The purpose of this study is to verify the effects of manual massage or electrical massage on functional constipation. For this, this study measured manual massage effects on bowel movement frequency, bowel movement time-duration and stress with comparisons to electrical massage outcomes. This study was random-controlled clinical trial using within group and between group of pre-to-post-test differences. Subjects were 13 college-aged males and 15 females. Participants with functional constipation were assigned to manual massage or electrical massage and received each treatments per-week for 4 weeks. Stress Response Inventory assessed psychological factors, and daily journals recorded bowel movement frequency and bowel movement time-duration. Results showed that stress improved significantly within manual massage and electrical massage but not between groups. Bowel movement frequency improved significantly within manual massage bowel movement time-duration increased significantly within all groups, but not between groups. There is a significant positive correlation between bowel movement time-duration and stress and a significant negative correlation between bowel movement time-duration and bowel movement Frequency and stress and bowel movement frequency. Based on the results of this study, manual massage and electrical massage was found effective for reducing functional constipation with functional constipation and stress.
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