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대한내분비학회> Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지)> Improvement in Age at Mortality and Changes in Causes of Death in the Population with Diabetes: An Analysis of Data from the Korean National Health Insurance and Statistical Information Service, 2006 to 2018

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Improvement in Age at Mortality and Changes in Causes of Death in the Population with Diabetes: An Analysis of Data from the Korean National Health Insurance and Statistical Information Service, 2006 to 2018

Eugene Han , Sun Ok Song , Hye Soon Kim , Kang Ju Son , Sun Ha Jee , Bong-soo Cha , Byung-wan Lee
  • : 대한내분비학회
  • : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 06월
  • : 466-474(9pages)
Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지)

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
METHODS
RESULTS
DISCUSSION
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
ORCID
REFERENCES

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초록 보기

Background: Diabetes is a leading cause of death that is responsible for 1.6 million annual deaths worldwide. However, the life expectancy and age at death of people with diabetes have been a matter of debate.
Methods: The National Health Insurance Service claims database, merged with death records from the National Statistical Information Service in Korea from 2006 to 2018, was analyzed.
Results: In total, 1,432,567 deaths were collected. The overall age at death increased by 0.44 and 0.26 year/year in the diabetes and control populations, respectively. The disparity in the mean age at death between the diabetes and control populations narrowed from 5.2 years in 2006 to 3.0 years in 2018 (P<0.001). In a subgroup analysis according to the presence of comorbid diseases, the number and proportion of deaths remained steady in the group with diabetes only, but steadily increased in the groups with diabetes combined with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension. Compared to the control population, the increase in the mean death age was higher in the population with diabetes. This trend was more prominent in the groups with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension than in the diabetes only group. Deaths from vascular disease and diabetes decreased, whereas deaths from cancer and pneumonia increased. The decline in the proportion of deaths from vascular disease was greater in the diabetes groups with hypertension and/or dyslipidemia than in the control population.
Conclusion: The age at death in the population with diabetes increased more steeply and reached a comparable level to those without diabetes.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 의약학분야  > 내과학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 2093-596X
  • : 2093-5978
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1986-2022
  • : 2631


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1Euthyroid Thyroperoxidase Antibody Positivity during Pregnancy, to Treat or Not to Treat?

저자 : Tim I. M. Korevaar

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 387-391 (5 pages)

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Thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) positivity is a well-known risk factor for thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and is associated with a suboptimal response to thyroidal stimulation by human chorionic gonadotropin. About 75% of TPOAb positive women are euthyroid and there seems to be a higher risk of predominantly miscarriage and preterm birth in this subgroup. Nonetheless, clinical decision making with regards to gestational levothyroxine treatment remains difficult due to a lack of large randomized trials. Future studies assessing dose-dependent associations and additional biomarkers that can distinguish low-risk from high-risk individuals will be key in disentangling the crude clinical data.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

2Interplay of Vitamin D and CYP3A4 Polymorphisms in Endocrine Disorders and Cancer

저자 : Siva Swapna Kasarla , Vannuruswamy Garikapati , Yashwant Kumar , Sujatha Dodoala

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 392-407 (16 pages)

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Vitamin D has received considerable optimistic attention as a potentially important factor in many pathological states over the past few decades. However, the proportion of the active form of vitamin D metabolites responsible for biological activity is highly questionable in disease states due to flexible alterations in the enzymes responsible for their metabolism. For instance, CYP3A4 plays a crucial role in the biotransformation of vitamin D and other drug substances. Food-drug and/or drug-drug interactions, the disease state, genetic polymorphism, age, sex, diet, and environmental factors all influence CYP3A4 activity. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP450-encoding genes have received considerable attention in the past few decades due to their extensive impact on the pharmacokinetic and dynamic properties of drugs and endogenous substances. In this review, we focused on CYP3A4 polymorphisms and their interplay with vitamin D metabolism and summarized the role of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis, bone diseases, diabetes, cancer, other diseases, and drug substances. We also reviewed clinical observations pertaining to CYP3A4 polymorphisms among the aforementioned disease conditions. In addition, we highlighted the future perspectives of studying the pharmacogenetics of CYP3A4, which may have potential clinical significance for developing novel diagnostic genetic markers that will ascertain disease risk and progression.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

