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한국근대영미소설학회> 근대영미소설> Montage and Fragmentation in John Dos Passos’s Manhattan Transfer

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Montage and Fragmentation in John Dos Passos’s Manhattan Transfer

Jeewon Jung
  • : 한국근대영미소설학회
  • : 근대영미소설 29권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 04월
  • : 51-67(17pages)
근대영미소설

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The essay discusses the fragmentation of modern urban space and the ways in which John Dos Passos aesthetically treated it in Manhattan Transfer. Due to industrialization and urbanization in the late-nineteenth century and the early-twentieth century, it is almost impossible not to be distracted or shocked in the modern urban environment. The urban landscape is fragmented and in perpetual motion, so one cannot rest in contemplation being constantly interrupted physically, visually, and aurally. Manhattan Transfer employs filmic techniques to represent modern city life between 1896 and 1924. Abandoning the traditional narrative style, the text adopts Sergei Eisenstein’s montage technique and carries it to an extreme. Its panoramic view of a large cast of characters and multiple narratives in New York are portrayed in a cinematic form. The essay looks closely into the ways in which the fragmented structure of the narrative reveals a polyvalent urban consciousness.

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1인권 주창자로서의 로렌스: 들뢰즈와의 비교 연구

저자 : 고영란 ( Youngran Koh )

발행기관 : 한국근대영미소설학회 간행물 : 근대영미소설 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 5-32 (28 pages)

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This article attempts to newly illuminate D. H. Lawrence as a pioneering human rights advocate through the comparison with Deleuze. Here, the issue of human rights is addressed from the perspective of humanities, not from that of law and politics. By comparing Lawrence with Deleuze, the meaning of human rights is discussed in a more fundamental dimension as well. Both Lawrence and Deleuze advocate the innate right of the freedom of individuals, not persons―a flight from the fixed personal identity and customary framework. This flight can be possible in the process of becoming one with nature in the impersonal dimension. Aside from their seeming similarities, however, there are stark differences between them. Individuation for Deleuze is related with unique chances and singularity. He does not give serious consideration to an individual as a living reality. In contrast to Deleuze, an individual with its free-proud singleness and individuality is a lifetime concern for Lawrence. This difference leads Lawrence and Deleuze to have different attitudes towards human rights. As distinct from Deleuze, Lawrence advocates the human rights of an individual, which include not only its freedom but also a duty to respect others' rights. It is eloquently demonstrated in Lawrence's original vision of a true human relationship.

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2모호함의 영화적 구현: 제임스 클레이튼의 <천진한 이들>과 벤 볼트의 <나사의 회전> 비교 연구

저자 : 김명진 ( Myungjin Kim )

발행기관 : 한국근대영미소설학회 간행물 : 근대영미소설 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 33-74 (42 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to show how the ambiguity and controversy surrounding Henry James' The Turn of the Screw is materialized in two filmic adaptations: Jack Clayton's The Innocents and Ben Bolt's The Turn of the Screw. To do this, this study analyses the narrative structure, the characteristics of the governess' neurosis, the contamination of children, and the presence of the ghosts. Clayton's The Innocents creatively reinterprets the protagonist's neurosis based on sexual desire and frustration through the multiple identifications of male characters. In addition, this movie maximizes and recreates the ambiguity of the original by adroitly transforming the first-person narrative structure of the original into filmic devices such as point-of-view shots, reaction shots, and the insertion of a prologue and epilogue. On the other hand, Bolt's The Turn of the Screw, despite admitting the existence of ghosts, also recognizes the governess' neurosis. Unlike The Innocents, however, it reveals that her mental disorder originates from the frustration of religious zeal and social ambition by focusing on the religious and social aspects inherent in the text. In short, these two movies provide exemplary cases of adaptation not only by excavating the hidden meanings of the text, but also by making the reader rethink the familiar elements of the text.

