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영미문학연구회> 안과밖> 돌봄 빚의 미로 : 『리틀 도릿』이 그리는 확산적 경제공동체와 모성서사의 기만

KCI등재

돌봄 빚의 미로 : 『리틀 도릿』이 그리는 확산적 경제공동체와 모성서사의 기만

Dickensian Labyrinth of Care Debt: Expansive Economic Communities and Deceptive Norms of Motherhood in Little Dorrit

정서현 ( Jung Seohyon )
  • : 영미문학연구회
  • : 안과밖 52권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 05월
  • : 12-39(28pages)
안과밖

DOI

10.46645/inoutsesk.52.1


목차

1. 뭔가 잘못된 세계
2. 어머니의 비밀과 돌봄 빚의 발견
3. 빚을 갚으려는 자와 빚이 없다고 믿는 자: 헛됨 또는 기만
4. 돌봄 빚의 미로: 지불 불능으로 지탱하는 무정형의 확산적 경제공동체

키워드 보기


초록 보기

This article examines the emerging peculiarities of mid-nineteenth-century economic communities as depicted in Charles Dickens’s Little Dorrit by introducing the concept of “care debt.” The novel has often been read as a critique of debt-based finance capitalism, and William Dorrit has been understood as the victim of the “wiles of insolvency” which epitomizes the economic system of the era. I attend to the sense of inadequacy that lingers even after Mr. Dorrit pays off his debt to emphasize the significance of the incomprehensible network of care debt in Little Dorrit. This article defines care debt as the communal anxiety generated by the injustice of failing to acknowledge the care work that sustains communities. Care work in this novel is part and parcel of the monetary economy, and it operates as the unseen layer that enables financial exchanges and other material circulations. In particular, this article points to Victorian expectations of motherhood as the major communal understanding that immediately contributes to obfuscating the economic value of care work. While the norms of motherhood facilitate exploitative practices, care debt continues to accumulate in the narrative and protrudes in the form of interpersonal conflicts. Characters futilely try to pay off the debt or obnoxiously pretend that no such debt exists, but care debt persists as a communal feeling that is to be distinguished from personal ethics. By narrativizing the insolvency via the trope of a mother with a secret, Little Dorrit successfully demonstrates the intimacy between care debt and monetary debt. My analysis of the collective chaos caused by the financial system in Little Dorrit eventually involves pushing against the idea of communities―especially family and country―as coherent, comprehensible units. Care debt operates as a useful critical concept that allows us to understand the expansive nature of communal boundaries which coincides with the historical perplexities of capitalist development in nineteenth-century England.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 어문학분야  > 영문학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 반년간
  • : 1226-3761
  • : 2765-5695
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2022
  • : 935


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KCI등재

1돌봄 빚의 미로 : 『리틀 도릿』이 그리는 확산적 경제공동체와 모성서사의 기만

저자 : 정서현 ( Jung Seohyon )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 12-39 (28 pages)

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초록보기

This article examines the emerging peculiarities of mid-nineteenth-century economic communities as depicted in Charles Dickens's Little Dorrit by introducing the concept of “care debt.” The novel has often been read as a critique of debt-based finance capitalism, and William Dorrit has been understood as the victim of the “wiles of insolvency” which epitomizes the economic system of the era. I attend to the sense of inadequacy that lingers even after Mr. Dorrit pays off his debt to emphasize the significance of the incomprehensible network of care debt in Little Dorrit. This article defines care debt as the communal anxiety generated by the injustice of failing to acknowledge the care work that sustains communities. Care work in this novel is part and parcel of the monetary economy, and it operates as the unseen layer that enables financial exchanges and other material circulations. In particular, this article points to Victorian expectations of motherhood as the major communal understanding that immediately contributes to obfuscating the economic value of care work. While the norms of motherhood facilitate exploitative practices, care debt continues to accumulate in the narrative and protrudes in the form of interpersonal conflicts. Characters futilely try to pay off the debt or obnoxiously pretend that no such debt exists, but care debt persists as a communal feeling that is to be distinguished from personal ethics. By narrativizing the insolvency via the trope of a mother with a secret, Little Dorrit successfully demonstrates the intimacy between care debt and monetary debt. My analysis of the collective chaos caused by the financial system in Little Dorrit eventually involves pushing against the idea of communities―especially family and country―as coherent, comprehensible units. Care debt operates as a useful critical concept that allows us to understand the expansive nature of communal boundaries which coincides with the historical perplexities of capitalist development in nineteenth-century England.

