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한국미생물생명공학회> Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology> Highly Efficient Biotransformation of Notoginsenoside R1 into Ginsenoside Rg1 by Dictyoglomus thermophilum β-xylosidase Xln-DT

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Highly Efficient Biotransformation of Notoginsenoside R1 into Ginsenoside Rg1 by Dictyoglomus thermophilum β-xylosidase Xln-DT

Qi Li , Lei Wang , Xianying Fang , Linguo Zhao
  • : 한국미생물생명공학회
  • : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 04월
  • : 447-457(11pages)
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

DOI


목차

Introduction
Materials and Methods
Results
Discussion
Acknowledgments
Conflict of Interest
References

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Notoginsenoside R1 and ginsenoside Rg1 are the main active ingredients of Panax notoginseng, exhibiting anti-fatigue, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and other activities. In a previous study, a GH39 β-xylosidase Xln-DT was responsible for the bioconversion of saponin, a natural active substance with a xylose group, with high selectivity for cleaving the outer xylose moiety of notoginsenoside R1 at the C-6 position, producing ginsenoside Rg1 with potent anti-fatigue activity. The optimal bioconversion temperature, pH, and enzyme dosage were obtained by optimizing the transformation conditions. Under optimal conditions (pH 6.0, 75℃, enzyme dosage 1.0 U/ml), 1.0 g/l of notoginsenoside R1 was converted into 0.86 g/l of ginsenoside Rg1 within 30 min, with a molar conversion rate of approximately 100%. Furthermore, the in vivo anti-fatigue activity of notoginsenoside R1 and ginsenoside Rg1 were compared using a suitable rat model. Compared with the control group, the forced swimming time to exhaustion was prolonged in mice by 17.3% in the Rg1 high group (20 mg/kg·d). Additionally, the levels of hepatic glycogen (69.9-83.3% increase) and muscle glycogen (36.9-93.6% increase) were increased. In the Rg1 group, hemoglobin levels were also distinctly increased by treatment concentrations. Our findings indicate that treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 enhances the anti-fatigue effects. In this study, we reveal a GH39 β-xylosidase displaying excellent hydrolytic activity to produce ginsenoside Rg1 in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

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간행물정보

  • : 자연과학분야  > 생물
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 월간
  • : 1017-7825
  • : 1738-8872
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1991-2022
  • : 5849


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1Single and Multi-Strain Probiotics Supplementation in Commercially Prominent Finfish Aquaculture: Review of the Current Knowledge

저자 : Afsar Ahmed Sumon , Tofael Ahmed Sumon , Ashraf Hussain , Su-jeong Lee , Won Je Jang , S. M. Sharifuzzaman , Christopher L. Brown , Eun-woo Lee , Tawheed Hasan

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 681-698 (18 pages)

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The Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and rohu carp Labeo rohita are farmed commercially worldwide. Production of these important finfishes is rapidly expanding, and intensive culture practices can lead to stress in fish, often reducing resistance to infectious diseases. Antibiotics and other drugs are routinely used for the treatment of diseases and sometimes applied preventatively to combat microbial pathogens. This strategy is responsible for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance, mass killing of environmental/beneficial bacteria, and residual effects in humans. As an alternative, the administration of probiotics has gained acceptance for disease control in aquaculture. Probiotics have been found to improve growth, feed utilization, immunological status, disease resistance, and to promote transcriptomic profiles and internal microbial balance of host organisms. The present review discusses the effects of single and multi-strain probiotics on growth, immunity, heamato-biochemical parameters, and disease resistance of the above-mentioned finfishes. The application and outcome of probiotics in the field or open pond system, gaps in existing knowledge, and issues worthy of further research are also highlighted.