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3제국의 유리 정원: 『비밀의 정원』 속 식물의 순응과 후손의 동화

저자 : 김소연 ( Soyoun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국근대영미소설학회 간행물 : 근대영미소설 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 75-100 (26 pages)

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This article investigates the intersections of the Gothic conventions and the language of floral cultivation in Frances Hodgson Burnett's 1911 novel The Secret Garden. This novel seeks to relieve anxiety caused by imperial expansion through portraying inward/upward movements of both the juvenile characters and the plants. Mary Lennox who is sent to the English moors after losing her parents in India and her cousin Colin Craven both look similar to the degenerate subjects of the late nineteenth-century Gothic novels. By moving into the walled garden and by cultivating it, the two children acculturate themselves to life in England. At the same time, the garden plays the role of a glasshouse, betraying the Empire's urge to confine diverse things to an enclosed space. The idea of degeneration, which was popular in England in late nineteenth and early twentieth century, is subverted as Mary and Colin grow 'up.' The setting of the novel functions like a kind of flower bed in which the children's gothicized bodies change into the growing bodies of the so-called normal English children. The enclosed and artificial nature of the spatial setting, however, implies that the story of the acculturation is fundamentally hypothetical.

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4샬롯 퍼킨스 길먼의 『허랜드』에 드러난 인종주의와 우생학적 이데올로기

저자 : 박선화 ( Sunhwa Park )

발행기관 : 한국근대영미소설학회 간행물 : 근대영미소설 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 101-122 (22 pages)

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With the feminism movement in the 1960s and 1970s, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Herland was considerably discussed as a feminist utopian novel. Since the 2010s, however, Herland has been reconsidered with different approaches, including the most controversial aspects of the Herlanders' racialism based on their homogeneous community with parthenogenesis, and the use of negative eugenics which allows sterilizing Herlanders alleged to have undesirable genes through their artificial selection and exclusion. To discuss the racialism and negative eugenics, this paper focuses on a male narrator who comes to perceive the idea of animality as encompassing a range of organic forms including asexual plants and animals. At first, he respects Herlanders by recognizing their high-level culture, education and economy. Later, he begins to feel uncomfortable about the 'all-too-perfect' community. Despite their civilization, Herlanders want to unite even with males for their evolution after learning other cultures. Therefore, this paper argues that Gilman uses the male narrator to reveal the problems of the Herlanders' system and at the same time, more importantly, suggests another imagined utopia which can evolve with the harmony and unity of both sexes, not only women.

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5출산은 “노동”인가, “행위”인가? ―버지니아 울프의 어느 단체 속 출산의 정치화와 여성의 정치행위를 중심으로―

저자 : 박예슬 ( Yeseul Park )

발행기관 : 한국근대영미소설학회 간행물 : 근대영미소설 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 123-146 (24 pages)

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Childbearing has been thought of as one of the inevitable and essential human activities. Despite advancements in various areas such as philosophy, science, and technology, the need to procreate has remained an inherent human instinct. According to Hannah Arendt, who defines the three categories of basic human activities as “labor,” “work,” and “action,” procreation belongs to that of “labor” in the way it satiates the basic human needs of humans as animals. However, Foucault's notion of biopolitics revises and broadens the definition of procreation as “labor”; it is not done as a result of an individual desire but rather biopolitics for a government to expand and maintain its power. Although Virginia Woolf did not use the exact term, she was acutely aware of how biopower operates, as evident in her works such as Mrs. Dalloway. In her short story “A Society,” she imagines what could happen if women realize who has forced them to bear children and how much political power childbearing has. She actively thinks about the possibility of altering procreation from “labor” coerced by “biopolitics” to “action” to fight against the patriarchal society. Although this possibility does not turn out successfully in the narrative, it leaves hope for the next generation.

