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한국운동생리학회> 운동과학> 영양 건강 위험과 신체활동이 우울 증상에 미치는 영향

KCI등재SCOUPUS

영양 건강 위험과 신체활동이 우울 증상에 미치는 영향

Effects of Nutritional Health Risk and Physical Activity on Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults

권지혜 ( Jihye Gwon ) , 신지호 ( Jiho Shin ) , 강현식 ( Hyunsik Kang )
  • : 한국운동생리학회
  • : 운동과학 31권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 05월
  • : 173-180(8pages)
운동과학

DOI


목차

서 론
연구 방법
연구 결과
논 의
결 론
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
ORCID
REFERENCES

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PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study examined the combined effects of nutritional health risk and physical activity on depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults aged 65 years and older (4,116 men and 5,154 women) from the 2020 Korea Longitudinal Study of Aging.
METHODS: Nutritional health risk was categorized as good, moderate, and high according to the Nutrition Screening Initiative. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Short Form of Geriatric Depression Scale (SGDS).
RESULTS: There were significant age differences (p<.001), education level (p<.001), marital status (p<.001), and SDGS (p<.001) according to nutritional health risk or physical activity status. In particular, a general linear model (GLM) showed a significant interaction (R2=.239, F(2,9849)=5.582, p<.004) between nutritional health risk and physical activity on SGDS-based depressive symptoms. The antidepressant effect of regular physical activity was observed in individuals with good or moderate nutritional health risks. However, such beneficial effects of physical activity were not observed in individuals with high nutritional health risks.
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings of this study suggest that both good nutrition and physical activity for mental health should be emphasized in older adults, with a greater focus on nutrition for those with a high nutritional health risk.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-1726
  • : 2384-0544
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2022
  • : 1119


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KCI등재 SCOPUS

1Suggestions for Exercise Science's Promotion to a Top-Tier Journal in the Category of Sports Science

저자 : Sun Huh

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 279-281 (3 pages)

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2마른 비만의 대사 및 심혈관계 질환 위험성과 선제적 예방을 위한 운동 중재

저자 : 지민제 ( Minje Ji ) , 조채은 ( Chaeeun Cho ) , 이세원 ( Sewon Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 282-294 (13 pages)

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PURPOSE: Normal weight obesity (NWO) is characterized by a normal body mass index but a high body fat mass percentage and low skeletal muscle mass, thereby increasing the risk of cardiometabolic dysfunction and morbidity. However, the effects of exercise intervention in reducing the risk of cardiometabolic disease in NWO have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, this review aimed to summarize the potential cardiometabolic disease risk and to provide implications of exercise interventions for the proactive prevention of cardiometabolic disease risk in NWO.
METHODS: We searched and summarized the literature on the cardiometabolic risk factors in NWO. In addition, we summarized literature investigating the effects of exercise intervention on the cardiometabolic risk factors in NWO. We performed the literature search using PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases.
RESULTS: NWO was associated with increased visceral fat, ectopic fat, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and subclinical atherosclerosis compared with normal weight lean. NWO requires exercise interventions that induce alterations in body composition, such as decreased body fat percentage and increased muscle mass. Resistance exercise (RE) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) can improve lipid components and alter body composition in NWO. In addition, low-intensity blood flow restriction resistance exercise (BFR-RE) may enhance muscular strength and anaerobic power in NWO.
CONCLUSIONS: The cardiometabolic disease risk is increased in NWO. We suggest that exercise interventions (RE, HIIE, and BFR-RE) may effectively prevent cardiometabolic disease risk and alter body composition in NWO. As this has potential implications for exercise interventions in NWO, further investigations are needed to find the optimal exercise for proactive prevention of cardiometabolic risk in NWO.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

3Therapeutic Sources of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration from Volumetric Muscle Loss: A Narrative Review