KCI등재

2루이자 메이 올컷의 대안적 돌봄공동체 연구 : 『일: 경험 이야기』를 중심으로

저자 : 서정은 ( Seo Jung Eun )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 38-62 (25 pages)

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This paper examines Louisa May Alcott's alternative care community envisioned in her 1872 novel Work: A Story of Experience. Critics have interpreted Work mostly as a story navigating possibilities of female self-fulfillment and financial independence through paid work in 19th century America. In addition, they have construed the progress of the heroine Christie from a job market to a domestic realm in the latter half of the novel as a kind of regression from a feminist point of view. This article challenges the prevailing tendency in the current literature, reevaluating the notion of “work” as caring labor; moreover, it looks afresh at Christie's quest as an attempt to re-situate caring labor within the framework of anti-market and anti-patriarchal relations. Alcott's major works published in the 1860s and 1870s highlight the value of care and envision various forms of care-providing communities beyond the domain of Victorian home sustained by unpaid female care service. In Work Alcott criticizes the reality of care in 19th century American society not only in terms of gender division but also in terms of market economy transforming care into alienated and low-paid wage labor. Far from being a regression from a search for an independence to a normative domesticity, the female commune that Christie creates at the end of Work embodies Alcott's ideal of an alternative, non-exploitive care community. Some feminist scholars have been wary of discourses of care due to their association with the motherhood as the ultimate source of care labor. Nevertheless, Work and Alcott's other stories delving into the question of care demonstrate the radical potentials of care discourses as the catalyst for reconfiguration of socioeconomic structure and gender hierarchy.

KCI등재

3'괴물-아이'의 엄마 되기 : 『다섯째 아이』와 모성서사의 비판적 잠재성

저자 : 권영희 ( Kwon Younghee )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 61-85 (25 pages)

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This essay reads Doris Lessing's maternal narrative in The Fifth Child as a critique of the myth of the autonomous individual and family, claiming that the novel's depictions of motherhood as institution and as experience invite us to rethink the main premises of the neoliberal gender regime. In the first section, I examine how the novel reveals the fundamental vulnerability of life facing the ills of society outside the Lovatt family circle. It turns out that what eventually supports their happy life is nothing but sheer luck, while it constantly demands maternal sacrifice and loss of agency. Recuperation of maternal agency, however, is not what this novel's critical stance aims at. Rather, as I argue in the second section, ethical dimensions of mothering emerge at the pivotal point of the narrative when Harriet takes the responsibility of caring for Ben and becomes his mother despite the impossibility of motherly love. Unlike her husband, Harriet cannot deny the claims of trans-individual connection with Ben. While this may be taken as yet another instance of self-sacrifice and subjection, Harrient's acceptance of Ben indicates the potential of maternal subjectivity that debunks the myths of the autonomous individual and moves towards communal notions of self and society.

KCI등재

4급진적 돌봄과 흑인 모성시학 : 그웬돌린 브룩스와 오드리 로드의 경우

저자 : 박선아 ( Park Seonah )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 84-111 (28 pages)

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The presidency of Donald Trump, pandemics, and wars have triggered a widespread discussion of care theory. In the era when care has reentered “the zeitgeist,” radical care, “a set of vital but underappreciated strategies for enduring precarious worlds” has focused on constituting a feeling with, rather than a feeling for, others. This article, rereading the poems of Gwendolyn Brooks and Audre Lorde, explores the poetic praxis of these two poets as the form of radical care embodying othermothering in the community. In poems about Till and Glover, both Brooks and Lorde reflect the brutal realities of black people, which are narrated by mothering figures. Their mother-centered voices, whether they were of the actual mothers of victims or not, demonstrate how the poets confronted the violence of black community and how they sifted the importance of their collective identity-based care mostly fulfilled by women. This article goes on proposing that their poems show the responsibilities and potentialities of poetic practices that remind readers of the importance of radical care in contradiction to the self-care, or self-management, of neoliberal society. Revisiting the underexamined poetic praxis of these two African American poets, this article lastly aims at expanding the discourse of care as the driving force of new collective movements in today's world, especially along with the ongoing Black Lives Matter movement as well as the StopAsianHate movement.

