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한국미생물생명공학회> Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology> Icaritin Preparation from Icariin by a Special Epimedium Flavonoid-Glycosidase from Aspergillus sp.y848 Strain

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Icaritin Preparation from Icariin by a Special Epimedium Flavonoid-Glycosidase from Aspergillus sp.y848 Strain

Zhenghao Wang , Chunying Liu , Hongshan Yu , Bo Wu , Baoyu Huai , Ziyu Zhuang , Changkai Sun , Longquan Xu , Fengxie Jin
  • : 한국미생물생명공학회
  • : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 04월
  • : 437-446(10pages)
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

DOI


목차

Introduction
Materials and Methods
Results
Discussion
Acknowledgments
Conflict of Interest
References

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In this study, to obtain icaritin with high pharmacological activities from icariin, which has a content ratio of over 58% in the total flavonoids of Epimedium herb, a special Epimedium flavonoid-glycosidase was produced, purified and characterized from Aspergillus sp.y848 strain. The optimal enzyme production was gained in a medium containing 5% (w/v) wheat bran extract and 0.7% (w/v) Epimedium leaf powder as the enzyme inducer, and strain culture at 30℃ for 6-7 days. The molecular weight of the enzyme was approximately 73.2 kDa; the optimal pH and temperature were 5.0 and 40°C. The enzyme Km and Vmax values for icariin were 15.63 mM and 55.56 mM/h. Moreover, the enzyme hydrolyzed the 7-O-glucosides of icariin into icariside II, and finally hydrolyzed 3-Orhamnoside of icariside II into icaritin. The enzyme also hydrolyzed 7-O-glucosides of epimedin B to sagittatoside B, and then further hydrolyzed terminal 3-O-xyloside of sagittatoside B to icarisiede II, before finally hydrolyzing 3-O-rhamnoside of icarisiede II into icaritin. The enzyme only hydrolyzed 7-O-glucoside of epimedin A or epimedin C into sagittatoside A or sagittatoside C. It is possible to prepare icaritin from the high-content icariin in Epimedium herb using this enzyme. When 2.5% icariin was reacted at 40℃ for 18-20 h by the low-cost crude enzyme, 5.04 g icaritin with 98% purity was obtained from 10 g icariin. Also, the icaritin molar yield was 92.5%. Our results showed icaritin was successfully produced via cost-effective and relatively simple methods from icariin by crude enzyme. Our results should be very useful for the development of medicines from Epimedium herb.

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간행물정보

  • : 자연과학분야  > 생물
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 월간
  • : 1017-7825
  • : 1738-8872
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1991-2022
  • : 5864


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1Leaky Gut in IBD: Intestinal Barrier-Gut Microbiota Interaction

저자 : Shunying Yu , Yibin Sun , Xinyu Shao , Yuqing Zhou , Yang Yu , Xiaoyi Kuai , Chunli Zhou

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 7호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 825-834 (10 pages)

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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a global disease that is in increasing incidence. The gut, which contains the largest amount of lymphoid tissue in the human body, as well as a wide range of nervous system components, is integral in ensuring intestinal homeostasis and function. By interacting with gut microbiota, immune cells, and the enteric nervous system, the intestinal barrier, which is a solid barrier, protects the intestinal tract from the external environment, thereby maintaining homeostasis throughout the body. Destruction of the intestinal barrier is referred to as developing a “leaky gut,” which causes a series of changes relating to the occurrence of IBD. Changes in the interactions between the intestinal barrier and gut microbiota are particularly crucial in the development of IBD. Exploring the leaky gut and its interaction with the gut microbiota, immune cells, and the neuroimmune system may help further explain the pathogenesis of IBD and provide potential therapeutic methods for future use.