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2Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor May Be Involved in the Behavioral Changes of Progeny Rats after Exposure to Ceftriaxone Sodium during Pregnancy

저자 : Xin Yang , Ting Tang , Mengchun Li , Jie Chen , Tingyu Li , Ying Dai , Qian Cheng

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 699-708 (10 pages)

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Antibiotic exposure during pregnancy have an adversely effects on offspring behavior and development. However, its mechanism is still poorly understood. To uncover this, we added ceftriaxone sodium to the drinking water of rats during pregnancy and conducted three-chamber sociability test, open-field test, and Morris water maze test in 3- and 6-week-old offspring. The antibiotic group offspring showed lower sociability and spatial learning and memory than control. To determine the role of the gut microbiota and their metabolites in the changes in offspring behavior, fecal samples of 6-week-old offspring rats were sequenced. The composition of dominant gut microbial taxa differed between the control and antibiotic groups. KEGG pathway analysis showed that S24-7 exerted its effects through the metabolic pathways including mineral absorption, protein digestion and absorption, Valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis. Correlation analysis showed that S24-7 abundance was negatively correlated with the level of VEGF, and metabolites associated with S24-7-including 3-aminobutanoic acid, dacarbazine, L-leucine, 3-ketosphinganine, 1-methylnicotinamide, and N-acetyl-L-glutamate-were also significantly correlated with VEGF levels. The findings suggest that antibiotic exposure during pregnancy, specifically ceftriaxone sodium, will adversely affects the behavior of offspring rats due to the imbalance of gut microbiota, especially S24-7, via VEGF and various metabolic pathways.

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3Pneumococcal Δpep27 Immunization Attenuates TLRs and NLRP3 Expression and Relieves Murine Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Rhinitis

저자 : Jae Ik Yu , Ji-hoon Kim , Ki-el Nam , Wonsik Lee , Dong-kwon Rhee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 709-717 (9 pages)

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Allergic rhinitis (AR), one of the most common inflammatory diseases, is caused by immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated reactions against inhaled allergens. AR involves mucosal inflammation driven by type 2 helper T (Th2) cells. Previously, it was shown that the Streptococcus pneumoniae pep27 mutant (Δpep27) could prevent and treat allergic asthma by reducing Th2 responses. However, the underlying mechanism of Δpep27 immunization in AR remains undetermined. Here, we investigated the role of Δpep27 immunization in the development and progression of AR and elucidated potential mechanisms. In an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR mice model, Δpep27 alleviated allergic symptoms (frequency of sneezing and rubbing) and reduced TLR2 and TLR4 expression, Th2 cytokines, and eosinophil infiltration in the nasal mucosa. Mechanistically, Δpep27 reduced the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the nasal mucosa by down-regulating the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. In conclusion, Δpep27 seems to alleviate TLR signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation to subsequently prevent AR.

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4Discovery of Anticancer Activity of Amentoflavone on Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Bioinformatics, Structure-Based Virtual Screening, and Biological Evaluation

저자 : Lei Chen , Bo Fang , Liman Qiao , Yihui Zheng

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 718-729 (12 pages)

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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common primary esophageal malignancy with poor prognosis. Here, due to the necessity for exploring potential therapies against ESCC, we obtained the gene expression data on ESCC from the TCGA and GEO databases. Venn diagram analysis was applied to identify common targets. The protein-protein interaction network was constructed by Cytoscape software, and the hub targets were extracted from the network via cytoHubba. The potential hub nodes as drug targets were found by pharmacophore-based virtual screening and molecular modeling, and the antitumor activity was evaluated through in vitro studies. A total of 364 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ESCC were identified. Pathway enrichment analyses suggested that most DEGs were mainly involved in the cell cycle. Three hub targets were retrieved, including CENPF, CCNA2 (cyclin A), and CCNB1 (cyclin B1), which were highly expressed in esophageal cancer and associated with prognosis. Moreover, amentoflavone, a promising drug candidate found by pharmacophore-based virtual screening, showed antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects and induced G1 in esophageal squamous carcinoma cells. Taken together, our findings suggested that amentoflavone could be a potential cell cycle inhibitor targeting cyclin B1, and is therefore expected to serve as a great therapeutic agent for treating esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

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54-Chloro-2-Isopropyl-5-Methylphenol Exhibits Antimicrobial and Adjuvant Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

저자 : Byung Chan Kim , Hyerim Kim , Hye Soo Lee , Su Hyun Kim , Do-hyun Cho , Hee Ju Jung , Shashi Kant Bhatia , Philip S. Yune , Hwang-soo Joo , Jae-seok Kim , Wooseong Kim , Yung-hun Yang

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 730-739 (10 pages)