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5미디어 환경 변화와 혐오 확산 : 혐오에 대응하기 위한 연결 윤리 구축에 대한 소고

저자 : 김수아 ( Kim Sooah )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 111-135 (25 pages)

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This article seeks to reveal that the existing legacy media and social media outlets are playing a role in disseminating hate speech, and to explore solutions to this issue. Currently, the media are indiscretely reproducing online community postings and employing them to get more views. The legacy media reduce blatant discriminations to merely controversial issues and the social media continues to circulate hate speech by way of algorithm arrangements. Likewise, users are contributing to the spread of hate discourse through the uses of memes, and through their participation in cyber bulling. There are more instances where negative emotions are shared on social media scenes, and users themselves are creating meme-like forms that allow for the easier sharing of hate and discrimination.
Throughout this type of processes, the anti-feminism sentiment emerges through the online space to make feminism a system of thought that must be rejected in Korean society. The media reportings convey hate sentiments produced sub-culturally in the online communities in their rawest forms, and thereby play a role in circulating antifeminist discourse in the public discourse sphere.
The legacy media's adherence to communal journalism, the social media's voluntary restraint on overcommercialization, and the improvement of media literacy of users are suggested as solutions.

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발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 134-158 (25 pages)

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The anti-Asian racism that has manifested during the coronavirus pandemic recalls the long history of Asian racialization. It recalls the ways in which Asians have been imagined as a doubled figure to bear both racial otherness and historical transformation. The anti-Asian racism also hearkens back to the liminal space inhabited by the Asian body, a precarious position between human and inhuman. The Asian body exists as a sign, not an entity, on which a series of epidermal racial markers appear and onto which all the anxieties around the virus are projected in the displaced form of hate. As an anthropomorphized form for this pandemic's complex relation to human life, the Asiatic figure becomes a synecdoche for the unprecedented crisis in its retention of these old racial markers. Chang-rae Lee's On Such a Full Sea (2014) stages this blurred line in the category of race between discrimination (difference) and indiscrimination (identity) through the adventure of a “tiny” Asian girl, Fan. Analyzing the way in which Lee delves into Fan's unique animacy, this paper argues that On Such a Full Sea stylizes the figure of Asia in two ways. First, the writer coordinates, both in the text's form and content, the unique feature of Asian racialization in which the Asiatic figure is imagined as an emblem of crisis. Second, through Fan's movement and its impact upon other characters, Lee also renders the style as a mode of response to affective disturbances of the present and thereby shapes Fan as an embodiment of the crisis style.

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7일상화된 혐오와 생존의 페미니즘 : 지역 청년여성들의 페미니스트 되기

저자 : 김태영 ( Kim Taeyoung ) , 육주원 ( Yuk Joowon )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 157-190 (34 pages)

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Recently, Korean society has witnessed a surge of anti-feminist backlash, intensified in particular by mainstream politicians with selfish motives. The oft-cited term “gender conflict” was used as a decoy to instigate fear and anxiety among young Koreans (expecially men) and lure their votes. Against this backdrop, this paper reviews the popularization of feminism in South Korea and seeks to understand its limits and potentials. In doing so, this paper focuses on the experiences of young feminists residing in the Daegu-Kyungpook region. The new wave of digital feminist movements, crystallized in the act of “mirroring,” indicates the rise of new recalcitrant female subjects who defy the norms and ethics of previous feminist movements. However, despite their online aggressiveness, they fear widespread stigma and its concurrent violence, and feel isolated in a region notorious for its misogynist and conservative culture. This leads them to build a “feminist shelter” to seek consolation and empowerment among like-minded women. Lastly, this paper examines the problematic entanglement of feminism and neoliberal meritocracy.