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2Deinococcus radiodurans R1 Lysate Induces Tolerogenic Maturation in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Dendritic Cells and Protects Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

저자 : Ha-yeon Song , Jeong Moo Han , Woo Sik Kim , Ji Hee Lee , Woo Yong Park , Eui-baek Byun , Eui-hong Byun

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 7호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 835-843 (9 pages)

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Deinococcus radiodurans is an extremophilic bacterium that can thrive in harsh environments. This property can be attributed to its unique metabolites that possess strong antioxidants and other pharmacological properties. To determine the potential of D. radiodurans R1 lysate (DeinoLys) as a pharmacological candidate for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we investigated the antiinflammatory activity of DeinoLys in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and a colitis mice model. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BMDCs treated with DeinoLys exhibited alterations in their phenotypic and functional properties by changing into tolerogenic DCs, including strongly inhibited proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12p70) and surface molecule expression and activated DC-induced T cell proliferation/activation with high IL-10 production. These phenotypic and functional changes in BMDCs induced by DeinoLys in the presence of LPS were abrogated by IL- 10 neutralization. Furthermore, oral administration of DeinoLys significantly reduced clinical symptoms against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, including body weight loss, disease activity index, histological severity in colon tissue, and lower myeloperoxidase level in mice. Our results establish DeinoLys as a potential anti-inflammatory candidate for IBD therapy.

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3Helicobacter pylori-Induced Progranulin Promotes the Progression of the Gastric Epithelial Cell Cycle by Regulating CDK4

저자 : Zongjiao Ren , Jiayi Li , Xianhong Du , Wenjing Shi , Fulai Guan , Xiaochen Wang , Linjing Wang , Hongyan Wang

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 7호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 843-853 (11 pages)

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Helicobacter pylori, a group 1 carcinogen, colonizes the stomach and affects the development of stomach diseases. Progranulin (PGRN) is an autocrine growth factor that regulates multiple cellular processes and plays a tumorigenic role in many tissues. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of PGRN in gastric cancer caused by H. pylori infection remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of PGRN in cell cycle progression and the cell proliferation induced by H. pylori infection. We found that the increased PGRN was positively associated with CDK4 expression in gastric cancer tissue. PGRN was upregulated by H. pylori infection, thereby promoting cell proliferation, and that enhanced level of proliferation was reduced by PGRN inhibitor. CDK4, a target gene of PGRN, is a cyclin-dependent kinase that binds to cyclin D to promote cell cycle progression, which was upregulated by H. pylori infection. We also showed that knockdown of CDK4 reduced the higher cell cycle progression caused by upregulated PGRN. Moreover, when the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway (which is promoted by PGRN) was blocked, the upregulation of CDK4 mediated by PGRN was reduced. These results reveal the potential mechanism by which PGRN plays a major role through CDK4 in the pathological mechanism of H. pylori infection.

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4Variovorax terrae sp. nov. Isolated from Soil with Potential Antioxidant Activity

저자 : Chae Yung Woo , Jaisoo Kim

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 7호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 855-861 (7 pages)

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A white-pigmented, non-motile, gram-negative, and rod-shaped bacterium, designated CYS-02T, was isolated from soil sampled at Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. Cells were strictly aerobic, grew optimally at 20-28℃ and hydrolyzed Tween 40. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain CYS-02T formed a lineage within the family Comamonadaceae and clustered as members of the genus Variovorax. The closest members were Variovorax guangxiensis DSM 27352T (98.6% sequence similarity), Variovorax paradoxus NBRC 15149T (98.5%), and Variovorax gossypii JM-310T (98.3%). The principal respiratory quinone was Q-8 and the major polar lipids contain phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylethanolamine (PG), and diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG). The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16:0, summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c) and summed feature 8 (C18:1ω7c and/or C18:1ω6c). The DNA GC content was 67.7 mol%. The ANI and dDDH values between strain CYS-02T and the closest members in the genus Variovorax were ≤ 79.0 and 22.4%, respectively, and the AAI and POCP values between CYS-02T and the other related species in the family Comamonadaceae were > 70% and > 50%, respectively. The genome of strain CYS-02T showed a putative terpene biosynthetic cluster responsible for antioxidant activity which was supported by DPPH radical scavenging activity test. Based on genomic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses, strain CYS-02T was classified into a novel species in the genus Variovorax, for which the name Variovorax terrae sp. nov., has been proposed. The type strain is CYS-02T (= KACC 22656T = NBRC 00115645T).