저자 : Kwangjun Lee , Wonil Park , Kwang-seok Hong

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 295-303 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: Minor skeletal muscle injuries can be repaired, but more extensive volumetric muscle loss (VML) leads to a permanent functional disability with ambiguous therapeutic outcomes, and reconstructive surgical procedures are constrained by donor tissue scarcity. This review assessed the considerable attention paid to biomaterials in healing damaged skeletal muscle.
METHODS: A comprehensive search in PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Wiley Online Library was conducted to obtain previous studies exploring the state of biocompatible tissue scaffolds for VML recovery.
RESULTS: By regenerating the function of damaged skeletal muscle, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle construction could revolutionize the treatment of VML. However, transporting cells into the wounded muscle location presents a significant challenge because it may result in unfavorable immunological reactions. The development and validation of several biomaterials with varying physical and chemical natures to treat various muscle injuries have recently been undertaken to overcome this problem. This review discusses the relative benefits of satellite cells (SC), the most prevalent skeletal muscle stem cells employed to seed scaffolds.
CONCLUSIONS: Biomaterials can be used with skeletal muscle stem cells and growth factors to repair VML because of their customizable and desirable physicochemical qualities. Owing to the capacity of SCs for self-renewal and their undifferentiated state, these cells are excellent candidates for cell therapy. A large gap exists between understanding SC behavior and how it can be used to repair and regenerate human skeletal muscle tissue. Thus, this review sought to portray the current knowledge on the lifespan of SCs and their involvement in exercise-induced muscle regeneration and hypertrophy.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

4실험실 측정지표를 활용한 4주간의 훈련이 여자 중거리 선수의 경기 기록에 미치는 영향: 사례 보고

저자 : 이상현 ( Sang-hyun Lee ) , 김수진 ( Su-jin Kim ) , 김영식 ( Young-Sik Kim ) , 김창선 ( Chang-sun Kim ) , 곽효범 ( Hyo-bum Kwak ) , 강주희 ( Ju-hee Kang ) , 박동호 ( Dong-ho Park )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 304-311 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of a 4-week training using a laboratory index on the competition record of elite female middle-distance runners.
METHODS: A female, middle-distance, trained runner with the following characteristics: age, 20 years; height, 168.7 cm; weight, 64.3 kg; 27.2% fat; and VO2max, 56.4 VO2 mL/kg/min; volunteered to participate in this study. Before the training program, the participant took part in a 1,500-m track and field national event in April and the onset of blood lactate threshold was analyzed using (OBVA/ vOBLA), VO2max/vVO2max, and tVO2max tests. After completing the 4-week training program, the participant again took part in the 1,500-m track and field national event in May and her parameters were reassessed using the OBVA/vOBLA, VO2max/vVO2max, and tVO2max tests.
RESULTS: Pre- and post-training indicate that vVO2max did not improve; however, tVO2max (206 seconds pre-training vs. 251.51 seconds post-training) and VO2max (56.4 vs. 59.3 VO2 mL/kg/min)significantly. However, this improvement in relative VO2 was due to weight loss, and the absolute value of VO2 (3.63 vs. 3.62 L/min) did not change. The 1,500-m race record in track and field events decreased significantly from a pre-training value of 5 minutes 03 seconds to a post-training value of 4 minutes 52 seconds.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that utilizing laboratory indicators including vOBLA, vVO2max, and tVO2max may be extremely valuable when prescribing training programs for middle-distance runners.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

5Association Serum Lipid Levels with Periodontal Disease in Korean Adults Over the Age of 50: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2016-2018

저자 : Young-ran Yeun , Yi Sub Kwak , Hye-young Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 312-318 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: Although the prevalence of periodontal disease in adults over the age of 50 is rapidly increasing, the association between serum lipid levels and periodontal disease in Korean adults over the age of 50 still remains to investigate. Thus, the aim was to determine the effect of serum lipid levels on periodontal disease in older adults over the age of 50 using data from the seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
METHODS: The study used the data of 809 adults aged ≥50 years targeted in the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2016-2018. Levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density- lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol), and low density-lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol) and periodontal conditions were measured. Complex-sample chi square test and linear regression were used to analyze the relationship serum lipid levels with periodontal disease.
RESULTS: The results of chi square tests showed that the prevalence of periodontal disease among the elderly ≥50 years were statistically significant differences according to gender, age, education level, marital status, and smoking status. After adjusting for all confounding factors, HDL-cholesterol alleviated periodontal disease, while LDL-cholesterol exacerbates periodontal disease. However, total cholesterol and triglycerides were not connected with periodontal disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, controlling HDL and LDL cholesterol levels through physical exercise could be a preventative measure for periodontal disease.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