3Human Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle: A Tool for Metabolic Research

저자 : Ji-hoon Kim , Seung-min Yu , Jang Won Son

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 408-414 (7 pages)

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Skeletal muscle is now regarded as an endocrine organ based on its secretion of myokines and exerkines, which, in response to metabolic stimuli, regulate the crosstalk between the skeletal muscle and other metabolic organs in terms of systemic energy homeostasis. This conceptual basis of skeletal muscle as a metabolically active organ has provided insights into the potential role of physical inactivity and conditions altering muscle quality and quantity in the development of multiple metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes. Therefore, it is important to understand human muscle physiology more deeply in relation to the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Since monolayer cell lines or animal models used in conventional research differ from the pathophysiological features of the human body, there is increasing need for more physiologically relevant in vitro models of human skeletal muscle. Here, we introduce recent studies on in vitro models of human skeletal muscle generated from adult myogenic progenitors or pluripotent stem cells and summarize recent progress in the development of three-dimensional (3D) bioartificial muscle, which mimics the physiological complexity of native skeletal muscle tissue in terms of maturation and functionality. We then discuss the future of skeletal muscle 3D-organoid culture technology in the field of metabolic research for studying pathological mechanisms and developing personalized therapeutic strategies.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

4Extra-Glycemic Effects of Anti-Diabetic Medications: Two Birds with One Stone?

저자 : Eun-jung Rhee

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 415-429 (15 pages)

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The world is suffering from a rapid increase in the number of people with diabetes due to the increased prevalence of obesity and lengthened life span. Since the development of insulin thanks to the efforts of Prof. Banting and Dr. Best in 1922, for which they won the Nobel Prize, remarkable developments in anti-diabetic medications have dramatically lengthened the lifespan of patients with diabetes. However, the control rate of hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes remains unsatisfactory, since glycemic control requires both medication and lifestyle modifications to slow the deterioration of pancreatic beta-cell function and prevent diabetic complications. From the initial “triumvirate” to the “ominous octet,” and now the “egregious eleven,” the number of organs recognized as being involved in hyperglycemia and diabetes has increased with the development of anti-diabetic medications. Recent unexpected results from outcome trials of anti-diabetic medications have enabled anti-diabetic medications to be indicated for the prevention of chronic kidney disease and heart failure, even in patients without diabetes. In this review, I would like to summarize the extra-glycemic effects of anti-diabetic medications.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

5Sclerostin as a Putative Myokine in Sarcopenia

저자 : Hyon-seung Yi

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 430-431 (2 pages)

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6Short-Chain Fatty Acids Attenuate Renal Fibrosis and Enhance Autophagy of Renal Tubular Cells in Diabetic Mice Through the HDAC2/ULK1 Axis

저자 : Xiaoying Ma , Qiong Wang

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 432-443 (12 pages)

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Background: This study investigated the effect of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on diabetes in a mouse model.
Methods: Autophagy in Akita mice and streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice was determined by Western blots and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Western blots, IHC, hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson staining, periodic acid-Schiff staining, and picrosirius red staining were conducted to detect whether autophagy and renal function improved in Akita mice and STZ-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice after treatment of SCFAs. Western blots, IHC, and chromatin immunoprecipitation were performed to determine whether SCFAs affected diabetic mice via the histone deacetylase (HDAC2)/unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) axis. Diabetic mice with kidney-specific knockout of HDAC2 were constructed, and IHC, Masson staining, and Western blots were carried out to detect whether the deletion of endogenous HDAC2 contributed to the improvement of autophagy and renal fibrosis in diabetic mice.
Results: Reduced autophagy and severe fibrosis were observed in Akita mice and STZ-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. Increased autophagy and reduced renal cell fibrosis were found in SCFA-treated Akita diabetic mice and STZ-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. Diabetic mice treated with SCFAs had lower HDAC2 expression and more enriched binding of ULK1 promoter sequences to H3K27Ac. Endogenous knockout of HDAC2 caused enhanced autophagy and decreased renal fibrosis in diabetic mice treated with SCFAs.
Conclusion: SCFAs enhanced autophagy of renal tubular cells and attenuated renal fibrosis in diabetic mice through the HDAC2/ULK1 axis.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