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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes severe infections and poses a global healthcare challenge. The utilization of novel molecules which confer synergistical effects to existing MRSA-directed antibiotics is one of the well-accepted strategies in lieu of de novo development of new antibiotics. Thymol is a key component of the essential oil of plants in the Thymus and Origanum genera. Despite the absence of antimicrobial potency, thymol is known to inhibit MRSA biofilm formation. However, the anti-MRSA activity of thymol analogs is not well characterized. Here, we assessed the antimicrobial activity of several thymol derivatives and found that 4-chloro-2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol (chlorothymol) has antimicrobial activity against MRSA and in addition it also prevents biofilm formation. Chlorothymol inhibited staphyloxanthin production, slowed MRSA motility, and altered bacterial cell density and size. This compound also showed a synergistic antimicrobial activity with oxacillin against highly resistant S. aureus clinical isolates and biofilms associated with these isolates. Our results demonstrate that chlorinated thymol derivatives should be considered as a new lead compound in anti-MRSA therapeutics.

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6Circ_UBE2D2 Attenuates the Progression of Septic Acute Kidney Injury in Rats by Targeting miR-370-3p/NR4A3 Axis

저자 : Yanghui Huang , Guangyu Zheng

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 740-748 (9 pages)

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As circ_UBE2D2 has been confirmed to have targeted binding sites with multiple miRNAs involved in septic acute kidney injury (SAKI), efforts in this study are directed to unveiling the specific role and relevant mechanism of circ_UBE2D2 in SAKI. HK-2 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to construct SAKI model in vitro. After sh-circ_UBE2D2 was transfected into cells, the transfection efficiency was detected by qRT-PCR, cell viability and apoptosis were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, and expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and Cleaved-caspase 3 were quantified by western blot. Target genes associated with circ_UBE2D2 were predicted using bioinformatics analysis. After the establishment of SAKI rat model, HE staining and TUNEL staining were exploited to observe the effect of circ_UBE2D2 on tissue damage and cell apoptosis. The expression of circ_UBE2D2 was overtly elevated in LPS-induced HK-2 cells. Sh-circ_UBE2D2 can offset the inhibition of cell viability and the promotion of cell apoptosis induced by LPS. Circ_UBE2D2 and miR-370-3p as well as miR-370-3p and NR4A3 have targeted binding sites. MiR-370-3p inhibitor reversed the promoting effect of circ_UB2D2 silencing on viability of LPS-treated cells, but shNR4A3 neutralized the above inhibitory effect of miR-370-3p inhibitor. MiR-370-3p inhibitor weakened the down-regulation of NR4A3, Bax and Cleaved caspase-3 and the up-regulation of Bcl-2 induced by circ_UB2D2 silencing, but these trends were reversed by shNR4A3. In addition, sh-circ_UBE2D2 could alleviate the damage of rat kidney tissue. Circ_UBE2D2 mitigates the progression of SAKI in rats by targeting miR-370-3p/NR4A3 axis.

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7Heterologous Expression of a Thermostable α-Galactosidase from Parageobacillus thermoglucosidasius Isolated from the Lignocellulolytic Microbial Consortium TMC7

저자 : Yi Wang , Chen Wang , Yonglun Chen , Mingyu Cui , Qiong Wang , Peng Guo

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 749-760 (12 pages)

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α-Galactosidase is a debranching enzyme widely used in the food, feed, paper, and pharmaceuticals industries and plays an important role in hemicellulose degradation. Here, T26, an aerobic bacterial strain with thermostable α-galactosidase activity, was isolated from laboratory-preserved lignocellulolytic microbial consortium TMC7, and identified as Parageobacillus thermoglucosidasius. The α-galactosidase, called T26GAL and derived from the T26 culture supernatant, exhibited a maximum enzyme activity of 0.4976 IU/ml when cultured at 60℃ and 180 rpm for 2 days. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the α-galactosidase T26GAL belongs to the GH36 family. Subsequently, the pET-26 vector was used for the heterologous expression of the T26 α-galactosidase gene in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The optimum pH for α-galactosidase T26GAL was determined to be 8.0, while the optimum temperature was 60℃. In addition, T26GAL demonstrated a remarkable thermostability with more than 93% enzyme activity, even at a high temperature of 90℃. Furthermore, Ca2+ and Mg2+ promoted the activity of T26GAL while Zn2+ and Cu2+ inhibited it. The substrate specificity studies revealed that T26GAL efficiently degraded raffinose, stachyose, and guar gum, but not locust bean gum. This study thus facilitated the discovery of an effective heat-resistant α-galactosidase with potent industrial application. Meanwhile, as part of our research on lignocellulose degradation by a microbial consortium, the present work provides an important basis for encouraging further investigation into this enzyme complex.