6지구성 운동과 메스암페타민 투여가 수컷 Sprague-Dawley 쥐의 해마에서 혈뇌장벽 관련 인자 및 BDNF 발현에 미치는 영향

저자 : 정수련 ( Su-ryun Jung )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 319-327 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of short-term endurance exercise and methamphetamine administration on blood-brain barrier (BBB)-related marker and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.
METHODS: Forty male SD-rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups and treated for 2 weeks. For the methamphetamine group, 1 mg/ kg (+)-S-Methamphetamine hydrochloride (METH) was intraperitoneally injected daily, and an endurance exercise was performed at 21 m/min for 60 minutes. All treatments were performed daily, and METH or saline was administered after exercise. After 2 weeks of treatment, the head was decapitated under anesthesia, and the hippocampus was separated for western blotting.
RESULTS: Two weeks of endurance exercise significantly increased the expression of occludin and claudin-5 in the hippocampus of the rats. Similarly, phosphorylation of CREB/BDNF and AKT/GSK3 signaling pathways were significantly increased. This phenomenon was also observed in the exercise and METH co-treatment groups. However, the single treatment of 1 mg/kg METH did not affect tight junction protein and BDNF expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Endurance exercise increased the expression of BBB-related proteins and neurogenesis-related molecules, which were not inhibited by METH administration.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

7점증운동부하 검사 동안 걷기와 달리기 형태별 국가대표 경보선수들의 심폐기능평가 비교

저자 : 성봉주 ( Bong-ju Sung ) , 이민호 ( Min-ho Lee ) , 이광규 ( Kwang-kyu Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 328-336 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify a sport-specific assessment for elite race-walking athletes by comparing physiological responses between walking and running graded exercise test (GXT) protocols.
METHODS: Six elite race-walking athletes completed both walking and running protocols in a randomized crossover design with 1 week interval between trials. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), ventilation (VE), and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout and after each trial, and blood lactate levels were collected during the recovery period.
RESULTS: There were significant differences in VO2max, VE, and HR values between the walking and running protocols (p<.001). During the recovery period, VO2max, VE, HR, and blood lactate levels were significantly different in each measurement (p<.001); however, there was no difference between the walking and running protocols.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, both the walking and running GXT protocols were inappropriate for assessing elite race-walking athletes. This study suggests that a supplement GXT protocol is required to specifically assess elite race-walking athletes.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

8지체장애 노인의 저강도 신체활동과 모든 원인 사망과의 연관성

저자 : 이인환 ( Inhwan Lee ) , 강현식 ( Hyunsik Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 337-344 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between light intensity physical activity (LPA) and all-cause mortality in older adults with physical disability.
METHODS: Data from the 2008 Living Profiles of Older People Survey involving 14367 Korean adults aged ≥60 y (13417 without disabilities and 950 with disabilities) were used. Participants were divided into active and inactive groups based on weekly LPA and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), according to disability status and physical activity levels.
RESULTS: During 3.3±0.4 years follow-up period, 1024 deaths occurred from all causes. Among non-disabled people, the inactive group showed a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR=1.282, 95% CI=1.122-1.465, p<0.001) than the active group (reference=1) in LPA. Similarly, for MVPA, the risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher in the inactive group (HR=1.522, 95% CI=1.230-1.882, p<0.001) than in the active group (reference=1). However, among physically disabled people, the inactive group correspondingly showed a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR=2.735, 95% CI=1.761-4.246, p<0.001) than the active group, while there was no significant difference between both groups in MVPA.
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that promoting LPA may play an important role in preventing premature death from all-cause mortality in older adults with physical disability.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