KCI등재

8초대받지 못한 손님과 복화술사들 : 탈북문학과 혐오담론

저자 : 서세림 ( Seo Serim )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 189-215 (27 pages)

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This paper explores the themes of North Korean defectors' novels published recently, and examines the discourse of hatred against defectors in the writings. At first North Korean defectors' literature deals with the “conditional” acceptance of North Korean defectors as our neighbors. North Korean defectors, despite their continuous migration into South Korea since the “The Arduous March” period in the mid-1990s, are still usually imagined as “kkotjebi in jangmadang” or poor children who are begging in the marketplace. This outdated popular image, keeping their neighbors indifferent or unwilling to get close to them, drives North Koreans away from the network of social relationships. Secondly, the writings point out the problem of a hierarchical view toward North Korean defectors. The widespread notion that North Korean defectors are taken care of with “our” tax develops readily into the idea that “we” are being harmed by them. The general response to defectors, which converts sympathy and compassion into indifference and exclusion, keeps them as legitimate strangers or guests who are invited by nobody. Lastly, the novels are concerned about the sufferings of the next generation. Children of North Korean female defectors and Chinese men, embarrassed with their identity in South Korea but exposed to an identity crisis and negative self-perceptions, do not receive any proper attention. By describing the reality of North Korean migrants and exemplifying the cases of solidarity and hatred in South Korea, North Korean defectors' literary writings require us to think together about what should be done against hatred.

KCI등재

9디지털 시대의 비평이론 : 현재의 문제들과 사이버네틱스

저자 : 윤수진 ( Youn Sujin )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 215-244 (30 pages)

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This paper introduces recent studies in the humanities that investigate the critical valence of cybernetics in the contemporary world. Tracing the metamorphosis of cybernetics from a war-time computing technology to a dissimulated epistemological frame for the postwar Western world, I argue that cybernetics can provide an insightful theoretical lens onto critical issues associated with the digitization of the contemporary world. The paper first delineates the early history of cybernetics―its inception during the second world war, its basic technical and logical structures, and its evolution into a general theory of all systems―to demonstrate how cybernetics has offered the principal foundations for the technological rearrangement of the world in the second half of the twentieth century. Recent studies of cybernetics have focused on the fundamental influences that cybernetics has brought to the intellectual, cultural, and socio-political history of the Western societies since the 1950s. In addition to this critical reevaluation of cybernetics as a cultural logic and existential condition for the digitally reconfigured contemporary world, this paper also discusses how recent critical endeavors to reassess and explain the cultural conundrums of the contemporary world have drawn on cybernetics to enrich the theoretical conversation. Issues such as the seemingly autonomous workings of contemporary capital, the irony of subjects feeling freer and more contained at the same time, and the meaning of subject and existence in the digital age find new critical connotations in recent theoretical research via cybernetics, attesting to the possibility of cybernetics as a new critical model for the digital age.

KCI등재

10비수도권 대학의 현실 : 비수도권 대학 위기의 원인과 해소방안

저자 : 배경진 ( Bae Kyungjin )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 244-270 (27 pages)

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This paper explores the current crisis of local universities, and demonstrates the urgency of taking corrective actions to halt the decline of the non-metropolitan areas. The decrease in the school-age population as well as the students' preference for the universities in the metropolitan area makes the ongoing crisis for local universities. In addition, a lack of decent jobs often leads undergraduates to the metropolitan area. Consequently, non-metropolitan areas, suffering from the continuous outflow of young people to the metropolitan area, are faced up with the serious possibility of extinction, and local universities, impossible to be separated from local communities, will not be exceptions. The Ministry of Education launched a new project to support universities, but it will not be as successful as is expected: it does not make a good solution for the students' preference for the universities in the metropolitan area, and it does not present a long-term plan to fund departments of high technology. The solutions for the crisis of local universities begin with the clear recognition of the interconnectivity between non-metropolitan areas and their universities. A comprehensive plan should be devised to support local universities and prompt their functional specialization in regions, and fundamental studies, which might be weakened by the restructuring of departments, should be protected by a newly established public agency. More importantly, this crisis, if understood as the effects of the natural demographic change, and thus left unattended, will end up with the catastrophic contrast between the extinction of the non-metropolitan areas and the overconcentration of metropolitan area, and thus more efforts should be exerted to alleviate and finally solve the ongoing crisis of local universities.