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5Effect of Methyl Gallate on 1-Nitropyrene- Induced Keratinocyte Toxicity in a Human and Canine Skin Model

저자 : Woo Jin Lee , Min Jeong Kim , Hyun-wook Choi , Jeong Jae Lee , Sung Keun Jung

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 7호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 860-867 (8 pages)

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The skin, which is the largest organ of the human body, is in direct contact with pollutants in the surrounding atmosphere. Meanwhile, 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), the most abundant nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in particulate matter, is known to have carcinogenic effects; however, studies on its toxicity in human and canine skin are still needed. In this study, we investigated 1-NPinduced apoptosis and inflammatory pathways in HaCaT cells. In addition, we also measured the cytoprotective effect of methyl gallate (MG), which is widely distributed in medicinal and edible plants and is well known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. MG inhibited 1-NPinduced cell death and apoptosis pathways, including the cleavage of PARP and activation of caspase-3, -7, and -9. MG also suppressed 1-NP-induced COX-2 expression and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and MAPK kinases (MAPKKs). Our findings suggest that 1-NP induces skin toxicity in human and canine through apoptosis and inflammatory responses, and moreover, that this can be prevented by treatment with MG.

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6Effect of Scenedesmus sp. CHK0059 on Strawberry Microbiota Community

저자 : Gyeongjun Cho , Gyeong Seo Jo , Yejin Lee , Youn-sig Kwak

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 7호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 862-868 (7 pages)

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Microalgae are photosynthetic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microorganisms, mainly living in the water. In agriculture, numerous studies have been conducted to utilize microalgae as a biostimulant resource. Scenedesmus has been known to be one such microalga that can promote plant growth by secretion of auxin or cytokinin hormone analogs. However, no research has been performed on the effect of microalgae treatment on plant microbiota communities. This study was conducted to investigate the mode of action of microalgae as biostimulants in a plant microbiota perspective by using Scenedesmus sp. CHK0059 (also known as species Chlorella fusca), which has been well documented as a biostimulant for strawberries. The strawberry cultivar Keumsil was bred with Seolhyang and Maehyang as the parent cultivars. Using these three cultivars, microbiota communities were evaluated for changes in structural composition according to the CHK0059 treatment. CHK0059-treated Seolhyang, and CHK0059-untreated Maehyang were similar in microbial diversity in the endosphere. From a microbiota community perspective, the diversity change showed that CHK0059 was affected by the characteristics of the host. Conversely, when CHK0059 treatment was applied, populations of Streptomyces and Actinospica were observed in the crown endosphere.

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7The Probiotic Effects of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 28-7 Strain Isolated from Nuruk in a DSS-Induced Colitis Mouse Model

저자 : Jang Eun Lee , Eunjung Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 7호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 877-884 (8 pages)

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Probiotics are microorganisms that can benefit host health when ingested in a live state, and lactic acid bacteria are the most common type. Among fungi, Saccharomyces boulardii (SB) is the only strain known to have a probiotic function with beneficial effects on colitis; however, information on other probiotic yeast strains is limited. Therefore, this study aimed to discover yeast strains expressing intestinal anti-inflammatory activities by exhibiting probiotic properties in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mice model. Nuruk (Korean traditional fermentation starter) containing various microbial strains was used as a source for yeast strains, and S. cerevisiae 28-7 (SC28-7) strain was selected with in vitro and in vivo characteristics to enable survival in the intestines. After 14 days of pretreatment with the yeast strains, DSS was co-administered for six days to induce colitis in mice. The results revealed that the disease activity index score was lowered by SC28-7 treatment compared to the DSS group, and the colon length and weight/length ratio were recovered in a pattern similar to that of the normal group. SC28-7 administration significantly reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum and modified the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, transforming growth factor-β, and interferon-γ) and proteins involved in gut barrier functions (mucin 2, mucin 3, zonula occludens-1, and occludin) in colon tissues. These results indicate that SC28-7 attenuates DSS-induced colon damage and inflammation, supporting its future use as a probiotic yeast for treating and preventing intestinal inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease.