9지속적인 매트 필라테스 운동이 여대생의 기초체력, 코어 안정성 및 허리 통증에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김효진 ( Hyojin Kim ) , 김창선 ( Changsun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 345-356 (12 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 wks of mat Pilates exercise on back pain, muscle mass, isokinetic muscle function, and core stability in healthy college female.
METHODS: Twenty healthy college females (aged 21.7±2.5 y) were recruited for the study. The participants were divided into two groups: mat Pilates exercise group (MP, n=10) and non-Pilates control group (CON, n=10). The MP group participated in the mat Pilates exercise program for 60 min a day, 3 d per week for 8 wks. Back pain and basal physical fitness were assessed before and after the experimental period. Left and right core stabilities at 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, and 180° were measured using Centaur (BFMC, Germany). Isokinetic muscle function (60°/s) of both the knee and trunk was also measured using the isokinetic dynamometer Cybex.
RESULTS: After mat Pilates exercise for 8 wks, there was a significant interaction between the MP and CON groups in back pain during daily activity and lower back stiffness (p<.05), respectively. There was also a significant interaction between the two groups in the left and right core stability at 45°, 90°, 135°, and 180° (p<.05, p<.01, p<.001), respectively. Additionally, there was a significant interaction between the two groups in the right knee and left knee isokinetic extensor muscle strength (p<.05, p<.001, respectively). However, there was no significant interaction between the two groups in trunk isokinetic extensor and flexor muscle strength (NS). There were no significant interactions between two groups in the muscle mass of total body, trunk, and legs (NS), respectively. Regarding basic physical fitness, there were significant interaction effects between the two groups in cardiovascular fitness, sagittal reach, and sit-ups (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that continued mat Pilates exercise can improve back pain and core stability with enhancement of leg isokinetic muscle strength independent of the muscle mass of the total body, trunk, and legs.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

10한국 성인과 노인의 신체활동과 대사증후군의 연관성: 국민건강영양조사 2014-2017 가속도계 자료를 이용하여

저자 : 임정준 ( Jungjun Lim ) , 김준식 ( Joon-sik Kim ) , 김연수 ( Yeonsoo Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 357-363 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults and older adults.
METHODS: A total of 2,191 adults and older adults from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2014 to 2017 were analyzed. Participants were categorized into three groups ('Inactive', 'Active', 'Highly active') according to physical activity guidelines. A chi-square test was performed to confirm whether the physical activity guidelines were met according to metabolic syndrome and the difference between metabolic syndrome according to age group. Logistic regression was used to predict the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome.
RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome differed according to whether physical activity guidelines were met in older adults, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors varied according to age group. Compared to the Inactive group, the odds ratios (OR) for metabolic syndrome were 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]:0.56-0.95) and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.47-0.88) in adults in the Active and Highly active groups, respectively; and 0.46 (95% CI:0.28-0.78) and 0.39 (95% CI:0.22-0.69) in older adults in the Active and Highly active groups, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: As the level of physical activity increased, the OR of having metabolic syndrome and its risk factors decreased: this relationship was stronger in older adults than in adults. Therefore, physical activity guidelines should be met to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome.

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KCI등재SCOUPUS

1Letter to the Editor at Exercise Science

저자 : Song-young Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 157-158 (2 pages)

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2The Association between Maternal Folate Status and Childhood Obesity-Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