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1돌봄 빚의 미로 : 『리틀 도릿』이 그리는 확산적 경제공동체와 모성서사의 기만

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This article examines the emerging peculiarities of mid-nineteenth-century economic communities as depicted in Charles Dickens's Little Dorrit by introducing the concept of “care debt.” The novel has often been read as a critique of debt-based finance capitalism, and William Dorrit has been understood as the victim of the “wiles of insolvency” which epitomizes the economic system of the era. I attend to the sense of inadequacy that lingers even after Mr. Dorrit pays off his debt to emphasize the significance of the incomprehensible network of care debt in Little Dorrit. This article defines care debt as the communal anxiety generated by the injustice of failing to acknowledge the care work that sustains communities. Care work in this novel is part and parcel of the monetary economy, and it operates as the unseen layer that enables financial exchanges and other material circulations. In particular, this article points to Victorian expectations of motherhood as the major communal understanding that immediately contributes to obfuscating the economic value of care work. While the norms of motherhood facilitate exploitative practices, care debt continues to accumulate in the narrative and protrudes in the form of interpersonal conflicts. Characters futilely try to pay off the debt or obnoxiously pretend that no such debt exists, but care debt persists as a communal feeling that is to be distinguished from personal ethics. By narrativizing the insolvency via the trope of a mother with a secret, Little Dorrit successfully demonstrates the intimacy between care debt and monetary debt. My analysis of the collective chaos caused by the financial system in Little Dorrit eventually involves pushing against the idea of communities―especially family and country―as coherent, comprehensible units. Care debt operates as a useful critical concept that allows us to understand the expansive nature of communal boundaries which coincides with the historical perplexities of capitalist development in nineteenth-century England.

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This paper examines Louisa May Alcott's alternative care community envisioned in her 1872 novel Work: A Story of Experience. Critics have interpreted Work mostly as a story navigating possibilities of female self-fulfillment and financial independence through paid work in 19th century America. In addition, they have construed the progress of the heroine Christie from a job market to a domestic realm in the latter half of the novel as a kind of regression from a feminist point of view. This article challenges the prevailing tendency in the current literature, reevaluating the notion of “work” as caring labor; moreover, it looks afresh at Christie's quest as an attempt to re-situate caring labor within the framework of anti-market and anti-patriarchal relations. Alcott's major works published in the 1860s and 1870s highlight the value of care and envision various forms of care-providing communities beyond the domain of Victorian home sustained by unpaid female care service. In Work Alcott criticizes the reality of care in 19th century American society not only in terms of gender division but also in terms of market economy transforming care into alienated and low-paid wage labor. Far from being a regression from a search for an independence to a normative domesticity, the female commune that Christie creates at the end of Work embodies Alcott's ideal of an alternative, non-exploitive care community. Some feminist scholars have been wary of discourses of care due to their association with the motherhood as the ultimate source of care labor. Nevertheless, Work and Alcott's other stories delving into the question of care demonstrate the radical potentials of care discourses as the catalyst for reconfiguration of socioeconomic structure and gender hierarchy.

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This essay reads Doris Lessing's maternal narrative in The Fifth Child as a critique of the myth of the autonomous individual and family, claiming that the novel's depictions of motherhood as institution and as experience invite us to rethink the main premises of the neoliberal gender regime. In the first section, I examine how the novel reveals the fundamental vulnerability of life facing the ills of society outside the Lovatt family circle. It turns out that what eventually supports their happy life is nothing but sheer luck, while it constantly demands maternal sacrifice and loss of agency. Recuperation of maternal agency, however, is not what this novel's critical stance aims at. Rather, as I argue in the second section, ethical dimensions of mothering emerge at the pivotal point of the narrative when Harriet takes the responsibility of caring for Ben and becomes his mother despite the impossibility of motherly love. Unlike her husband, Harriet cannot deny the claims of trans-individual connection with Ben. While this may be taken as yet another instance of self-sacrifice and subjection, Harrient's acceptance of Ben indicates the potential of maternal subjectivity that debunks the myths of the autonomous individual and moves towards communal notions of self and society.

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4급진적 돌봄과 흑인 모성시학 : 그웬돌린 브룩스와 오드리 로드의 경우

저자 : 박선아 ( Park Seonah )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 84-111 (28 pages)

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The presidency of Donald Trump, pandemics, and wars have triggered a widespread discussion of care theory. In the era when care has reentered “the zeitgeist,” radical care, “a set of vital but underappreciated strategies for enduring precarious worlds” has focused on constituting a feeling with, rather than a feeling for, others. This article, rereading the poems of Gwendolyn Brooks and Audre Lorde, explores the poetic praxis of these two poets as the form of radical care embodying othermothering in the community. In poems about Till and Glover, both Brooks and Lorde reflect the brutal realities of black people, which are narrated by mothering figures. Their mother-centered voices, whether they were of the actual mothers of victims or not, demonstrate how the poets confronted the violence of black community and how they sifted the importance of their collective identity-based care mostly fulfilled by women. This article goes on proposing that their poems show the responsibilities and potentialities of poetic practices that remind readers of the importance of radical care in contradiction to the self-care, or self-management, of neoliberal society. Revisiting the underexamined poetic praxis of these two African American poets, this article lastly aims at expanding the discourse of care as the driving force of new collective movements in today's world, especially along with the ongoing Black Lives Matter movement as well as the StopAsianHate movement.