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8Downregulation of EHT1 and EEB1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Alters the Ester Profile of Wine during Fermentation

저자 : Xue Yang , Xuenan Zhang , Xi He , Canzhen Liu , Xinjie Zhao , Ning Han

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 761-767 (7 pages)

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EHT1 and EEB1 are the key Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes involved in the synthesis of ethyl esters during wine fermentation. We constructed single (Δeht1, Δeeb1) and double (Δeht1Δeeb1) heterogenous mutant strains of the industrial diploid wine yeast EC1118 by disrupting one allele of EHT1 and/or EEB1. In addition, the aromatic profile of wine produced during fermentation of simulated grape juice by these mutant strains was also analyzed. The expression levels of EHT1 and/or EEB1 in the relevant mutants were less than 50% of the wild-type strain when grown in YPD medium and simulated grape juice medium. Compared to the wild-type strain, all mutants produced lower amounts of ethyl esters in the fermented grape juice and also resulted in distinct ethyl ester profiles. ATF2, a gene involved in acetate ester synthesis, was expressed at higher levels in the EEB1 downregulation mutants compared to the wild-type and Δeht1 strains during fermentation, which was consistent with the content of acetate esters. In addition, the production of higher alcohols was also markedly affected by the decrease in EEB1 levels. Compared to EHT1, EEB1 downregulation had a greater impact on the production of acetate esters and higher alcohols, suggesting that controlling EEB1 expression could be an effective means to regulate the content of these aromatic metabolites in wine. Taken together, the synthesis of ethyl esters can be decreased by deleting one allele of EHT1 and EEB1 in the diploid EC1118 strain, which may modify the ester profile of wine more subtly compared to the complete deletion of target genes.

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9Optimization of Atmospheric Cold Plasma Treatment with Different Gases for Reduction of Escherichia coli in Wheat Flour

저자 : Jeongmin Lee , Seul-ki Park , Darren Korber , Oon-doo Baik

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 768-775 (8 pages)

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In this study we aimed to derive the response surface models for Escherichia coli reduction in wheat flour using atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) with three types of gas. The jet-type atmospheric cold plasma wand system was used with a 30 W power supply, and three gases (argon, air, and nitrogen) were applied as the treatment gas. The operating parameters for process optimization considered were wheat flour mass (g), treatment time (min), and gas flow rate (L/min). The wheat flour samples were artificially contaminated with E. coli at a concentration of 9.25 ± 0.74 log CFU/g. ACP treatments with argon, air, and nitrogen resulted in 2.66, 4.21, and 5.55 log CFU/g reduction of E. coli, respectively, in wheat flour under optimized conditions. The optimized conditions to reduce E. coli were 0.5 g of the flour mass, 15 min of treatment time, and 0.20 L/min of nitrogen gas flow rate, and the predicted highest reduction level from modeling was 5.63 log CFU/g.

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10Effects of Dietary Carbohydrases on Fecal Microbiome Composition of Lactating Sows and Their Piglets

저자 : Jeong Jae Lee , Minho Song , Hyunjin Kyoung , Kyeong Il Park , Sangdon Ryu , Younghoon Kim , Minhye Shin

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 6호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 776-782 (7 pages)

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Corn-soybean meal diets are commonly used in the pork industry as a primary source of energy and protein. However, such a diet generally contains non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) which present a challenge in finding ways to improve their availability and digestibility. Dietary multicarbohydrases (MCs) have been proposed as an efficient approach to utilize NSPs, and can result in improved growth performance and host intestinal fitness. In this study, we evaluated the effects of MC in lactation diets on gut microbiota composition of lactating sows and their litters. The experimental design contained two dietary treatments, a diet based on corn-soybean meal (CON), and CON supplemented with 0.01% multigrain carbohydrases (MCs). Sow and piglet fecal samples were collected on days 7 and 28 after farrowing. Based on the results from 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, MC led to changes in species diversity and altered the microbial compositions in lactating sows and their piglets. Specifically, the MC treatment induced an increase in the proportions of Lactobacillus in piglets. Clostridium and Spirochaetaceae showed a significantly reduced proportion in MC-treated sows at day 28. Our results support the beneficial effects of dietary carbohydrases and their link with improved production due to better host fitness outcomes and gut microbiota composition.