저자 : Junechul Kim , Bo-eun Yoon , Jinho Park , Eun Hye Kwon , Kyungun Kim , Sukho Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 159-167 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: Maternal nutrition plays a crucial role in fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes. Folate is an essential methyl donor in the epigenetic programming of offspring. This review and meta-analysis was conducted to compile the evidence reported thus far to identify associations between maternal folate status and childhood obesity.
METHODS: A keyword/reference search was performed in EBSCOhost and Web of Science databases. A CMA program was used for a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled effect of maternal folate status on childhood obesity in offspring and to examine the influence of moderating variables on the overall effect.
RESULTS: Better maternal folate intake was associated with a lower risk of childhood obesity: the overall effect size (ES; Hedges' g) was 0.168 (95% CI=0.075 to 0.260, p<.001; small effects; cf., Cohen's criteria). Moderator analysis revealed that the ≥Q statistic for the age group was statistically significant (Qb=4.730, df=1. p=.030; heterogeneity of ES). In offspring < 7 years and >7 years, the ES was 0.277 (95% CI=0.151, 0.404) and 0.089 (95% CI=-0.025, 0.202), respectively. The study design was a statistically significant variable (Qb=4.310, df=1. p=.038; heterogeneity of ES). In cohort studies, ES was 0.251 (95% CI=0.135, 0.367), whereas in randomized controlled trial group, ES was 0.062 (95% CI=-0.073, 0.197).
CONCLUSIONS: Maternal folate intake significantly affects childhood obesity, and the effect of maternal folate status is stronger in children younger than 7 years.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

3Creatine Kinase and Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzymes Response to Lactate Tolerance Exercise Test

저자 : Karamatollah Rahmanian , Farhang Hooshmand , Masihollah Shakeri , Vahid Rahmanian , Fatemeh Sotoodeh Jahromi , Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 168-172 (5 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess alterations in serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels after performing a lactate tolerance exercise test (LTET) in elite male swimmers.
METHODS: Fourteen male adolescent swimmers participated in this study. All subjects performed LTET (8×100-meter swimming) with a 1-minute recovery interval between eight trainings. Plasma CK and LDH (markers of muscle damage) levels were measured 30 minute before and 24 hours after the test. A paired t-test was used for statistical analysis of data.
RESULTS: Plasma CK and LDH levels increased immediately after LTET as compared to the values 30 minutes prior to exercise (188.91±34.04 vs. 148.83±29.63 mg/dL, p=.029; 318.17±53.89 vs. 272.08±52.93 mg/dL, p=.010, respectively). Both CK and LDH levels displayed a decreasing trend 24 hours post-LTET; however, there was no significant difference immediately after the test.
CONCLUSIONS: Plasma CK and LDH levels increased following LTET, which is representative of muscle damage.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

4영양 건강 위험과 신체활동이 우울 증상에 미치는 영향

저자 : 권지혜 ( Jihye Gwon ) , 신지호 ( Jiho Shin ) , 강현식 ( Hyunsik Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 173-180 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study examined the combined effects of nutritional health risk and physical activity on depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults aged 65 years and older (4,116 men and 5,154 women) from the 2020 Korea Longitudinal Study of Aging.
METHODS: Nutritional health risk was categorized as good, moderate, and high according to the Nutrition Screening Initiative. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Short Form of Geriatric Depression Scale (SGDS).
RESULTS: There were significant age differences (p<.001), education level (p<.001), marital status (p<.001), and SDGS (p<.001) according to nutritional health risk or physical activity status. In particular, a general linear model (GLM) showed a significant interaction (R2=.239, F(2,9849)=5.582, p<.004) between nutritional health risk and physical activity on SGDS-based depressive symptoms. The antidepressant effect of regular physical activity was observed in individuals with good or moderate nutritional health risks. However, such beneficial effects of physical activity were not observed in individuals with high nutritional health risks.
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings of this study suggest that both good nutrition and physical activity for mental health should be emphasized in older adults, with a greater focus on nutrition for those with a high nutritional health risk.