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8Modification of Gut Microbiota and Immune Responses via Dietary Protease in Soybean Meal-Based Protein Diets

저자 : Minho Song , Byeonghyeon Kim , Jin Ho Cho , Hyunjin Kyoung , Jeehwan Choe , Jee-yeon Cho , Younghoon Kim , Hyeun Bum Kim , Jeong Jae Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 7호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 885-891 (7 pages)

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Plant-based protein sources such as soybean meal have low digestibility and are generally promoted accumulation of undigested proteins into the intestine by enzymatic treatments. Moreover, potential intestinal pathogens ferment undigested proteins, producing harmful substances, such as ammonia, amines and phenols, leading to an overactive immune response and diarrhea in weaned pigs. As a solution, dietary proteases hydrolyze soybean-based antinutritive factors, which negatively affect immune responses and gut microbiota. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary proteases (PRO) in a low-crude protein (CP) commercial diet on the immune responses and gut microbiota of weaned pigs. The experimental design consisted of three dietary treatments: a commercial diet as a positive control (PC; phase1 CP = 23.71%; phase 2 CP: 22.36%), a lower CP diet than PC as negative control (NC; 0.61% less CP than PC), and NC diet supplement with 0.02% PRO. We found that PRO tended to decrease the frequency of diarrhea in the first two weeks after weaning compared with PC and NC. In addition, pigs fed PRO showed decreased TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels compared with those fed PC and NC. The PRO group had a higher relative proportion of the genus Lactobacillus and lower levels of the genus Streptococcus than the PC and NC groups. In conclusion, the addition of PRO to a low CP commercial weaned diet attenuated inflammatory responses and modified gut microbiota in weaned pigs.

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9Enhanced Production of C30 Carotenoid 4,4'-Diaponeurosporene by Optimizing Culture Conditions of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum KCCP11226T

저자 : Inonge Noni Siziya , Deok Jun Yoon , Mibang Kim , Myung-ji Seo

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 7호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 892-901 (10 pages)

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The rising demand for carotenoids can be met by microbial biosynthesis as a promising alternative to chemical synthesis and plant extraction. Several species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) specifically produce C30 carotenoids and offer the added probiotic benefit of improved gut health and protection against chronic conditions. In this study, the recently characterized Lactiplantibacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum KCCP11226T produced the rare C30 carotenoid, 4,4'-diaponeurosporene, and its yield was optimized for industrial production. The one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method was used to screen carbon and nitrogen sources, while the abiotic stresses of temperature, pH, and salinity, were evaluated for their effects on 4,4'-diaponeurosporene production. Lactose and beef extract were ideal for optimal carotenoid production at 25°C incubation in pH 7.0 medium with no salt. The main factors influencing 4,4'-diaponeurosporene yields, namely lactose level, beef extract concentration and initial pH, were enhanced using the Box-Behnken design under response surface methodology (RSM). Compared to commercial MRS medium, there was a 3.3-fold increase in carotenoid production in the optimized conditions of 15% lactose, 8.3% beef extract and initial pH of 6.9, producing a 4,4'-diaponeurosporene concentration of 0.033 A470/ml. To substantiate upscaling for industrial application, the optimal aeration rate in a 5 L fermentor was 0.3 vvm. This resulted in a further 3.8-fold increase in 4,4'-diaponeurosporene production, with a concentration of 0.042 A470/ml, compared to the flask-scale cultivation in commercial MRS medium. The present work confirms the optimization and scale-up feasibility of enhanced 4,4'-diaponeurosporene production by L. plantarum subsp. plantarum KCCP11226T.

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10Increased Production of Ginsenoside Compound K by Optimizing the Feeding of American Ginseng Extract during Fermentation by Aspergillus tubingensis

저자 : Woo-seok Song , Min-ju Kim , Kyung-chul Shin , Deok-kun Oh

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 7호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 902-910 (9 pages)

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The ginsenoside compound K (C-K) is widely used in traditional medicines, nutritional supplements, and cosmetics owing to its diverse pharmacological activities. Although many studies on C-K production have been conducted, fermentation is reported to produce C-K with low concentration and productivity. In the present study, addition of an inducer and optimization of the carbon and nitrogen sources in the medium were performed using response surface methodology to increase the C-K production via fermentation by Aspergillus tubingensis, a generally recognized as safe fungus. The optimized inducer and carbon and nitrogen sources were 2 g/l rice straw, 10 g/l sucrose, and 10 g/l soy protein concentrate, respectively, and they resulted in a 3.1-fold increase in the concentration and productivity of C-K (0.22 g/l and 1.52 mg/l/h, respectively) compared to those used before optimization without inducer (0.071 g/l and 0.49 mg/l/h, respectively). The feeding methods of American ginseng extract (AGE), including feeding timing, feeding concentration, and feeding frequency, were also optimized. Under the optimized conditions, A. tubingensis produced 3.96 mM (2.47 g/l) C-K at 144 h by feeding two times with 8 g/l AGE at 48 and 60 h, with a productivity of 17.1 mg/l/h. The concentration and productivity of C-K after optimization of feeding methods were 11-fold higher than those before the optimization (0.22 g/l and 1.52 mg/l/h, respectively). Thus, the optimization for the feeding methods of ginseng extract is an efficient strategy to increase C-K production. To our knowledge, this is the highest reported C-K concentration and productivity via fermentation reported so far.