7Effect of the Concomitant Use of Subcutaneous Basal Insulin and Intravenous Insulin Infusion in the Treatment of Severe Hyperglycemic Patients

저자 : Yejee Lim , Jung Hun Ohn , Joo Jeong , Jiwon Ryu , Sun-wook Kim , Jae Ho Cho , Hee-sun Park , Hye Won Kim , Jongchan Lee , Eun Sun Kim , Nak-hyun Kim , You Hwan Jo , Hak Chul Jang

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 444-454 (11 pages)

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Background: No consensus exists regarding the early use of subcutaneous (SC) basal insulin facilitating the transition from continuous intravenous insulin infusion (CIII) to multiple SC insulin injections in patients with severe hyperglycemia other than diabetic ketoacidosis. This study evaluated the effect of early co-administration of SC basal insulin with CIII on glucose control in patients with severe hyperglycemia.
Methods: Patients who received CIII for the management of severe hyperglycemia were divided into two groups: the early basal insulin group (n=86) if they received the first SC basal insulin 0.25 U/kg body weight within 24 hours of CIII initiation and ≥4 hours before discontinuation, and the delayed basal insulin group (n=79) if they were not classified as the early basal insulin group. Rebound hyperglycemia was defined as blood glucose level of >250 mg/dL in 24 hours following CIII discontinuation. Propensity score matching (PSM) methods were additionally employed for adjusting the confounding factors (n=108).
Results: The rebound hyperglycemia incidence was significantly lower in the early basal insulin group than in the delayed basal insulin group (54.7% vs. 86.1%), despite using PSM methods (51.9%, 85.2%). The length of hospital stay was shorter in the early basal insulin group than in the delayed basal insulin group (8.5 days vs. 9.6 days, P=0.027). The hypoglycemia incidence did not differ between the groups.
Conclusion: Early co-administration of basal insulin with CIII prevents rebound hyperglycemia and shorten hospital stay without increasing the hypoglycemic events in patients with severe hyperglycemia.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

8The Impact of Insulin Resistance on Hepatic Fibrosis among United States Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: NHANES 2017 to 2018

저자 : Ji Cheol Bae , Lauren A. Beste , Kristina M. Utzschneider

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 455-465 (11 pages)

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Background: We aimed to investigate the association of hepatic steatosis with liver fibrosis and to assess the interactive effects of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance on liver fibrosis in a nationally representative sample of United States adults.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017 to 2018, which for the first time included transient elastography to assess liver stiffness and hepatic steatosis. We evaluated the association between hepatic steatosis (using controlled attenuation parameter [CAP]) and clinically significant liver fibrosis (defined as liver stiffness ≥7.5 kPa) using logistic regression with an interaction term for hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance (defined as homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ≥3.0).
Results: Among adults undergoing transient elastography (n=2,023), 45.9% had moderate or greater hepatic steatosis and 11.3% had clinically significant liver fibrosis. After adjustment for demographic and metabolic factors, the odds of significant liver fibrosis increased as CAP score rose (odds ratio, 1.35 per standard deviation increment; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.64). We detected a significant interaction effect between CAP score and insulin resistance on the probability of significant liver fibrosis (P=0.016 for interaction). The probability of significant liver fibrosis increased in the presence of insulin resistance with increasing CAP score, while those without insulin resistance had low probability of significant liver fibrosis, even with high CAP scores.
Conclusion: Individuals with hepatic steatosis had higher odds of fibrosis when insulin resistance was present. Our findings emphasize the importance of the metabolic aspects of the disease on fibrosis risk and suggest a need to better identify patients with metabolic associated fatty liver disease.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

9Improvement in Age at Mortality and Changes in Causes of Death in the Population with Diabetes: An Analysis of Data from the Korean National Health Insurance and Statistical Information Service, 2006 to 2018

저자 : Eugene Han , Sun Ok Song , Hye Soon Kim , Kang Ju Son , Sun Ha Jee , Bong-soo Cha , Byung-wan Lee

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 466-474 (9 pages)

