in Breast Cancer Cells

저자 : Bo-hyun Choi , Ingeun Ryoo , Kyeong Hwa Sim , Hyeon-jin Ahn , Youn Ju Lee , Mi-kyoung Kwak

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 368-379 (12 pages)

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Hyaluronic acid (HA), a ligand of CD44, accumulates in some types of tumors and is responsible for tumor progression. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NRF2) regulates cytoprotective genes and drug transporters, which promotes therapy resistance in tumors. Previously, we showed that high levels of CD44 are associated with NRF2 activation in cancer stem like-cells. Herein, we demonstrate that HA production was increased in doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer MCF7 cells (MCF7-DR) via the upregulation of HA synthase-2 (HAS2). HA incubation increased NRF2, aldo-keto reductase 1C1 (AKR1C1), and multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) levels. Silencing of HAS2 or CD44 suppressed NRF2 signaling in MCF7-DR, which was accompanied by increased doxorubicin sensitivity. The treatment with a HAS2 inhibitor, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), decreased NRF2, AKR1C1, and MDR1 levels in MCF7-DR. Subsequently, 4-MU treatment inhibited sphere formation and doxorubicin resistance in MCF7-DR. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data analysis across 32 types of tumors indicates the amplification of HAS2 gene is a common genetic alteration and is negatively correlated with the overall survival rate. In addition, high HAS2 mRNA levels are associated with increased NRF2 signaling and poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. Collectively, these indicate that HAS2 elevation contributes to chemoresistance and sphere formation capacity of drug-resistant MCF7 cells by activating CD44/ NRF2 signaling, suggesting a potential benefit of HAS2 inhibition.

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10Snail Promotes Cancer Cell Proliferation via Its Interaction with the BIRC3

저자 : Seung Bae Rho , Hyun-jung Byun , Boh-ram Kim , Chang Hoon Lee

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 380-388 (9 pages)

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Snail is implicated in tumour growth and metastasis and is up-regulated in various human tumours. Although the role of Snails in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which is particularly important in cancer metastasis, is well known, how they regulate tumour growth is poorly described. In this study, the possible molecular mechanisms of Snail in tumour growth were explored. Baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) repeat-containing protein 3 (BIRC3), a co-activator of cell proliferation during tumourigenesis, was identified as a Snail-binding protein via a yeast two-hybrid system. Since BIRC3 is important for cell survival, the effect of BIRC3 binding partner Snail on cell survival was investigated in ovarian cancer cell lines. Results revealed that Bax expression was activated, while the expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins were markedly decreased by small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for Snail (siSnail). siSnail, the binding partner of siBIRC3, activated the tumour suppressor function of p53 by promoting p53 protein stability. Conversely, BIRC3 could interact with Snail, for this reason, the possibility of BIRC3 involvement in EMT was investigated. BIRC3 overexpression resulted in a decreased expression of the epithelial marker and an increased expression of the mesenchymal markers. siSnail or siBIRC3 reduced the mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. These results provide evidence that Snail promotes cell proliferation by interacting with BIRC3 and that BIRC3 might be involved in EMT via binding to Snail in ovarian cancer cells. Therefore, our results suggested the novel relevance of BIRC3, the binding partner of Snail, in ovarian cancer development.

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