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한국18세기영문학회> 18세기영문학> ‘열광’(enthusiasm)에 대하여: 포콕의 계몽주의 서사에 나타난 제 문제

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‘열광’(enthusiasm)에 대하여: 포콕의 계몽주의 서사에 나타난 제 문제

On Enthusiasm: Some Problems in J. G. A. Pocock’s Narrative of Enlightenment

윤석민 ( Seok-min Yun )
  • : 한국18세기영문학회
  • : 18세기영문학 19권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 05월
  • : 87-119(33pages)
18세기영문학

DOI


목차

1. 들어가며
2. ‘열광’이란 무엇인가?
3. 기번에게 ‘계몽주의’란 무엇이었는가?
4. 포콕의 계몽주의 서사 재고
5. 나가며
인용 문헌

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J. G. A. Pocock’s Barbarism and Religion (Hereafter, BR) and other related essays aim to rewrite Enlightenment historiography, among other things, by examining the rise and development of English Enlightenment over the course of the eighteenth century. Challenging the traditional literature that has rejected its existence altogether as an equivalent of the continental Enlightenment movement, Pocock argues that English Enlightenment took the form of the antithesis of enthusiasm, a phenomenon associated with Protestant dissenters in post-Restoration England. Close examination of his oeuvre, however, helps to dispute this thesis on the basis of the following. First, Pocock conflates two conflicting enterprises in BR: namely, the task of contextualizing Gibbon’s history writing in relevant, broader European contexts and that of locating the ideological stratum of what can be termed as English Enlightenment. Invaluable as they are, the two projects are mutually exclusive, failing to culminate in a coherent narrative. BR must be either a contribution to the history of historiography, as it claims, or one to Enlightenment historiography; Pocock attempts both, but what his work ends up being is not so much the latter as the former. Second, while adequately historicizing Enlightened narratives by Edward Gibbon in BR, Pocock fails to historicize the idea of enthusiasm properly, deducing from its antagonists that they collectively form the English version of Enlightenment movement; however, the resultant intellectual landscape is too simplistic to explain the varieties of contemporary historical discourses effectively. Essentializing enthusiasm as the antiself of Enlightenment may be the culprit, because Enlightenment may not always be the antiself of enthusiasm historically. (258 words)

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 어문학분야  > 영문학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 반년간
  • : 1976-0930
  • : 2733-4996
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2004-2022
  • : 218


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1낭만주의 여성 극작가의 웃음: 하나 카울리

저자 : 김성중 ( Sung-joong Kim )

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 19권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-29 (29 pages)

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Comedy was treated as inferior to tragedy and attributed to women playwrights by the critics in the Romantic era. This essay, however, argues that Hannah Cowley's comedy The Belle's Stratagem brilliantly subverts sexual and social hierarchy by creating chaos on stage, a subversive space like Mikhail Bakhtin's carnival. He argues that carnival offers a world upside-down where all the established order is subverted. The masquerade in this play is a place not just for flirting young people, as we can see in the novel The Masqueraders by Eliza Haywood, but for all the male characters who are mocked regardless of their social status. While Letitia in her disguise achieves her goal by coquetting and winning Doricourt's heart, her father Hardy poses as Issac, a character in Richard Sheridan's drama The Duenna, who was played by the same famous actor, John Quick. Although Hardy belongs to highly respected position, posing as a ridiculous character Issac, he is continuously mocked by different characters. This subversion takes place in and outside of the masquerade. Even after the masquerade, Dorimenus and Hardy pretend to be mad and fatally ill respectively and their acting makes them ridiculous. This chaotic situation destroys the sexual and social boundaries and creates a carnival-like situation where everything is rendered playful and chaotic. Considering her radicalism as a playwright, it is not surprising that, as a woman poet, she was also a forerunner of Della Cruscanism, which was criticized harshly by male critics for its inversion of moral decorum.

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2Libertas philosophandi and Cloistered Women in Margaret Cavendish's The Convent of Pleasure

저자 : Siyeon Lee

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 19권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 31-66 (36 pages)

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This essay explores Margaret Cavendish's The Convent of Pleasure (1668) as a vindication of the liberty of mind for early modern women for its own sake, a distinguishing feature from other 'female academy' proposals or fictions including those of much later dates. The notion of cloistered female communities was abhorred in Protestant England for their associations with Catholic monasticism and female celibacy, while few missed old nunneries except as a place to conveniently lock away “their withered daughters.” Thus proposals of female academies, including Mary Astell's, routinely faced mockery and censure and relied on the ultimate defense of educating “better Christians.” The Convent of Pleasure is unique in imagining a female society devoted to natural knowledge per se as subject of such knowledge production, at the historical juncture when natural philosophy was being enclosed within all-male spaces such as the Royal Society and its Baconian model Salomon's House. Lady Happy, founder and Prioress of the Convent, proclaims unapologetically that hers is a “Cloister … of freedom,” and “not for the gods sake, but for opinion's sake.” Lady Happy's Convent stands in elaborate contrast to Salomon's House, whose “Art” is to “deceive” and coerce nature, and she differentiates her “Wit” from “your Wit” that “measures” and “weighs,” as at the Royal Society. The Convent besieged with intrusive men outside is reminiscent of Bacon's mandate in Novum Organum for the “true sons of the sciences” to penetrate into nature's “inner rooms,” but Cavendish subverts this setting to reconfigure the cloistered women as the self-knowing subject, not the object of male gaze and knowledge. One Prince indeed manages to infiltrate, disguised as Princess, but Lady Happy and this Prince/ss's marriage at the end does not simply signal the Convent's closure but serves to rebuke the monastic, misogynous, and anti-liberal society of male philosophers.