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1Apigenin Increases Natural Killer Cytotoxicity to Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Expressing HIF-1α through High Interaction of CD95/CD95L

저자 : Hwan Hee Lee , Hyosun Cho

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 397-404 (8 pages)

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Natural killer (NK) cell activity is more attenuated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients than normal. Hypoxic-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is highly expressed in tumors to maintain their metabolism in a hypoxic environment. The expression of HIF-1α in cancers can lead to cell growth, proliferation, invasion/metastasis and immune escape. Although apigenin, a flavonoid, is known to have various biological activities, it has not been demonstrated in NK cell immune activity in HCC cells. In this study, NK-92 cells were directly cocultured with HCC SK-Hep1 cells for 24 h to evaluate NK cell activity in HCC cells or HCC cells expressing HIF-1α by apigenin. NK cell cytotoxicity to HCC cells expressing HIF-1α was significantly increased, and NK cell-activating receptors, NKG2D, NKp30 and NKp44 were highly expressed. The activating effect of apigenin on NK cells substantially induced apoptosis in HCC cells expressing HIF-1α through high expression of CD95L on the surface of NK-92 cells. Moreover, apigenin excellently inhibited the level of TGF-β1 in a coculture of NK cells and HCC cells. In conclusion, apigenin seems to be a good compound that increases NK cell cytotoxicity to HCC cells by controlling HIF-1α expression.

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2Simotang Alleviates the Gastrointestinal Side Effects of Chemotherapy by Altering Gut Microbiota

저자 : Lijing Deng , Xingyi Zhou , Zhifang Lan , Kairui Tang , Xiaoxu Zhu , Xiaowei Mo , Zongyao Zhao , Zhiqiang Zhao , Mansi Wu

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 405-418 (14 pages)

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Simotang oral liquid (SMT) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) consisting of four natural plants and is used to alleviate gastrointestinal side effects after chemotherapy and functional dyspepsia (FD). However, the mechanism by which SMT helps cure these gastrointestinal diseases is still unknown. Here, we discovered that SMT could alleviate gastrointestinal side effects after chemotherapy by altering gut microbiota. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cisplatin (DDP) and SMT, and biological samples were collected. Pathological changes in the small intestine were observed, and the intestinal injury score was assessed. The expression levels of the inflammatory factors IL-1β and IL-6 and the adhesive factors Occludin and ZO-1 in mouse blood or small intestine tissue were also detected. Moreover, the gut microbiota was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. SMT was found to effectively reduce gastrointestinal mucositis after DDP injection, which lowered inflammation and tightened the intestinal epithelial cells. Gut microbiota analysis showed that the abundance of the anti-inflammatory microbiota was downregulated and that the inflammatory microbiota was upregulated in DDP-treated mice. SMT upregulated antiinflammatory and anticancer microbiota abundance, while the inflammatory microbiota was downregulated. An antibiotic cocktail (ABX) was also used to delete mice gut microbiota to test the importance of gut microbiota, and we found that SMT could not alleviate gastrointestinal mucositis after DDP injection, showing that gut microbiota might be an important mediator of SMT treatment. Our study provides evidence that SMT might moderate gastrointestinal mucositis after chemotherapy by altering gut microbiota.