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5Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Respiration and Balance in Patients with Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

저자 : Kwang-bin An , Hye-joo Jeon , Woo-nam Chang

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 181-187 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: Respiratory function can be adversely affected after a cerebrovascular accident. This study aimed to determine whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) changes the respiration and balance abilities of patients with stroke.
METHODS: Twelve patients with stroke were randomly assigned to the study (n=6) and control (n=6) groups. The study and control groups received IMT and general physical therapy, respectively for 6 weeks, five times a week for 30 min/day. Inspiratory and expiratory functions and balance were measured pre- and post-evaluation.
RESULTS: After IMT intervention, the weight distribution ratio (WDR) for balance ability measurement was significantly decreased (p<.05), and the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum inspiratory flow rate (MIFR), maximum inspiratory capacity (MIC), peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and limits of stability (LOS) were significantly increased in the study group (p<.05). A comparison of the study and control groups revealed statistically significant differences in MIP (p<0.01), MIFR (p<.01), MIC (p<.05), PEF (p<.05), FEV1 (p<.05), WDR (p<.01), and LOS (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that IMT is a useful and effective exercise intervention for patients with stroke.

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6Effects of 4 Weeks of Beta-Alanine Intake on Inflammatory Cytokines after 10 km Long Distance Running Exercise

저자 : Su-yeon Jin , Hwang-woon Moon , Jun-su Kim , Ha-young Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 188-196 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the immunological effects of β-alanine intake for 4 weeks on immune function changes after long-distance exercise and the possibility of β-alanine intake as an effective exercise supplement to improve exercise performance and maintain immune function.
METHODS: Eighteen male college students were randomly assigned to two groups, one with two capsules of 250 mg β-alanine and the other with placebo without a nutritional effect. The participants took one capsule each in the morning and evening after the meals. This study was conducted in a double-blinded manner. To analyze the inflammatory cytokines expressed during exercise, a 10 km long-running exercise was performed, and blood was collected from the forearm vein a total of 4 times (at rest, immediately after exercise, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes in recovery).
RESULTS: As a result of analyzing the level of inflammatory cytokine IL-6, compared to the placebo group, the β-alanine intake group decreased significantly to 60 minutes after recovery from long-distance aerobic exercise, and both groups showed a significant difference between both periods (p<.001). However, there was no significant difference between the groups based on the measurement period before and after intake. As a result of analyzing the level of TNF-β, the expression of TNF-β in the placebo group was significantly decreased from immediately after long-distance aerobic exercise to 60 minutes after recovery, but in the β-alanine group, TNF-β expression did not occur immediately after exercise, and there was no significant difference until the recovery period; thus, there was no statistically significant difference between the two periods. In addition, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the measurement period before and after intake.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the above results, β-alanine intake for 4 weeks is thought to be effective in maintaining temporarily reduced immune function after long-distance exercise by reducing the level of inflammatory cytokines in the study participants.

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7The Effects of External Vibration on Coordination Strategies of Multi-Muscles during Voluntary Isometric Torque Production

저자 : Jiseop Lee , Junkyung Song , Jaebum Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 197-206 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of muscle vibration on performance accuracy and multi-muscle coordination pattern during voluntary isometric knee extension torque production.
METHODS: The subjects were tested under two conditions of external vibration frequencies (90 Hz vibration (VIB)&no-vibration (NVIB)) with three levels of torque magnitudes of 20% (MVT20), 40% (MVT40), and 60% of maximal voluntary torque (MVT60). The subjects were instructed to perform a submaximal isometric ramp task and matched the produced torque with the torque template shown in the screen as accurately as possible. External vibration was applied to the rectus femoris (RF).
RESULTS: The performance error (RMSENORM) was reduced in 60% of MVT (MVT60) in both ramp and SS phases, and the iEMGAGO was significantly reduced by vibration under the same torque conditions in the SS phase. In addition, the muscle-mode (M-mode) composition was found to be different in the VIB and NVIB in the SS phase. We found that the VIB condition showed co-contraction M-modes and mixed M-modes. However, there was no significant difference in the ramp phase under all conditions.
CONCLUSIONS: The neurophysiological changes due to muscle vibration may positively affect the task characteristics and steps that require accurate torque generation and provide information for the quantitative understanding of multi-muscle coordination of vibration.