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3The Rise of the Byronic Narrator in Childe Harold II

저자 : Sein Oh

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 19권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 67-98 (32 pages)

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This paper traces the origin of the Byronic narrator, whose digressive and inconsistent voice has been an integral part in Byron's poetics. Concerning the first two Cantos of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, discussions on the Byronic narrator have been scanty and limited compared to the Byronic hero, while the poem is rather reticent about the eponymous hero. I suggest that the Byronic narrator emerges in Albanian stanzas in Canto II of Childe Harold. To be more specific, Byron's visit to the Oriental despot Ali Pasha in Tepeleni and subsequent fortuitous encounter with the Suliotes―the natives of the land of Suli who had fought against Ali Pasha from 1790 through 1802, later to be defeated, massacred, and exiled by him in 1803―are the pivotal moments that dissociate the narrator from both the hero and the poet. I argue that his experiences in Albania induced a mode of sympathy for the oppressed, and the poet's (and the hero's) unbridled joy in the virtue of the Suliotes as a noble savage has the narrator exhibit his skeptical voice that creates textual ruptures. This essay claims the relevance between this flexible mode of poetic voicing and Byron's own radical politics that would be also marked by its flippancy and forgetfulness.

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4Bernard Mandeville as a Writer: A Bibliographical and Critical Overview of His Miscellaneous Works

저자 : Hye-joon Yoon

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 19권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 99-129 (31 pages)

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This essay seeks to contribute to a better understanding of Bernard Mandeville (1670-1733) as a writer and thinker emerging from the bustle and din of early eighteenth-century British society, when the values attached to free commerce began to acquire ascendancy over traditional values. As discussions of Mandeville generally tend to focus largely on The Fable of the Bees, our claim to novelty rests on the fact that we place this representative work in the context of other works known to have been written by him, such as Free Thoughts on Religion, the Church, and National Happiness. An enlarged view of Mandeville's writings may convince us of the sincerity and seriousness of his brand of enlightenment project. Rather than being a particularly “pernicious” philosophy, as Adam Smith alleged, what he presents is an unflattering anatomy of the selfish passions at the heart of human society. Humans can never hope to rid themselves of their sundry vices, however much they may pretend to have done so. The public benefit of material prosperity coupled with private vices can surely be celebrated on its own terms, but it cannot quite whitewash the inherent corruption of human nature. Instead of being “inconsistent,” as David Hume asserted, it is entirely consistent on Mandeville's part to retain moral terms in describing the social mechanism of commerce. The cacophony breaking out in the Fable from the clash of a strict “Calvinist” premise of human depravity with the impersonal amorality of the market, if anything, emanates, in Mandeville's own words, from a “severe and exalted Morality” marvelling at the “unsearchable Providence” that welds material prosperity with moral pollution.

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저자 : 김진 ( Jin Kim )

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 19권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-29 (29 pages)

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This paper examines the use of irony in Laurence Sterne's A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy in relation to the Anglican doctrine of original sin. Many critics have discussed the frequent use of sexual irony in Journey; however, few have acknowledged that Yorick's enthusiastic endorsements of physical desires that frequently follow remarks loaded with sexual innuendo make the clerical first-person narrator an object of religious irony. Most notably, in his famous invocation of “Dear Sensibility” at the end of “The Bourbonnois”, Yorick's ineptitude as a clergy is ironically revealed when he rapturously argues that he can directly 'sense' God's presence through his own physical sensibility, thus violating the Anglican doctrine of original sin that emphasizes the fallen nature of the human body. Important is the fact that the irony in this invocation also discloses the rigidity of the Anglican view of the tainted human body, which forces the reader who subscribes to the teaching to interpret Yorick's embrace of physical desire as inadequate and even blasphemous. In other words, the religious irony in the invocation intimates a sense of discontent with the Anglican teaching on the degeneracy of physical desires, which dissatisfaction suffuses the narrative and hinders its tone from settling as either comfortably sentimental or playfully ironical. The disconnect between the affable ambience created by multiple sentimental conventions and the religious discontentment revealed in the invocation's irony is one of the sources behind the infamous tonal instability of Sterne's novel.