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3Effects of American Ginseng Cultivation on Bacterial Community Structure and Responses of Soil Nutrients in Different Ecological Niches

저자 : Fan Chang , Fengan Jia , Rui Lv , Min Guan , Qingan Jia , Yan Sun , Zhi Li

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 419-429 (11 pages)

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American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) is a perennial herbaceous plant widely cultivated in China, Korea, the United States, and Japan due to its multifunctional properties. In northwest China, transplanting after 2-3 years has become the main mode of artificial cultivation of American ginseng. However, the effects of the cultivation process on the chemical properties of the soil and bacterial community remain poorly understood. Hence, in the present study, high-throughput sequencing and soil chemical analyses were applied to investigate the differences between bacterial communities and nutrition driver factors in the soil during the cultivation of American ginseng. The responses of soil nutrition in different ecological niches were also determined with the results indicating that the cultivation of American ginseng significantly increased the soluble nutrients in the soil. Moreover, the bacterial diversity fluctuated with cultivation years, and 4-year-old ginseng roots had low bacterial diversity and evenness. In the first two years of cultivation, the bacterial community was more sensitive to soil nutrition compared to the last two years. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes dominated the bacterial community regardless of the cultivation year and ecological niche. With the increase of cultivation years, the assembly of bacterial communities changed from stochastic to deterministic processes. The high abundance of Sphingobium, Novosphingobium, and Rhizorhabdus enriched in 4-years-old ginseng roots was mainly associated with variations in the available potassium (AK), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), and organic matter (OM).

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4Production of Deglucose-Apiose-Xylosylated Platycosides from Glycosylated Platycosides by Crude Enzyme from Aspergillus tubingensis

저자 : Kyung-chul Shin , Tae-geun Kil , Su-hwan Kang , Deok-kun Oh

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 430-436 (7 pages)

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CPlatycosides, Platycodi radix (Platycodon grandiflorus root) saponins, are used as food supplements and exert diverse pharmacological activities. Deglycosylation of saponins enhances their biological efficacy, and deglycosylated platycosides are produced mainly through enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the types of available deglycosylated platycosides remain limited because of a lack of hydrolyzing enzymes that can act on specific glycosides in glycosylated platycosides. In this study, a crude enzyme from Aspergillus tubingensis converted platycoside E (PE) and polygalacin D3 (PGD3) into deglucose-apiose-xylosylated (deGAX)-platycodin D (PD) and deGAX-polygalacin D (PGD), respectively. The products were identified through LC/MS analysis by specifically hydrolyzing all glucose residues at C-3, and apiose and xylose residues at C-28 of platycoside. The hydrolytic activity of the crude enzyme obtained after the cultivation of the fungus using citrus pectin and corn steep solid as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, in culture medium was increased compared with those using other carbon and nitrogen sources. The crude enzyme from A. tubingensis was the most effective in producing deGAX platycoside at pH 5.0 and 60℃. The crude enzyme produced 0.32 mg/ml deGAX-PD and 0.34 mg/ml deGAX-PGD from 1 mg/ml PE and 1 mg/ml PGD3 (at pH 5.0 and 60℃) for 12 and 10 h, with productivities of 32.0 and 42.5 mg/l/h and molar yields of 62.1 and 59.6%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to produce deGAX platycosides from glycosylated platycosides.

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5Icaritin Preparation from Icariin by a Special Epimedium Flavonoid-Glycosidase from Aspergillus sp.y848 Strain

저자 : Zhenghao Wang , Chunying Liu , Hongshan Yu , Bo Wu , Baoyu Huai , Ziyu Zhuang , Changkai Sun , Longquan Xu , Fengxie Jin

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 437-446 (10 pages)

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In this study, to obtain icaritin with high pharmacological activities from icariin, which has a content ratio of over 58% in the total flavonoids of Epimedium herb, a special Epimedium flavonoid-glycosidase was produced, purified and characterized from Aspergillus sp.y848 strain. The optimal enzyme production was gained in a medium containing 5% (w/v) wheat bran extract and 0.7% (w/v) Epimedium leaf powder as the enzyme inducer, and strain culture at 30℃ for 6-7 days. The molecular weight of the enzyme was approximately 73.2 kDa; the optimal pH and temperature were 5.0 and 40°C. The enzyme Km and Vmax values for icariin were 15.63 mM and 55.56 mM/h. Moreover, the enzyme hydrolyzed the 7-O-glucosides of icariin into icariside II, and finally hydrolyzed 3-Orhamnoside of icariside II into icaritin. The enzyme also hydrolyzed 7-O-glucosides of epimedin B to sagittatoside B, and then further hydrolyzed terminal 3-O-xyloside of sagittatoside B to icarisiede II, before finally hydrolyzing 3-O-rhamnoside of icarisiede II into icaritin. The enzyme only hydrolyzed 7-O-glucoside of epimedin A or epimedin C into sagittatoside A or sagittatoside C. It is possible to prepare icaritin from the high-content icariin in Epimedium herb using this enzyme. When 2.5% icariin was reacted at 40℃ for 18-20 h by the low-cost crude enzyme, 5.04 g icaritin with 98% purity was obtained from 10 g icariin. Also, the icaritin molar yield was 92.5%. Our results showed icaritin was successfully produced via cost-effective and relatively simple methods from icariin by crude enzyme. Our results should be very useful for the development of medicines from Epimedium herb.