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Background: Diabetes is a leading cause of death that is responsible for 1.6 million annual deaths worldwide. However, the life expectancy and age at death of people with diabetes have been a matter of debate.
Methods: The National Health Insurance Service claims database, merged with death records from the National Statistical Information Service in Korea from 2006 to 2018, was analyzed.
Results: In total, 1,432,567 deaths were collected. The overall age at death increased by 0.44 and 0.26 year/year in the diabetes and control populations, respectively. The disparity in the mean age at death between the diabetes and control populations narrowed from 5.2 years in 2006 to 3.0 years in 2018 (P<0.001). In a subgroup analysis according to the presence of comorbid diseases, the number and proportion of deaths remained steady in the group with diabetes only, but steadily increased in the groups with diabetes combined with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension. Compared to the control population, the increase in the mean death age was higher in the population with diabetes. This trend was more prominent in the groups with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension than in the diabetes only group. Deaths from vascular disease and diabetes decreased, whereas deaths from cancer and pneumonia increased. The decline in the proportion of deaths from vascular disease was greater in the diabetes groups with hypertension and/or dyslipidemia than in the control population.
Conclusion: The age at death in the population with diabetes increased more steeply and reached a comparable level to those without diabetes.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

10Association between the Blautia/Bacteroides Ratio and Altered Body Mass Index after Bariatric Surgery

저자 : Yoonhong Kim , Dooheon Son , Bu Kyung Kim , Ki Hyun Kim , Kyung Won Seo , Kyoungwon Jung , Seun Ja Park , Sanghyun Lim , Jae Hyun Kim

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 475-486 (12 pages)

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Background: Current evidence support that the gut microbiota plays a potential role in obesity. Bariatric surgery can reduce excess weight and decrease the risk of life-threatening weight-related health problems and may also influence gut microbiota. In this study, we aimed to investigate the changes in gut microbiota before and after bariatric surgery and evaluate the association of the gut microbial shift and altered body mass index (BMI) after bariatric surgery.
Methods: Between January 2019 and July 2020, stools from 58 patients scheduled for bariatric surgery were collected. Six months after bariatric surgery, stools from 22 of these patients were re-collected, and the changes in gut microbiota before and after bariatric surgery were evaluated. In addition, the differences in gut microbiota between patients with severe obesity (BMI >35 kg/m2, n=42) and healthy volunteers with normal BMI (18.8 to 22.8 kg/m2, n=41) were investigated.
Results: The gut microbiota of patients who underwent bariatric surgery showed increased α-diversity and differed β-diversity compared with those before surgery. Interestingly, Blautia was decreased and Bacteriodes was increased at the genus level after bariatric surgery. Further, the Blautia/Bacteroides ratio showed a positive correlation with BMI. To validate these results, we compared the gut microbiota from severely obese patients with high BMI with those from healthy volunteers and demonstrated that the Blautia/Bacteroides ratio correlated positively with BMI.
Conclusion: In the gut microbial analysis of patients who underwent bariatric surgery, we presented that the Blautia/Bacteroides ratio had changed after bariatric surgery and showed a positive correlation with BMI.

12
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KCI등재SCOUPUS

1Euthyroid Thyroperoxidase Antibody Positivity during Pregnancy, to Treat or Not to Treat?

저자 : Tim I. M. Korevaar

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 387-391 (5 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

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Thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) positivity is a well-known risk factor for thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and is associated with a suboptimal response to thyroidal stimulation by human chorionic gonadotropin. About 75% of TPOAb positive women are euthyroid and there seems to be a higher risk of predominantly miscarriage and preterm birth in this subgroup. Nonetheless, clinical decision making with regards to gestational levothyroxine treatment remains difficult due to a lack of large randomized trials. Future studies assessing dose-dependent associations and additional biomarkers that can distinguish low-risk from high-risk individuals will be key in disentangling the crude clinical data.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

2Interplay of Vitamin D and CYP3A4 Polymorphisms in Endocrine Disorders and Cancer

저자 : Siva Swapna Kasarla , Vannuruswamy Garikapati , Yashwant Kumar , Sujatha Dodoala

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 392-407 (16 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