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21819년 영국의 시와 정치: 워즈워스, 셸리, 그리고 피터 벨

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발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 19권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 31-85 (55 pages)

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This paper explores the way in which Percy Bysshe Shelley contributes to the reform movement through his satiric attack upon the poetic authority for which William Wordsworth supposedly claims in Peter Bell. Among parodies of Wordsworth's poem are John Hamilton Reynolds' Peter Bell: A Lyrical Ballad published a week before Wordsworth's work was printed in April 1819 and Shelley's Peter Bell the Third composed in October 1819. In particular, Shelley critiques not only Wordsworth's conservatism but his poetic failure by identifying Peter Bell with his creator. It was in the wake of the Peterloo Massacre that Shelley condemns Wordsworth and his works for condoning state violence although Peter Bell was originally composed in 1798 along with Lyrical Ballads. This paper argues that through his satiric rewriting of Peter Bell Shelley deconstructs Wordsworth's poetic authority and consequently disguises the seemingly legitimate succession to the Lake poet. Shelley's attempt to demonize and confine Wordsworth to a traitor ironically exposes the very paradox of cancelling out the distinction between subject and object of satirizing, ending up with the generic limits of satire. Nonetheless, Shelley's purpose to mock Wordsworth by declaring the untimely death of the elder poet underscores the responsibility that poets take especially when faced with social crises. Hence, Shelley's overarching project is contingent upon the idea of reform as opposed to the docile attitude that conforms to the dominant ideology, whether it is literary, religious or political.

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3'열광'(enthusiasm)에 대하여: 포콕의 계몽주의 서사에 나타난 제 문제

저자 : 윤석민 ( Seok-min Yun )

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 19권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 87-119 (33 pages)

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J. G. A. Pocock's Barbarism and Religion (Hereafter, BR) and other related essays aim to rewrite Enlightenment historiography, among other things, by examining the rise and development of English Enlightenment over the course of the eighteenth century. Challenging the traditional literature that has rejected its existence altogether as an equivalent of the continental Enlightenment movement, Pocock argues that English Enlightenment took the form of the antithesis of enthusiasm, a phenomenon associated with Protestant dissenters in post-Restoration England. Close examination of his oeuvre, however, helps to dispute this thesis on the basis of the following. First, Pocock conflates two conflicting enterprises in BR: namely, the task of contextualizing Gibbon's history writing in relevant, broader European contexts and that of locating the ideological stratum of what can be termed as English Enlightenment. Invaluable as they are, the two projects are mutually exclusive, failing to culminate in a coherent narrative. BR must be either a contribution to the history of historiography, as it claims, or one to Enlightenment historiography; Pocock attempts both, but what his work ends up being is not so much the latter as the former. Second, while adequately historicizing Enlightened narratives by Edward Gibbon in BR, Pocock fails to historicize the idea of enthusiasm properly, deducing from its antagonists that they collectively form the English version of Enlightenment movement; however, the resultant intellectual landscape is too simplistic to explain the varieties of contemporary historical discourses effectively. Essentializing enthusiasm as the antiself of Enlightenment may be the culprit, because Enlightenment may not always be the antiself of enthusiasm historically. (258 words)

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4Reconciling Virtue and Commerce in The History of Sir George Ellison: Evangelical Stewardship in the Pre-abolition Jamaica Slave Plantation

저자 : Yiokyoung Kim

발행기관 : 한국18세기영문학회 간행물 : 18세기영문학 19권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 121-158 (38 pages)

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In The History of Sir George Ellison (1766), Sarah Robinson Scott extends the prequel A Description of Millenium Hall (1762)'s discussion about restoring virtue amidst the advances of a liberal commercial society. If in the prequel Scott demonstrates virtue in a female community detached from the corrupted economic realm, she confronts the rampant economic rationale head on in Sir George Ellison to test the viability of her proposed virtue. This paper investigates the novel's opening Jamaica sequence which centers on the virtuous protagonist George Ellison's problematization of colonial slavery and his efforts to reform the inhumanity and cruelty on the Jamaica slave plantation. Many critics focus on Ellison's failure to actualize abolition and thereby dismiss Ellison's antislavery didacticism to collapse in the face of economic interests. I seek to reconsider the Jamaica sequence in the context of the pre-abolition period in which the novel is dealing with slavery and of Scott's larger novelistic endeavor to demonstrate a virtue that can effectually curtail economic motivations. This article first delves into the novel's philosophical discussion about Evangelical stewardship, which the prequel's ending briefly discloses as the motivation for virtue, prompted by Ellison's divergence from colonial mentality. Upon establishing that Ellison is motivated not by self-interest but Evangelical stewardship, this paper further elucidates his reformative meaures' radical repositioning of slaves to ultimately assume the status of free servants within a colonial plantation. In so doing, I argue that by testing her proposed stewardship-based virtue first and foremost in the heart of commercial empire, wherein the worst atrocities in human history were committed in the name of commercial advancement, Scott effectually establishes Evangelical stewardship as that which can guarantee a truly virtuous England that ultimately reconciles virtue and commerce.

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