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5미디어 환경 변화와 혐오 확산 : 혐오에 대응하기 위한 연결 윤리 구축에 대한 소고

저자 : 김수아 ( Kim Sooah )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 111-135 (25 pages)

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This article seeks to reveal that the existing legacy media and social media outlets are playing a role in disseminating hate speech, and to explore solutions to this issue. Currently, the media are indiscretely reproducing online community postings and employing them to get more views. The legacy media reduce blatant discriminations to merely controversial issues and the social media continues to circulate hate speech by way of algorithm arrangements. Likewise, users are contributing to the spread of hate discourse through the uses of memes, and through their participation in cyber bulling. There are more instances where negative emotions are shared on social media scenes, and users themselves are creating meme-like forms that allow for the easier sharing of hate and discrimination.
Throughout this type of processes, the anti-feminism sentiment emerges through the online space to make feminism a system of thought that must be rejected in Korean society. The media reportings convey hate sentiments produced sub-culturally in the online communities in their rawest forms, and thereby play a role in circulating antifeminist discourse in the public discourse sphere.
The legacy media's adherence to communal journalism, the social media's voluntary restraint on overcommercialization, and the improvement of media literacy of users are suggested as solutions.

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6코로나19 팬데믹과 아시아라는 스타일

저자 : 김정하 ( Kim Jungha )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 134-158 (25 pages)

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The anti-Asian racism that has manifested during the coronavirus pandemic recalls the long history of Asian racialization. It recalls the ways in which Asians have been imagined as a doubled figure to bear both racial otherness and historical transformation. The anti-Asian racism also hearkens back to the liminal space inhabited by the Asian body, a precarious position between human and inhuman. The Asian body exists as a sign, not an entity, on which a series of epidermal racial markers appear and onto which all the anxieties around the virus are projected in the displaced form of hate. As an anthropomorphized form for this pandemic's complex relation to human life, the Asiatic figure becomes a synecdoche for the unprecedented crisis in its retention of these old racial markers. Chang-rae Lee's On Such a Full Sea (2014) stages this blurred line in the category of race between discrimination (difference) and indiscrimination (identity) through the adventure of a “tiny” Asian girl, Fan. Analyzing the way in which Lee delves into Fan's unique animacy, this paper argues that On Such a Full Sea stylizes the figure of Asia in two ways. First, the writer coordinates, both in the text's form and content, the unique feature of Asian racialization in which the Asiatic figure is imagined as an emblem of crisis. Second, through Fan's movement and its impact upon other characters, Lee also renders the style as a mode of response to affective disturbances of the present and thereby shapes Fan as an embodiment of the crisis style.

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7일상화된 혐오와 생존의 페미니즘 : 지역 청년여성들의 페미니스트 되기

저자 : 김태영 ( Kim Taeyoung ) , 육주원 ( Yuk Joowon )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 157-190 (34 pages)

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Recently, Korean society has witnessed a surge of anti-feminist backlash, intensified in particular by mainstream politicians with selfish motives. The oft-cited term “gender conflict” was used as a decoy to instigate fear and anxiety among young Koreans (expecially men) and lure their votes. Against this backdrop, this paper reviews the popularization of feminism in South Korea and seeks to understand its limits and potentials. In doing so, this paper focuses on the experiences of young feminists residing in the Daegu-Kyungpook region. The new wave of digital feminist movements, crystallized in the act of “mirroring,” indicates the rise of new recalcitrant female subjects who defy the norms and ethics of previous feminist movements. However, despite their online aggressiveness, they fear widespread stigma and its concurrent violence, and feel isolated in a region notorious for its misogynist and conservative culture. This leads them to build a “feminist shelter” to seek consolation and empowerment among like-minded women. Lastly, this paper examines the problematic entanglement of feminism and neoliberal meritocracy.