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6월간지 소설 형식으로서의 증기선 여행: 헨리 제임스의 「파타고니아 호」

저자 : 윤미선 ( Misun Yun )

발행기관 : 한국근대영미소설학회 간행물 : 근대영미소설 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 147-178 (32 pages)

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This paper offers a critical formalist reading of Henry James's novella “The Patagonia” in order to emphasize the historical-formal condition that the magazine serialization exerted on certain late-nineteenth-century fiction, particularly that of Henry James. This condition allowed works of fiction in this period a unique type of “performative unity” in its construction of a new sociality, an act which the recent “New Formalists” would advocate. The steamship travel featured in “The Patagonia” works effectively as a formal trope for the monthly magazine fiction― especially for the cheaper monthlies that emerged in the 1880s―which sets a rhythm of reading in its monthly publication and has certain socioeconomic implications. “The Patagonia” appeared in two parts in the six-penny English Illustrated Magazine that was established in 1883 by the prestigious publisher Macmillan and Company in order to attract the expanding “mass” readership. In the novella, the transatlantic steamship Patagonia is presented as slow and spacious, like the old Shilling monthlies, but its time-space allows expectations for dramatic cross-class encounters and the more sensational events that result from them. Its heroine, who chooses to die by drowning herself in the sea, however, exposes the fact that the ship's and the novella's destined pace is the result of the contest only among the middle class, whose differentiation has created competing desires for different paces and types of leisure and storytelling. Those who are unable to afford that pace, or social time, are also excluded from its representation. The steamship travel in “The Patagonia” not only provides an instance for the spatiotemporal organization of the narrative but also does so in a way that reveals the external world of the time-space regime that the narrative constructs.

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7The Man of the Emotional Economy: Harley's Arbitrary Sympathy in The Man of Feeling

저자 : Seula Lee

발행기관 : 한국근대영미소설학회 간행물 : 근대영미소설 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 179-203 (25 pages)

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This paper focuses on how the man of excessive sentiments and sympathy, Harley, distances himself from the commercial world through the means of the emotional economy of sympathy or happy commerce according to Adam Smith. In contrast to characters who follow doctrines of self-love proposed by Bernard Mandeville as a principle of modern, commercial society, Harley seeks a haven of the material economy in the realm of the emotional economy through the acquisition of pleasure from his sympathetic expenditures. However, it is worth noting that his sympathy is far from innocence. Harley's sympathy does not apply in the same manner to everyone, revealing his calculating nature in its exercise. Distance is required for one to have sympathy for others; thus, having sympathy for others does not overturn the established hierarchical relationships. The tragic ending of Harley's death and his unrequited love results from Harley seeking pleasure in the emotional economy, which cannot be converted into financial commodities.

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8Repetitions and Reflections of Misogynistic Monstrosity in Dracula

저자 : Jun Young Jung

발행기관 : 한국근대영미소설학회 간행물 : 근대영미소설 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 205-228 (24 pages)

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Using notions of J. Hillis Miller's narrative repetition, this paper attempts to deconstruct the notion of monstrosity presented within Bram Stoker's Dracula. By way of a multiplicity of narratives and monstrous descriptions, the character of Count Dracula is portrayed as a nefarious monster. However, by examining the repetitions of humanity that manifest within him and the other vampires conjointly with a dissection of the multiple narratives of human perspectives, the text manifests a reading that the true monstrosity is not that of the vampire, but rather that of human misogyny. This paper thus seeks to uncover the monstrous misogyny that is displaced onto the alterity of the vampire. The repetitions of narratives, rhetoric, and actions of the human characters leave Dracula as a shadowless and reflectionless displacement. If these narrative repetitions of monstrosity are traced, the vampire's buried humanity and humanity's buried monstrosity alight on the page.

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While literary modernism's signature narrative style, stream of consciousness, has been widely studied from the perspective of Freudian psychoanalysis, other possible inter-influences between modernism and psychology have received little scholarly attention. This paper asks for the need to move beyond Freud by calling attention to the approximate coincidence of the emergence of literary modernism and the introduction of the word “empathy” into English. Empathy was coined by the English psychologist Edward B. Titchener in 1909 as a translation of the German word Einfühlung, an aesthetic phenomenon whose framework was theorized by the German philosopher Theodor Lipps. This paper reads Dorothy Richardson's Pointed Roofs (1915) as an early modernist work to show the neglected connection between Einfühlung/empathy as a popular subject of study in both aesthetics and psychology in the early 1900s and the modernist exploration of interiority. Known as the first writer whose work was described as “stream of consciousness,” Richardson represents her protagonist Miriam Henderson's consciousness by merely recording what she perceives, feels, thinks, and, often partially, understands. This paper argues that while depicting Miriam's struggle to adjust to a new life as an English teacher in Germany, the novel captures the then-burgeoning concept of Einfühlung/empathy and its relevant anxieties by accentuating moments of aesthetic encounters and the limits of Miriam's ability to understand other minds.

