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The Role of Adiponectin in the Skin

Jieun Oh , Yeongyeong Lee , Sae-woong Oh , Tiantian Li , Jiwon Shin , See-hyoung Park , Jongsung Lee
  • : 한국응용약물학회
  • : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 05월
  • : 221-231(11pages)
Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지)

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
ADIPONECTIN
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADIPONECTIN AND SKIN CELLS
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADIPONECTIN AND SKIN AGING
ADIPONECTIN AND IMMUNITY
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN C1Q AND ADIPONECTIN
PRO- OR ANTI-INFLAMMATORY FUNCTION OF ADIPONECTIN
MACROPHAGES AND MONOCYTES
DENDRITIC CELLS (DCS)
BLOOD CELLS
NATURAL KILLER CELLS
ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY: T CELL
CONCLUSIONS
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
REFERENCES

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초록 보기

Adiponectin (Ad), a 30 kDa molecule, is an anti-diabetic adipokine; although derived from adipose tissue, it performs numerous activities in various other tissues. It binds to its own receptors, namely adiponectin receptor 1(AdipoR1), adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2), and T-cadherin (CDH13). Ad plays several roles, especially as a regulator. It modulates lipid and glucose metabolism and promotes insulin sensitivity. This demonstrates that Ad has a robust correlation with fat metabolism. Furthermore, although Ad is not in direct contact with other tissues, including the skin, it can be delivered to them by diffusion or secretion via the endocrine system. Recently it has been reported that Ad can impact skin cell biology, underscoring its potential as a therapeutic biomarker of skin diseases. In the present review, we have discussed the association between skin cell biology and Ad. To elaborate further, we described the involvement of Ad in the biology of various types of cells in the skin, such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, and immune cells. Additionally, we postulated that Ad could be employed as a therapeutic target to maintain skin homeostasis.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 의약학분야  > 약화학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 1976-9148
  • : 2005-4483
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1993-2023
  • : 1842


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1Enhancing Anti-Cancer Therapy with Selective Autophagy Inhibitors by Targeting Protective Autophagy

저자 : Min Ju Lee , Jae-sung Park , Seong Bin Jo , Young Ae Joe

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 1-15 (15 pages)

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Autophagy is a process of eliminating damaged or unnecessary proteins and organelles, thereby maintaining intracellular homeostasis. Deregulation of autophagy is associated with several diseases including cancer. Contradictory dual roles of autophagy have been well established in cancer. Cytoprotective mechanism of autophagy has been extensively investigated for overcoming resistance to cancer therapies including radiotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy. Selective autophagy inhibitors that directly target autophagic process have been developed for cancer treatment. Efficacies of autophagy inhibitors have been tested in various pre-clinical cancer animal models. Combination therapies of autophagy inhibitors with chemotherapeutics are being evaluated in clinal trials. In this review, we will focus on genetical and pharmacological perturbations of autophagy-related proteins in different steps of autophagic process and their therapeutic benefits. We will also summarize combination therapies of autophagy inhibitors with chemotherapies and their outcomes in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Understanding of current knowledge of development, progress, and application of cytoprotective autophagy inhibitors in combination therapies will open new possibilities for overcoming drug resistance and improving clinical outcomes.

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2The Trend of Organic Based Nanoparticles in the Treatment of Diabetes and Its Perspectives

저자 : Vijayakumar Natesan , Sung-jin Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 16-26 (11 pages)

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Diabetes is an untreatable metabolic disorder characterized by alteration in blood sugar homeostasis, with submucosal insulin therapy being the primary treatment option. This route of drug administration is attributed to low patient comfort due to the risk of pain, distress, and local inflammation/infections. Nanoparticles have indeed been suggested as insulin carriers to allow the drug to be administered via less invasive routes other than injection, such as orally or nasally. The organic-based nanoparticles can be derived from various organic materials (for instance, polysaccharides, lipids, and so on) and thus are prevalently used to enhance the physical and chemical consistency of loaded bioactive compounds (drug) and thus their bioavailability. This review presents various forms of organic nanoparticles (for example, chitosan, dextron, gums, nanoemulsion, alginate, and so on) for enhanced hypoglycemic drug delivery relative to traditional therapies.