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8신장과 체중을 이용한 상대체중지수의 타당성 고찰

저자 : 박지용 ( Ji-yong Park ) , 권태원 ( Tae-won Gwon )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 207-214 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to consider the validity of relative weight indices, which are used to compare people of different heights.
METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using the 2017-2021 “National Fitness Award” in South Korea. Males (n=77,705) aged 18-65 years and females (n=84,641) were included. Three indices [I1=kg/m, I2=kg/㎡, and I3=kg/㎥] and I4 [I4=kg/㎡], which simply reduce the standard error of I1, were analyzed. Pearson's correlation analysis was conducted to determine an index that was highly correlated with weight and was independent of height. Furthermore, an index that was highly correlated with the body fat percentage was considered. The linear relationship between height and the indices was confirmed using regression analysis. The n value of the index (kg/mn), which provides the same value for all height ranges, was derived by regression analysis between weight and height.
RESULTS: The correlation analysis between height and the indices described I2 (r=-.009, p<.05) as the most suitable for males. The I1 and I4 (r=-.049, p<.01) were appropriate for females. Weight showed a significant correlation with all indices. The association between body fat percentage and I3 showed a high correlation in both males (r=.722, p<.01) and females (r=.734, p<.01). Regression analyses represented I2 (B=-.005, p<.05) suitability for males. For females, I4 (B=.022, p<.01) was replaceable.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that I2 (kg/㎡) is appropriate for males. The I4 (kg/㎡) was applicable to females. The I3 (kg/㎥) showed the strongest correlation with body fat percentage in both males and females.

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9서킷 형태의 근신경 운동이 MZ세대의 근력, 순발력, 기능적 수행력에 미치는 영향

저자 : 이광진 ( Kwang-jin Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 215-221 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of circuit-type neuromuscular training (CTNT) on strength, power, and functional performance among the MZ generation.
METHODS: Twenty-eight participants were assigned to either the circuit-type neuromuscular training group (CTNTG, n=14) or the control group (CG, n=14). CTNT was performed for 50 minutes a day, 2-3 times a week, for 6 weeks. The CG only performed activities of daily living during the study period. Baseline and post measures included isometric muscular strength (knee flexion, knee extension, back flexion, back extension), vertical jump, 30 m sprint, T-agility, and Y-balance tests.
RESULTS: The results showed that the CTNT had a positive effect on the improvement of knee flexion (p=.015), knee extension (p=.047), back extension (p=.003), vertical jump (p=.025), T-agility (p=.046), posteromedial (p=.031), posterolateral (p=.022), and composite score (p=.032).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings can be a factor that the strength, power, and functional performance of MZ generation can be sufficiently improved through the CTNT program. This suggests that CTNT is the most appropriate exercise intervention method to improve the strength, power, and functional performance of the MZ generation.

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10자가근막이완을 포함한 동적 준비운동 프로그램이 연부조직의 강직도 및 운동수행능력에 미치는 영향

저자 : 선세영 ( Se-young Seon ) , 안근옥 ( Keun-ok An ) , 이광진 ( Kwang-jin Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 222-229 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of dynamic warm-up (DW), including DW and self-myofascial release (SMFR), on soft tissue stiffness and exercise performance.
METHODS: Eight adult men participated in this study. The procedure was conducted twice every 2 weeks. Soft tissue stiffness measurements and exercise performance were performed as a pre-post-test. DW only and DW with SMFR were performed as an exercise intervention for the two groups, respectively.
RESULTS: In the group conducted solely by DW, the stiffness of the gastrocnemius and rectus femoris muscles increased (p<.05), and in the DW group including SMFR, the stiffness of the rectus femoris muscle (p<.01) and biceps femoris muscle increased (p<.05). The Achilles and patellar tendon showed no significant changes in either group. A significant increase was observed in both the DW group and the DW group containing SMFR in the 30 m sprint (p<.01). The vertical jump (VJ) showed no significant change in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, DW, including DW with SMFR, increased muscle stiffness, specifically through a 30-m sprint. In a follow-up study, it is considered necessary to investigate the effect of the VJ through the development of a DW program that changes the stiffness of tendons.

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