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2Violence and Testimonial Truth in Herman Melville's Billy Budd, Sailor

저자 : Young-hyeon Ryu

발행기관 : 한국근대영미소설학회 간행물 : 근대영미소설 29권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 27-49 (23 pages)

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This essay explores thematic concerns of Herman Melville's Billy Budd, Sailor such as violence and justice from the perspective of testimonial truth. To do so, this study first examines the motivation of each main character's testimonial action, and after that, its sincerity. While Billy's violence for his innocence and Claggart's false witness because of his hatred of Billy both signify the perversion of sincerity in testimony, we see that only the legal testimony of Captain Vere lends itself to the secular frame of truth-telling. Such a recognition of secularism draws on a moral dilemma between justice and the law. In that sense, comparative studies tried in this essay, such as Melville's connection with John Brown and with Henry David Thoreau, explicate the historical and intellectual contexts for the author's critique of violence and justice. Especially, Hannah Arendt's theory about the relationship between action and speech deserves our critical attention. Like Arendt criticizes the happening of 'mute violence' in the public sphere, the notion of “demanding action while ridiculing talk” as expressed in John Brown's attack in 1859 can be applied as well to Billy's violence. When divine justice with violence is at odds with human testimony, its judgment remains controversial.

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3Montage and Fragmentation in John Dos Passos's Manhattan Transfer

저자 : Jeewon Jung

발행기관 : 한국근대영미소설학회 간행물 : 근대영미소설 29권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 51-67 (17 pages)

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The essay discusses the fragmentation of modern urban space and the ways in which John Dos Passos aesthetically treated it in Manhattan Transfer. Due to industrialization and urbanization in the late-nineteenth century and the early-twentieth century, it is almost impossible not to be distracted or shocked in the modern urban environment. The urban landscape is fragmented and in perpetual motion, so one cannot rest in contemplation being constantly interrupted physically, visually, and aurally. Manhattan Transfer employs filmic techniques to represent modern city life between 1896 and 1924. Abandoning the traditional narrative style, the text adopts Sergei Eisenstein's montage technique and carries it to an extreme. Its panoramic view of a large cast of characters and multiple narratives in New York are portrayed in a cinematic form. The essay looks closely into the ways in which the fragmented structure of the narrative reveals a polyvalent urban consciousness.

KCI등재

4The Gender Politics of Male Weeping in M. E. Braddon's Aurora Floyd

저자 : Jung Sun Choi

발행기관 : 한국근대영미소설학회 간행물 : 근대영미소설 29권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 69-89 (21 pages)

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This essay will deal with Mary Elizabeth Braddon's reliance on the gender politics of male weeping in Aurora Floyd. As Braddon criticism changes its concern from female-oriented transgression to the emergence of diverse masculinities, critics' readings of Aurora Floyd also shift their concern to the issue of masculinities. Following this critical trend, this essay will explore the ways in which Aurora Floyd presents an ideal form of Victorian masculinity in the character of John Mellish. Different from conventional ideal masculine identities, John Mellish presents as a gentleman who explicitly demonstrates his emotional fluctuation in contrast to James Conyers, a working-class villain, who never expresses his feelings. Particularly, the novel depicts John Mellish's weeping, habitually done and repeatedly demonstrated, as a sign that a male character is affected by female unconventionality and unruliness. Simultaneously, John Mellish's weeping is naturalized as a positive means of expressing his interior self and legitimated as a sign of the genuine worth of his male character in protecting his wife. Eventually, his emotional articulation is used to prove the gender superiority of middle-class gentlemen and class hegemony against James Conyers' defiance and class transgression.

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