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36-Shogaol and 10-Shogaol Synergize Curcumin in Ameliorating Proinflammatory Mediators via the Modulation of TLR4/TRAF6/MAPK and NFκB Translocation

저자 : Xian Zhou , Ahmad Al-khazaleh , Sualiha Afzal , Ming-hui tim Kao , Gerald Münch , Hans Wohlmuth , David Leach , Mitchell Low , Chun Guang Li

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 27-41 (15 pages)

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Extensive research supported the therapeutic potential of curcumin, a naturally occurring compound, as a promising cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drug. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic anti-inflammatory and anti-cytokine activities by combining 6-shogaol and 10-shogaol to curcumin, and associated mechanisms in modulating lipopolysaccharides and interferon-ɣ-induced proinflammatory signaling pathways. Our results showed that the combination of 6-shogaol-10-shogaolcurcumin synergistically reduced the production of nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor and inter-lukin-6 in lipopolysaccharides and interferon-γ-induced RAW 264.7 and THP-1 cells assessed by the combination index model. 6-shogaol-10-shogaol-curcumin also showed greater inhibition of cytokine profiling compared to that of 6-shogaol-10-shogaol or curcumin alone. The synergistic anti-inflammatory activity was associated with supressed NFκB translocation and downregulated TLR4-TRAF6-MAPK signaling pathway. In addition, SC also inhibited microRNA-155 expression which may be relevant to the inhibited NFκB translocation. Although 6-shogaol-10-shogaol-curcumin synergistically increased Nrf2 activity, the anti-inflammatory mechanism appeared to be independent from the induction of Nrf2. 6-shogaol-10-shogaol-curcumin provides a more potent therapeutic agent than curcumin alone in synergistically inhibiting lipopolysaccharides and interferon-γ induced proinflammatory mediators and cytokine array in macrophages. The action was mediated by the downregulation of TLR4/TRAF6/MAPK pathway and NFκB translocation.

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4Loganin Prevents Hepatic Steatosis by Blocking NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

저자 : Joo Hyeon Jang , Gabsik Yang , Jin Kyung Seok , Han Chang Kang , Yong-yeon Cho , Hye Suk Lee , Joo Young Lee

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 40-47 (8 pages)

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Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is a necessary process to induce fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a kind of NAFLD that encompasses the spectrum of liver disease. It is characterized by inflammation and ballooning of hepatocytes during steatosis. We tested whether inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome could prevent the development and pathology of NASH. We identified loganin as an inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome and investigated whether in vivo administration of loganin prevented NASH symptoms using a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet model in mice. We found that loganin inhibited the NLRP3 inflammasome activation triggered by ATP or nigericin, as shown by suppression of the production of interleukin (IL)-1β and caspase-1 (p10) in mouse primary macrophages. The speck formation of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) was blocked by loganin, showing that the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome complex was impaired by loganin. Administration of loganin reduced the clinical signs of NASH in mice fed the MCD diet, including hepatic inflammation, fat accumulation, and fibrosis. In addition, loganin reduced the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components in the liver. Our findings indicate that loganin alleviates the inflammatory symptoms associated with NASH, presumably by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In summary, these findings imply that loganin may be a novel nutritional and therapeutic treatment for NASH-related inflammation.

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5Identification of Small GTPases That Phosphorylate IRF3 through TBK1 Activation Using an Active Mutant Library Screen

저자 : Jae-hyun Yu , Eun-yi Moon , Jiyoon Kim , Ja Hyun Koo

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 48-59 (12 pages)

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Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) integrates both immunological and non-immunological inputs to control cell survival and death. Small GTPases are versatile functional switches that lie on the very upstream in signal transduction pathways, of which duration of activation is very transient. The large number of homologous proteins and the requirement for site-directed mutagenesis have hindered attempts to investigate the link between small GTPases and IRF3. Here, we constructed a constitutively active mutant expression library for small GTPase expression using Gibson assembly cloning. Small-scale screening identified multiple GTPases capable of promoting IRF3 phosphorylation. Intriguingly, 27 of 152 GTPases, including ARF1, RHEB, RHEBL1, and RAN, were found to increase IRF3 phosphorylation. Unbiased screening enabled us to investigate the sequence-activity relationship between the GTPases and IRF3. We found that the regulation of IRF3 by small GTPases was dependent on TBK1. Our work reveals the significant contribution of GTPases in IRF3 signaling and the potential role of IRF3 in GTPase function, providing a novel therapeutic approach against diseases with GTPase overexpression or active mutations, such as cancer.

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6Thrombin Induced Apoptosis through Calcium-Mediated Activation of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 in Intestinal Myofibroblasts

저자 : Mi Ja Park , Jong Hoon Won , Dae Kyong Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 59-67 (9 pages)

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Thrombin is a serine protease that participates in a variety of biological signaling through protease-activated receptors. Intestinal myofibroblasts play central roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. In this study, we found that thrombin-induced apoptosis is mediated by the calcium-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in the CCD-18Co cell. Thrombin reduced cell viability by inducing apoptosis and proteinase-activated receptor-1 antagonist attenuated thrombin-induced cell death. Endogenous ceramide did not affect the cell viability itself, but a ceramide-mediated pathway was involved in thrombin-induced cell death. Thrombin increased intracellular calcium levels and cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity. The ceramide synthase inhibitor Fumonisin B1, intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 inhibitor AACOCF3 inhibited thrombin-induced cell death. Thrombin stimulated arachidonic acid release and reactive oxygen species generation, which was blocked by AACOCF3, BAPTA-AM, and the antioxidant reagent Trolox. Taken together, thrombin triggered apoptosis through calcium-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in intestinal myofibroblasts.