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8초대받지 못한 손님과 복화술사들 : 탈북문학과 혐오담론

저자 : 서세림 ( Seo Serim )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 189-215 (27 pages)

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This paper explores the themes of North Korean defectors' novels published recently, and examines the discourse of hatred against defectors in the writings. At first North Korean defectors' literature deals with the “conditional” acceptance of North Korean defectors as our neighbors. North Korean defectors, despite their continuous migration into South Korea since the “The Arduous March” period in the mid-1990s, are still usually imagined as “kkotjebi in jangmadang” or poor children who are begging in the marketplace. This outdated popular image, keeping their neighbors indifferent or unwilling to get close to them, drives North Koreans away from the network of social relationships. Secondly, the writings point out the problem of a hierarchical view toward North Korean defectors. The widespread notion that North Korean defectors are taken care of with “our” tax develops readily into the idea that “we” are being harmed by them. The general response to defectors, which converts sympathy and compassion into indifference and exclusion, keeps them as legitimate strangers or guests who are invited by nobody. Lastly, the novels are concerned about the sufferings of the next generation. Children of North Korean female defectors and Chinese men, embarrassed with their identity in South Korea but exposed to an identity crisis and negative self-perceptions, do not receive any proper attention. By describing the reality of North Korean migrants and exemplifying the cases of solidarity and hatred in South Korea, North Korean defectors' literary writings require us to think together about what should be done against hatred.

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9디지털 시대의 비평이론 : 현재의 문제들과 사이버네틱스

저자 : 윤수진 ( Youn Sujin )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 215-244 (30 pages)

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This paper introduces recent studies in the humanities that investigate the critical valence of cybernetics in the contemporary world. Tracing the metamorphosis of cybernetics from a war-time computing technology to a dissimulated epistemological frame for the postwar Western world, I argue that cybernetics can provide an insightful theoretical lens onto critical issues associated with the digitization of the contemporary world. The paper first delineates the early history of cybernetics―its inception during the second world war, its basic technical and logical structures, and its evolution into a general theory of all systems―to demonstrate how cybernetics has offered the principal foundations for the technological rearrangement of the world in the second half of the twentieth century. Recent studies of cybernetics have focused on the fundamental influences that cybernetics has brought to the intellectual, cultural, and socio-political history of the Western societies since the 1950s. In addition to this critical reevaluation of cybernetics as a cultural logic and existential condition for the digitally reconfigured contemporary world, this paper also discusses how recent critical endeavors to reassess and explain the cultural conundrums of the contemporary world have drawn on cybernetics to enrich the theoretical conversation. Issues such as the seemingly autonomous workings of contemporary capital, the irony of subjects feeling freer and more contained at the same time, and the meaning of subject and existence in the digital age find new critical connotations in recent theoretical research via cybernetics, attesting to the possibility of cybernetics as a new critical model for the digital age.

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10비수도권 대학의 현실 : 비수도권 대학 위기의 원인과 해소방안

저자 : 배경진 ( Bae Kyungjin )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 52권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 244-270 (27 pages)

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This paper explores the current crisis of local universities, and demonstrates the urgency of taking corrective actions to halt the decline of the non-metropolitan areas. The decrease in the school-age population as well as the students' preference for the universities in the metropolitan area makes the ongoing crisis for local universities. In addition, a lack of decent jobs often leads undergraduates to the metropolitan area. Consequently, non-metropolitan areas, suffering from the continuous outflow of young people to the metropolitan area, are faced up with the serious possibility of extinction, and local universities, impossible to be separated from local communities, will not be exceptions. The Ministry of Education launched a new project to support universities, but it will not be as successful as is expected: it does not make a good solution for the students' preference for the universities in the metropolitan area, and it does not present a long-term plan to fund departments of high technology. The solutions for the crisis of local universities begin with the clear recognition of the interconnectivity between non-metropolitan areas and their universities. A comprehensive plan should be devised to support local universities and prompt their functional specialization in regions, and fundamental studies, which might be weakened by the restructuring of departments, should be protected by a newly established public agency. More importantly, this crisis, if understood as the effects of the natural demographic change, and thus left unattended, will end up with the catastrophic contrast between the extinction of the non-metropolitan areas and the overconcentration of metropolitan area, and thus more efforts should be exerted to alleviate and finally solve the ongoing crisis of local universities.

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