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Vitamin D has received considerable optimistic attention as a potentially important factor in many pathological states over the past few decades. However, the proportion of the active form of vitamin D metabolites responsible for biological activity is highly questionable in disease states due to flexible alterations in the enzymes responsible for their metabolism. For instance, CYP3A4 plays a crucial role in the biotransformation of vitamin D and other drug substances. Food-drug and/or drug-drug interactions, the disease state, genetic polymorphism, age, sex, diet, and environmental factors all influence CYP3A4 activity. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP450-encoding genes have received considerable attention in the past few decades due to their extensive impact on the pharmacokinetic and dynamic properties of drugs and endogenous substances. In this review, we focused on CYP3A4 polymorphisms and their interplay with vitamin D metabolism and summarized the role of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis, bone diseases, diabetes, cancer, other diseases, and drug substances. We also reviewed clinical observations pertaining to CYP3A4 polymorphisms among the aforementioned disease conditions. In addition, we highlighted the future perspectives of studying the pharmacogenetics of CYP3A4, which may have potential clinical significance for developing novel diagnostic genetic markers that will ascertain disease risk and progression.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

3Human Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle: A Tool for Metabolic Research

저자 : Ji-hoon Kim , Seung-min Yu , Jang Won Son

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 408-414 (7 pages)

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Skeletal muscle is now regarded as an endocrine organ based on its secretion of myokines and exerkines, which, in response to metabolic stimuli, regulate the crosstalk between the skeletal muscle and other metabolic organs in terms of systemic energy homeostasis. This conceptual basis of skeletal muscle as a metabolically active organ has provided insights into the potential role of physical inactivity and conditions altering muscle quality and quantity in the development of multiple metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes. Therefore, it is important to understand human muscle physiology more deeply in relation to the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Since monolayer cell lines or animal models used in conventional research differ from the pathophysiological features of the human body, there is increasing need for more physiologically relevant in vitro models of human skeletal muscle. Here, we introduce recent studies on in vitro models of human skeletal muscle generated from adult myogenic progenitors or pluripotent stem cells and summarize recent progress in the development of three-dimensional (3D) bioartificial muscle, which mimics the physiological complexity of native skeletal muscle tissue in terms of maturation and functionality. We then discuss the future of skeletal muscle 3D-organoid culture technology in the field of metabolic research for studying pathological mechanisms and developing personalized therapeutic strategies.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

4Extra-Glycemic Effects of Anti-Diabetic Medications: Two Birds with One Stone?

저자 : Eun-jung Rhee

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 415-429 (15 pages)

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The world is suffering from a rapid increase in the number of people with diabetes due to the increased prevalence of obesity and lengthened life span. Since the development of insulin thanks to the efforts of Prof. Banting and Dr. Best in 1922, for which they won the Nobel Prize, remarkable developments in anti-diabetic medications have dramatically lengthened the lifespan of patients with diabetes. However, the control rate of hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes remains unsatisfactory, since glycemic control requires both medication and lifestyle modifications to slow the deterioration of pancreatic beta-cell function and prevent diabetic complications. From the initial “triumvirate” to the “ominous octet,” and now the “egregious eleven,” the number of organs recognized as being involved in hyperglycemia and diabetes has increased with the development of anti-diabetic medications. Recent unexpected results from outcome trials of anti-diabetic medications have enabled anti-diabetic medications to be indicated for the prevention of chronic kidney disease and heart failure, even in patients without diabetes. In this review, I would like to summarize the extra-glycemic effects of anti-diabetic medications.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

5Sclerostin as a Putative Myokine in Sarcopenia

저자 : Hyon-seung Yi

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 430-431 (2 pages)

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KCI등재SCOUPUS

6Short-Chain Fatty Acids Attenuate Renal Fibrosis and Enhance Autophagy of Renal Tubular Cells in Diabetic Mice Through the HDAC2/ULK1 Axis

저자 : Xiaoying Ma , Qiong Wang

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 432-443 (12 pages)