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1Apigenin Increases Natural Killer Cytotoxicity to Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Expressing HIF-1α through High Interaction of CD95/CD95L

저자 : Hwan Hee Lee , Hyosun Cho

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 397-404 (8 pages)

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Natural killer (NK) cell activity is more attenuated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients than normal. Hypoxic-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is highly expressed in tumors to maintain their metabolism in a hypoxic environment. The expression of HIF-1α in cancers can lead to cell growth, proliferation, invasion/metastasis and immune escape. Although apigenin, a flavonoid, is known to have various biological activities, it has not been demonstrated in NK cell immune activity in HCC cells. In this study, NK-92 cells were directly cocultured with HCC SK-Hep1 cells for 24 h to evaluate NK cell activity in HCC cells or HCC cells expressing HIF-1α by apigenin. NK cell cytotoxicity to HCC cells expressing HIF-1α was significantly increased, and NK cell-activating receptors, NKG2D, NKp30 and NKp44 were highly expressed. The activating effect of apigenin on NK cells substantially induced apoptosis in HCC cells expressing HIF-1α through high expression of CD95L on the surface of NK-92 cells. Moreover, apigenin excellently inhibited the level of TGF-β1 in a coculture of NK cells and HCC cells. In conclusion, apigenin seems to be a good compound that increases NK cell cytotoxicity to HCC cells by controlling HIF-1α expression.

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2Simotang Alleviates the Gastrointestinal Side Effects of Chemotherapy by Altering Gut Microbiota

저자 : Lijing Deng , Xingyi Zhou , Zhifang Lan , Kairui Tang , Xiaoxu Zhu , Xiaowei Mo , Zongyao Zhao , Zhiqiang Zhao , Mansi Wu

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 405-418 (14 pages)

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Simotang oral liquid (SMT) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) consisting of four natural plants and is used to alleviate gastrointestinal side effects after chemotherapy and functional dyspepsia (FD). However, the mechanism by which SMT helps cure these gastrointestinal diseases is still unknown. Here, we discovered that SMT could alleviate gastrointestinal side effects after chemotherapy by altering gut microbiota. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cisplatin (DDP) and SMT, and biological samples were collected. Pathological changes in the small intestine were observed, and the intestinal injury score was assessed. The expression levels of the inflammatory factors IL-1β and IL-6 and the adhesive factors Occludin and ZO-1 in mouse blood or small intestine tissue were also detected. Moreover, the gut microbiota was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. SMT was found to effectively reduce gastrointestinal mucositis after DDP injection, which lowered inflammation and tightened the intestinal epithelial cells. Gut microbiota analysis showed that the abundance of the anti-inflammatory microbiota was downregulated and that the inflammatory microbiota was upregulated in DDP-treated mice. SMT upregulated antiinflammatory and anticancer microbiota abundance, while the inflammatory microbiota was downregulated. An antibiotic cocktail (ABX) was also used to delete mice gut microbiota to test the importance of gut microbiota, and we found that SMT could not alleviate gastrointestinal mucositis after DDP injection, showing that gut microbiota might be an important mediator of SMT treatment. Our study provides evidence that SMT might moderate gastrointestinal mucositis after chemotherapy by altering gut microbiota.