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6Highly Efficient Biotransformation of Notoginsenoside R1 into Ginsenoside Rg1 by Dictyoglomus thermophilum β-xylosidase Xln-DT

저자 : Qi Li , Lei Wang , Xianying Fang , Linguo Zhao

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 447-457 (11 pages)

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Notoginsenoside R1 and ginsenoside Rg1 are the main active ingredients of Panax notoginseng, exhibiting anti-fatigue, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and other activities. In a previous study, a GH39 β-xylosidase Xln-DT was responsible for the bioconversion of saponin, a natural active substance with a xylose group, with high selectivity for cleaving the outer xylose moiety of notoginsenoside R1 at the C-6 position, producing ginsenoside Rg1 with potent anti-fatigue activity. The optimal bioconversion temperature, pH, and enzyme dosage were obtained by optimizing the transformation conditions. Under optimal conditions (pH 6.0, 75℃, enzyme dosage 1.0 U/ml), 1.0 g/l of notoginsenoside R1 was converted into 0.86 g/l of ginsenoside Rg1 within 30 min, with a molar conversion rate of approximately 100%. Furthermore, the in vivo anti-fatigue activity of notoginsenoside R1 and ginsenoside Rg1 were compared using a suitable rat model. Compared with the control group, the forced swimming time to exhaustion was prolonged in mice by 17.3% in the Rg1 high group (20 mg/kg·d). Additionally, the levels of hepatic glycogen (69.9-83.3% increase) and muscle glycogen (36.9-93.6% increase) were increased. In the Rg1 group, hemoglobin levels were also distinctly increased by treatment concentrations. Our findings indicate that treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 enhances the anti-fatigue effects. In this study, we reveal a GH39 β-xylosidase displaying excellent hydrolytic activity to produce ginsenoside Rg1 in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

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7Safety and Technological Characterization of Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus pseudoxylosus Isolates from Fermented Soybean Foods of Korea

저자 : Haram Kong , Do-won Jeong , Namwon Kim , Sugyeong Lee , Sooyoung Sul , Jong-hoon Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 458-463 (6 pages)

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We evaluated the antibiotic susceptibilities, hemolytic activities, and technological properties of 36 Staphylococcus xylosus strains and 49 S. pseudoxylosus strains predominantly isolated from fermented soybean foods from Korea. Most of the strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, lincomycin, oxacillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim. However, 23 strains exhibited potential phenotypic acquired resistance to erythromycin, lincomycin, and tetracycline. Based on breakpoint values for staphylococci from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, >30% of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and penicillin G, but the population distributions in minimum inhibitory concentration tests were clearly different from those expected for acquired resistance. None of the strains exhibited clear α- or β-hemolytic activity. S. xylosus and S. pseudoxylosus exhibited salt tolerance on agar medium containing 20% and 22% (w/v) NaCl, respectively. S. xylosus and S. pseudoxylosus strains possessed protease and lipase activities, which were affected by the NaCl concentration. Protease activity of S. pseudoxylosus was strain-specific, but lipase activity might be a characteristic of both species. This study confirms the potential of both species for use in high-salt soybean fermentation, but the safety and technological properties of strains must be determined to select suitable starter candidates.