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Background: This study investigated the effect of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on diabetes in a mouse model.
Methods: Autophagy in Akita mice and streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice was determined by Western blots and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Western blots, IHC, hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson staining, periodic acid-Schiff staining, and picrosirius red staining were conducted to detect whether autophagy and renal function improved in Akita mice and STZ-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice after treatment of SCFAs. Western blots, IHC, and chromatin immunoprecipitation were performed to determine whether SCFAs affected diabetic mice via the histone deacetylase (HDAC2)/unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) axis. Diabetic mice with kidney-specific knockout of HDAC2 were constructed, and IHC, Masson staining, and Western blots were carried out to detect whether the deletion of endogenous HDAC2 contributed to the improvement of autophagy and renal fibrosis in diabetic mice.
Results: Reduced autophagy and severe fibrosis were observed in Akita mice and STZ-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. Increased autophagy and reduced renal cell fibrosis were found in SCFA-treated Akita diabetic mice and STZ-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. Diabetic mice treated with SCFAs had lower HDAC2 expression and more enriched binding of ULK1 promoter sequences to H3K27Ac. Endogenous knockout of HDAC2 caused enhanced autophagy and decreased renal fibrosis in diabetic mice treated with SCFAs.
Conclusion: SCFAs enhanced autophagy of renal tubular cells and attenuated renal fibrosis in diabetic mice through the HDAC2/ULK1 axis.

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7Effect of the Concomitant Use of Subcutaneous Basal Insulin and Intravenous Insulin Infusion in the Treatment of Severe Hyperglycemic Patients

저자 : Yejee Lim , Jung Hun Ohn , Joo Jeong , Jiwon Ryu , Sun-wook Kim , Jae Ho Cho , Hee-sun Park , Hye Won Kim , Jongchan Lee , Eun Sun Kim , Nak-hyun Kim , You Hwan Jo , Hak Chul Jang

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 444-454 (11 pages)

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Background: No consensus exists regarding the early use of subcutaneous (SC) basal insulin facilitating the transition from continuous intravenous insulin infusion (CIII) to multiple SC insulin injections in patients with severe hyperglycemia other than diabetic ketoacidosis. This study evaluated the effect of early co-administration of SC basal insulin with CIII on glucose control in patients with severe hyperglycemia.
Methods: Patients who received CIII for the management of severe hyperglycemia were divided into two groups: the early basal insulin group (n=86) if they received the first SC basal insulin 0.25 U/kg body weight within 24 hours of CIII initiation and ≥4 hours before discontinuation, and the delayed basal insulin group (n=79) if they were not classified as the early basal insulin group. Rebound hyperglycemia was defined as blood glucose level of >250 mg/dL in 24 hours following CIII discontinuation. Propensity score matching (PSM) methods were additionally employed for adjusting the confounding factors (n=108).
Results: The rebound hyperglycemia incidence was significantly lower in the early basal insulin group than in the delayed basal insulin group (54.7% vs. 86.1%), despite using PSM methods (51.9%, 85.2%). The length of hospital stay was shorter in the early basal insulin group than in the delayed basal insulin group (8.5 days vs. 9.6 days, P=0.027). The hypoglycemia incidence did not differ between the groups.
Conclusion: Early co-administration of basal insulin with CIII prevents rebound hyperglycemia and shorten hospital stay without increasing the hypoglycemic events in patients with severe hyperglycemia.

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8The Impact of Insulin Resistance on Hepatic Fibrosis among United States Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: NHANES 2017 to 2018

저자 : Ji Cheol Bae , Lauren A. Beste , Kristina M. Utzschneider

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 455-465 (11 pages)

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Background: We aimed to investigate the association of hepatic steatosis with liver fibrosis and to assess the interactive effects of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance on liver fibrosis in a nationally representative sample of United States adults.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017 to 2018, which for the first time included transient elastography to assess liver stiffness and hepatic steatosis. We evaluated the association between hepatic steatosis (using controlled attenuation parameter [CAP]) and clinically significant liver fibrosis (defined as liver stiffness ≥7.5 kPa) using logistic regression with an interaction term for hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance (defined as homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ≥3.0).
Results: Among adults undergoing transient elastography (n=2,023), 45.9% had moderate or greater hepatic steatosis and 11.3% had clinically significant liver fibrosis. After adjustment for demographic and metabolic factors, the odds of significant liver fibrosis increased as CAP score rose (odds ratio, 1.35 per standard deviation increment; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.64). We detected a significant interaction effect between CAP score and insulin resistance on the probability of significant liver fibrosis (P=0.016 for interaction). The probability of significant liver fibrosis increased in the presence of insulin resistance with increasing CAP score, while those without insulin resistance had low probability of significant liver fibrosis, even with high CAP scores.
Conclusion: Individuals with hepatic steatosis had higher odds of fibrosis when insulin resistance was present. Our findings emphasize the importance of the metabolic aspects of the disease on fibrosis risk and suggest a need to better identify patients with metabolic associated fatty liver disease.