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3Effects of American Ginseng Cultivation on Bacterial Community Structure and Responses of Soil Nutrients in Different Ecological Niches

저자 : Fan Chang , Fengan Jia , Rui Lv , Min Guan , Qingan Jia , Yan Sun , Zhi Li

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 419-429 (11 pages)

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American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) is a perennial herbaceous plant widely cultivated in China, Korea, the United States, and Japan due to its multifunctional properties. In northwest China, transplanting after 2-3 years has become the main mode of artificial cultivation of American ginseng. However, the effects of the cultivation process on the chemical properties of the soil and bacterial community remain poorly understood. Hence, in the present study, high-throughput sequencing and soil chemical analyses were applied to investigate the differences between bacterial communities and nutrition driver factors in the soil during the cultivation of American ginseng. The responses of soil nutrition in different ecological niches were also determined with the results indicating that the cultivation of American ginseng significantly increased the soluble nutrients in the soil. Moreover, the bacterial diversity fluctuated with cultivation years, and 4-year-old ginseng roots had low bacterial diversity and evenness. In the first two years of cultivation, the bacterial community was more sensitive to soil nutrition compared to the last two years. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes dominated the bacterial community regardless of the cultivation year and ecological niche. With the increase of cultivation years, the assembly of bacterial communities changed from stochastic to deterministic processes. The high abundance of Sphingobium, Novosphingobium, and Rhizorhabdus enriched in 4-years-old ginseng roots was mainly associated with variations in the available potassium (AK), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), and organic matter (OM).

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4Production of Deglucose-Apiose-Xylosylated Platycosides from Glycosylated Platycosides by Crude Enzyme from Aspergillus tubingensis

저자 : Kyung-chul Shin , Tae-geun Kil , Su-hwan Kang , Deok-kun Oh

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 430-436 (7 pages)

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CPlatycosides, Platycodi radix (Platycodon grandiflorus root) saponins, are used as food supplements and exert diverse pharmacological activities. Deglycosylation of saponins enhances their biological efficacy, and deglycosylated platycosides are produced mainly through enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the types of available deglycosylated platycosides remain limited because of a lack of hydrolyzing enzymes that can act on specific glycosides in glycosylated platycosides. In this study, a crude enzyme from Aspergillus tubingensis converted platycoside E (PE) and polygalacin D3 (PGD3) into deglucose-apiose-xylosylated (deGAX)-platycodin D (PD) and deGAX-polygalacin D (PGD), respectively. The products were identified through LC/MS analysis by specifically hydrolyzing all glucose residues at C-3, and apiose and xylose residues at C-28 of platycoside. The hydrolytic activity of the crude enzyme obtained after the cultivation of the fungus using citrus pectin and corn steep solid as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, in culture medium was increased compared with those using other carbon and nitrogen sources. The crude enzyme from A. tubingensis was the most effective in producing deGAX platycoside at pH 5.0 and 60℃. The crude enzyme produced 0.32 mg/ml deGAX-PD and 0.34 mg/ml deGAX-PGD from 1 mg/ml PE and 1 mg/ml PGD3 (at pH 5.0 and 60℃) for 12 and 10 h, with productivities of 32.0 and 42.5 mg/l/h and molar yields of 62.1 and 59.6%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to produce deGAX platycosides from glycosylated platycosides.

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5Icaritin Preparation from Icariin by a Special Epimedium Flavonoid-Glycosidase from Aspergillus sp.y848 Strain

저자 : Zhenghao Wang , Chunying Liu , Hongshan Yu , Bo Wu , Baoyu Huai , Ziyu Zhuang , Changkai Sun , Longquan Xu , Fengxie Jin

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 437-446 (10 pages)