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8A Novel Endo-Polygalacturonase from Penicillium oxalicum: Gene Cloning, Heterologous Expression and Its Use in Acidic Fruit Juice Extraction

저자 : Bo Lu , Liang Xian , Jing Zhu , Yunyi Wei , Chengwei Yang , Zhong Cheng

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 464-472 (9 pages)

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An endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PGase) exhibiting excellent performance during acidic fruit juice production would be highly attractive to the fruit juice industry. However, candidate endo-PGases for this purpose have rarely been reported. In this study, we expressed a gene from Penicillium oxalicum in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzyme PoxaEnPG28C had an optimal enzyme activity at pH 4.5 and 45℃ and was stable at pH 3.0-6.5 and < 45℃. The enzyme had a specific activity of 4,377.65 ± 55.37 U/mg towards polygalacturonic acid, and the Km and Vmax values of PoxaEnPG28C were calculated as 1.64 g/l and 6127.45 U/mg, respectively. PoxaEnPG28C increased the light transmittance of orange, lemon, strawberry and hawthorn juice by 13.9 ± 0.3%, 29.4 ± 3.8%, 95.7 ± 10.2% and 79.8 ± 1.7%, respectively; it reduced the viscosity of the same juices by 25.7 ± 1.6%, 52.0 ± 4.5%, 48.2 ± 0.7% and 80.5 ± 2.3%, respectively, and it increased the yield of the juices by 24.5 ± 0.7%, 12.7 ± 2.2%, 48.5 ± 4.2% and 104.5 ± 6.4%, respectively. Thus, PoxaEnPG28C could be considered an excellent candidate enzyme for acidic fruit juice production. Remarkably, fruit juice production using hawthorn as an material was reported for the first time.

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9LAB Fermentation Improves Production of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Withania somnifera Extract and Its Metabolic Signatures as Revealed by LC-MS/MS

저자 : Jinhui Yu , Yun Geng , Han Xia , Deyuan Ma , Chao Liu , Rina Wu , Junrui Wu , Shengbo You , Yuping Bi

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 473-483 (11 pages)

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In this study we investigated the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation on the ingredients and anti-oxidant activity of Withania somnifera extract. Four strains of LAB could proliferate normally in medium containing W. somnifera extract after the pH reached 3.1~3.5. LAB fermentation increased the content of alcohols and ketones, endowing the extract with the characteristic aroma of fermentation. Compared to the control, the DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging rates in the fermented samples were significantly improved, ranging from 48.5% to 59.6% and 1.2% to 6.4%. The content of total phenols was significantly increased by 36.1% during the fermentation of mixed bacteria. Moreover, the original composition spectrum of the extract was significantly changed while the differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were closely related to bile secretion, tryptophan metabolism and purine metabolism. Therefore, LAB fermentation can be used as a promising way to improve the flavor and bioactivity of the extracts of W. somnifera, making the ferments more attractive for use as functional food.

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10Characterization of a Thermostable Lichenase from Bacillus subtilis B110 and Its Effects on β-Glucan Hydrolysis

저자 : Zhen Huang , Guorong Ni , Fei Wang , Xiaoyan Zhao , Yunda Chen , Lixia Zhang , Mingren Qu

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 484-492 (9 pages)

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Lichenase is an enzyme mainly implicated in the degradation of polysaccharides in the cell walls of grains. Emerging evidence shows that a highly efficient expression of a thermostable recombinant lichenase holds considerable promise for application in the beer-brewing and animal feed industries. Herein, we cloned a lichenase gene (CelA203) from Bacillus subtilis B110 and expressed it in E. coli. This gene contains an ORF of 729 bp, encoding a protein with 242 amino acids and a calculated molecular mass of 27.3 kDa. According to the zymogram results, purified CelA203 existed in two forms, a monomer, and a tetramer, but only the tetramer had potent enzymatic activity. CelA203 remained stable over a broad pH and temperature range and retained 40% activity at 70℃ for 1 h. The Km and Vmax of CelA203 towards barley β-glucan and lichenan were 3.98 mg/ml, 1017.17 U/mg, and 2.78 mg/ml, 198.24 U/mg, respectively. Furthermore, trisaccharide and tetrasaccharide were the main products obtained from CelA203-mediated hydrolysis of deactivated oat bran. These findings demonstrate a promising role for CelA203 in the production of oligosaccharides in animal feed and brewing industries.

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