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9Improvement in Age at Mortality and Changes in Causes of Death in the Population with Diabetes: An Analysis of Data from the Korean National Health Insurance and Statistical Information Service, 2006 to 2018

저자 : Eugene Han , Sun Ok Song , Hye Soon Kim , Kang Ju Son , Sun Ha Jee , Bong-soo Cha , Byung-wan Lee

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 466-474 (9 pages)

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Background: Diabetes is a leading cause of death that is responsible for 1.6 million annual deaths worldwide. However, the life expectancy and age at death of people with diabetes have been a matter of debate.
Methods: The National Health Insurance Service claims database, merged with death records from the National Statistical Information Service in Korea from 2006 to 2018, was analyzed.
Results: In total, 1,432,567 deaths were collected. The overall age at death increased by 0.44 and 0.26 year/year in the diabetes and control populations, respectively. The disparity in the mean age at death between the diabetes and control populations narrowed from 5.2 years in 2006 to 3.0 years in 2018 (P<0.001). In a subgroup analysis according to the presence of comorbid diseases, the number and proportion of deaths remained steady in the group with diabetes only, but steadily increased in the groups with diabetes combined with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension. Compared to the control population, the increase in the mean death age was higher in the population with diabetes. This trend was more prominent in the groups with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension than in the diabetes only group. Deaths from vascular disease and diabetes decreased, whereas deaths from cancer and pneumonia increased. The decline in the proportion of deaths from vascular disease was greater in the diabetes groups with hypertension and/or dyslipidemia than in the control population.
Conclusion: The age at death in the population with diabetes increased more steeply and reached a comparable level to those without diabetes.

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10Association between the Blautia/Bacteroides Ratio and Altered Body Mass Index after Bariatric Surgery

저자 : Yoonhong Kim , Dooheon Son , Bu Kyung Kim , Ki Hyun Kim , Kyung Won Seo , Kyoungwon Jung , Seun Ja Park , Sanghyun Lim , Jae Hyun Kim

발행기관 : 대한내분비학회 간행물 : Endocrinology and Metabolism(구 대한내분비학회지) 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 475-486 (12 pages)

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Background: Current evidence support that the gut microbiota plays a potential role in obesity. Bariatric surgery can reduce excess weight and decrease the risk of life-threatening weight-related health problems and may also influence gut microbiota. In this study, we aimed to investigate the changes in gut microbiota before and after bariatric surgery and evaluate the association of the gut microbial shift and altered body mass index (BMI) after bariatric surgery.
Methods: Between January 2019 and July 2020, stools from 58 patients scheduled for bariatric surgery were collected. Six months after bariatric surgery, stools from 22 of these patients were re-collected, and the changes in gut microbiota before and after bariatric surgery were evaluated. In addition, the differences in gut microbiota between patients with severe obesity (BMI >35 kg/m2, n=42) and healthy volunteers with normal BMI (18.8 to 22.8 kg/m2, n=41) were investigated.
Results: The gut microbiota of patients who underwent bariatric surgery showed increased α-diversity and differed β-diversity compared with those before surgery. Interestingly, Blautia was decreased and Bacteriodes was increased at the genus level after bariatric surgery. Further, the Blautia/Bacteroides ratio showed a positive correlation with BMI. To validate these results, we compared the gut microbiota from severely obese patients with high BMI with those from healthy volunteers and demonstrated that the Blautia/Bacteroides ratio correlated positively with BMI.
Conclusion: In the gut microbial analysis of patients who underwent bariatric surgery, we presented that the Blautia/Bacteroides ratio had changed after bariatric surgery and showed a positive correlation with BMI.

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