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In this study, to obtain icaritin with high pharmacological activities from icariin, which has a content ratio of over 58% in the total flavonoids of Epimedium herb, a special Epimedium flavonoid-glycosidase was produced, purified and characterized from Aspergillus sp.y848 strain. The optimal enzyme production was gained in a medium containing 5% (w/v) wheat bran extract and 0.7% (w/v) Epimedium leaf powder as the enzyme inducer, and strain culture at 30℃ for 6-7 days. The molecular weight of the enzyme was approximately 73.2 kDa; the optimal pH and temperature were 5.0 and 40°C. The enzyme Km and Vmax values for icariin were 15.63 mM and 55.56 mM/h. Moreover, the enzyme hydrolyzed the 7-O-glucosides of icariin into icariside II, and finally hydrolyzed 3-Orhamnoside of icariside II into icaritin. The enzyme also hydrolyzed 7-O-glucosides of epimedin B to sagittatoside B, and then further hydrolyzed terminal 3-O-xyloside of sagittatoside B to icarisiede II, before finally hydrolyzing 3-O-rhamnoside of icarisiede II into icaritin. The enzyme only hydrolyzed 7-O-glucoside of epimedin A or epimedin C into sagittatoside A or sagittatoside C. It is possible to prepare icaritin from the high-content icariin in Epimedium herb using this enzyme. When 2.5% icariin was reacted at 40℃ for 18-20 h by the low-cost crude enzyme, 5.04 g icaritin with 98% purity was obtained from 10 g icariin. Also, the icaritin molar yield was 92.5%. Our results showed icaritin was successfully produced via cost-effective and relatively simple methods from icariin by crude enzyme. Our results should be very useful for the development of medicines from Epimedium herb.

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6Highly Efficient Biotransformation of Notoginsenoside R1 into Ginsenoside Rg1 by Dictyoglomus thermophilum β-xylosidase Xln-DT

저자 : Qi Li , Lei Wang , Xianying Fang , Linguo Zhao

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 447-457 (11 pages)

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Notoginsenoside R1 and ginsenoside Rg1 are the main active ingredients of Panax notoginseng, exhibiting anti-fatigue, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and other activities. In a previous study, a GH39 β-xylosidase Xln-DT was responsible for the bioconversion of saponin, a natural active substance with a xylose group, with high selectivity for cleaving the outer xylose moiety of notoginsenoside R1 at the C-6 position, producing ginsenoside Rg1 with potent anti-fatigue activity. The optimal bioconversion temperature, pH, and enzyme dosage were obtained by optimizing the transformation conditions. Under optimal conditions (pH 6.0, 75℃, enzyme dosage 1.0 U/ml), 1.0 g/l of notoginsenoside R1 was converted into 0.86 g/l of ginsenoside Rg1 within 30 min, with a molar conversion rate of approximately 100%. Furthermore, the in vivo anti-fatigue activity of notoginsenoside R1 and ginsenoside Rg1 were compared using a suitable rat model. Compared with the control group, the forced swimming time to exhaustion was prolonged in mice by 17.3% in the Rg1 high group (20 mg/kg·d). Additionally, the levels of hepatic glycogen (69.9-83.3% increase) and muscle glycogen (36.9-93.6% increase) were increased. In the Rg1 group, hemoglobin levels were also distinctly increased by treatment concentrations. Our findings indicate that treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 enhances the anti-fatigue effects. In this study, we reveal a GH39 β-xylosidase displaying excellent hydrolytic activity to produce ginsenoside Rg1 in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

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7Safety and Technological Characterization of Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus pseudoxylosus Isolates from Fermented Soybean Foods of Korea

저자 : Haram Kong , Do-won Jeong , Namwon Kim , Sugyeong Lee , Sooyoung Sul , Jong-hoon Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 458-463 (6 pages)

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We evaluated the antibiotic susceptibilities, hemolytic activities, and technological properties of 36 Staphylococcus xylosus strains and 49 S. pseudoxylosus strains predominantly isolated from fermented soybean foods from Korea. Most of the strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, lincomycin, oxacillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim. However, 23 strains exhibited potential phenotypic acquired resistance to erythromycin, lincomycin, and tetracycline. Based on breakpoint values for staphylococci from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, >30% of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and penicillin G, but the population distributions in minimum inhibitory concentration tests were clearly different from those expected for acquired resistance. None of the strains exhibited clear α- or β-hemolytic activity. S. xylosus and S. pseudoxylosus exhibited salt tolerance on agar medium containing 20% and 22% (w/v) NaCl, respectively. S. xylosus and S. pseudoxylosus strains possessed protease and lipase activities, which were affected by the NaCl concentration. Protease activity of S. pseudoxylosus was strain-specific, but lipase activity might be a characteristic of both species. This study confirms the potential of both species for use in high-salt soybean fermentation, but the safety and technological properties of strains must be determined to select suitable starter candidates.

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8A Novel Endo-Polygalacturonase from Penicillium oxalicum: Gene Cloning, Heterologous Expression and Its Use in Acidic Fruit Juice Extraction

저자 : Bo Lu , Liang Xian , Jing Zhu , Yunyi Wei , Chengwei Yang , Zhong Cheng

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 464-472 (9 pages)

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An endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PGase) exhibiting excellent performance during acidic fruit juice production would be highly attractive to the fruit juice industry. However, candidate endo-PGases for this purpose have rarely been reported. In this study, we expressed a gene from Penicillium oxalicum in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzyme PoxaEnPG28C had an optimal enzyme activity at pH 4.5 and 45℃ and was stable at pH 3.0-6.5 and < 45℃. The enzyme had a specific activity of 4,377.65 ± 55.37 U/mg towards polygalacturonic acid, and the Km and Vmax values of PoxaEnPG28C were calculated as 1.64 g/l and 6127.45 U/mg, respectively. PoxaEnPG28C increased the light transmittance of orange, lemon, strawberry and hawthorn juice by 13.9 ± 0.3%, 29.4 ± 3.8%, 95.7 ± 10.2% and 79.8 ± 1.7%, respectively; it reduced the viscosity of the same juices by 25.7 ± 1.6%, 52.0 ± 4.5%, 48.2 ± 0.7% and 80.5 ± 2.3%, respectively, and it increased the yield of the juices by 24.5 ± 0.7%, 12.7 ± 2.2%, 48.5 ± 4.2% and 104.5 ± 6.4%, respectively. Thus, PoxaEnPG28C could be considered an excellent candidate enzyme for acidic fruit juice production. Remarkably, fruit juice production using hawthorn as an material was reported for the first time.

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9LAB Fermentation Improves Production of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Withania somnifera Extract and Its Metabolic Signatures as Revealed by LC-MS/MS

저자 : Jinhui Yu , Yun Geng , Han Xia , Deyuan Ma , Chao Liu , Rina Wu , Junrui Wu , Shengbo You , Yuping Bi

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 473-483 (11 pages)

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In this study we investigated the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation on the ingredients and anti-oxidant activity of Withania somnifera extract. Four strains of LAB could proliferate normally in medium containing W. somnifera extract after the pH reached 3.1~3.5. LAB fermentation increased the content of alcohols and ketones, endowing the extract with the characteristic aroma of fermentation. Compared to the control, the DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging rates in the fermented samples were significantly improved, ranging from 48.5% to 59.6% and 1.2% to 6.4%. The content of total phenols was significantly increased by 36.1% during the fermentation of mixed bacteria. Moreover, the original composition spectrum of the extract was significantly changed while the differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were closely related to bile secretion, tryptophan metabolism and purine metabolism. Therefore, LAB fermentation can be used as a promising way to improve the flavor and bioactivity of the extracts of W. somnifera, making the ferments more attractive for use as functional food.

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10Characterization of a Thermostable Lichenase from Bacillus subtilis B110 and Its Effects on β-Glucan Hydrolysis

저자 : Zhen Huang , Guorong Ni , Fei Wang , Xiaoyan Zhao , Yunda Chen , Lixia Zhang , Mingren Qu

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 484-492 (9 pages)

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Lichenase is an enzyme mainly implicated in the degradation of polysaccharides in the cell walls of grains. Emerging evidence shows that a highly efficient expression of a thermostable recombinant lichenase holds considerable promise for application in the beer-brewing and animal feed industries. Herein, we cloned a lichenase gene (CelA203) from Bacillus subtilis B110 and expressed it in E. coli. This gene contains an ORF of 729 bp, encoding a protein with 242 amino acids and a calculated molecular mass of 27.3 kDa. According to the zymogram results, purified CelA203 existed in two forms, a monomer, and a tetramer, but only the tetramer had potent enzymatic activity. CelA203 remained stable over a broad pH and temperature range and retained 40% activity at 70℃ for 1 h. The Km and Vmax of CelA203 towards barley β-glucan and lichenan were 3.98 mg/ml, 1017.17 U/mg, and 2.78 mg/ml, 198.24 U/mg, respectively. Furthermore, trisaccharide and tetrasaccharide were the main products obtained from CelA203-mediated hydrolysis of deactivated oat bran. These findings demonstrate a promising role for CelA203 in the production of oligosaccharides in animal feed and brewing industries.

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