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7MS-5, a Naphthalene Derivative, Induces Apoptosis in Human Pancreatic Cancer BxPC-3 Cells by Modulating Reactive Oxygen Species

저자 : Suman Giri , Gyu Hwan Park , Joon-seok Choi , Eunsook Ma , Kyung-soo Chun , Sang Hoon Joo

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 68-73 (6 pages)

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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal cancers with a poor prognosis. Standard chemotherapies have proven largely ineffective because of their toxicity and the development of resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapies. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of MS-5, a naphthalene derivative, on BxPC-3, a human pancreatic cancer cell line. We observed that MS-5 was cytotoxic to BxPC-3 cells, as well as inhibited the growth of cells in a concentration- and time- dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the percentage of annexin V-positive cells increased after MS-5 treatment. We also observed cleavage of caspases and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, and downregulation of Bcl-xL protein. Flow cytometry analysis of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial superoxide suggested that MS-5 induced the generation of mitochondrial superoxide while lowering the overall intracellular ROS levels. Thus, MS-5 may be potential candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment.

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8MHY2251, a New SIRT1 Inhibitor, Induces Apoptosis via JNK/p53 Pathway in HCT116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

저자 : Yong Jung Kang , Young Hoon Kwon , Jung Yoon Jang , Jun Ho Lee , Sanggwon Lee , Yujin Park , Hyung Ryong Moon , Hae Young Chung , Nam Deuk Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 73-81 (9 pages)

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Sirtuins (SIRTs) belong to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent class III histone deacetylase family. They are key regulators of cellular and physiological processes, such as cell survival, senescence, differentiation, DNA damage and stress response, cellular metabolism, and aging. SIRTs also influence carcinogenesis, making them potential targets for anticancer therapeutic strategies. In this study, we investigated the anticancer properties and underlying molecular mechanisms of a novel SIRT1 inhibitor, MHY2251, in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. MHY2251 reduced the viability of various human CRC cell lines, especially those with wild-type TP53. MHY2251 inhibited SIRT1 activity and SIRT1/2 protein expression, while promoting p53 acetylation, which is a target of SIRT1 in HCT116 cells. MHY2251 treatment triggered apoptosis in HCT116 cells. It increased the percentage of late apoptotic cells and the sub-G1 fraction (as detected by flow cytometric analysis) and induced DNA fragmentation. In addition, MHY2251 upregulated the expression of FasL and Fas, altered the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, downregulated the levels of pro-caspase-8, -9, and -3 proteins, and induced subsequent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. The induction of apoptosis by MHY2251 was related to the activation of the caspase cascade, which was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with ZVAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, MHY2251 stimulated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and MHY2251-triggered apoptosis was blocked by pre-treatment with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor. This finding indicated the specific involvement of JNK in MHY2251-induced apoptosis. MHY2251 shows considerable potential as a therapeutic agent for targeting human CRC via the inhibition of SIRT1 and activation of JNK/p53 pathway.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

9Functional Characterization of Drosophila melanogaster CYP6A8 Fatty Acid Hydroxylase

저자 : Sang-a Lee , Vitchan Kim , Byoungyun Choi , Hyein Lee , Young-jin Chun , Kyoung Sang Cho , Donghak Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 82-90 (9 pages)

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Genomic analysis indicated that the genome of Drosophila melanogaster contains more than 80 cytochrome P450 genes. To date, the enzymatic activity of these P450s has not been extensively studied. Here, the biochemical properties of CYP6A8 were characterized. CYP6A8 was cloned into the pCW vector, and its recombinant enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni2+-nitrilotriacetate affinity chromatography. Its expression level was approximately 130 nmol per liter of culture. Purified CYP6A8 exhibited a low-spin state in the absolute spectra of the ferric forms. Binding titration analysis indicated that lauric acid and capric acid produced type l spectral changes, with Kd values 28 ± 4 and 144 ± 20 μM, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the oxidation reaction of lauric acid produced (ω-1)-hydroxylated lauric acid as a major product and ω-hydroxy-lauric acid as a minor product. Steady-state kinetic analysis of lauric acid hydroxylation yielded a kcat value of 0.038 ± 0.002 min-1 and a Km value of 10 ± 2 μM. In addition, capric acid hydroxylation of CYP6A8 yielded kinetic parameters with a kcat value of 0.135 ± 0.007 min-1 and a Km value of 21 ± 4 μM. Because of the importance of various lipids as carbon sources, the metabolic analysis of fatty acids using CYP6A8 in this study can provide an understanding of the biochemical roles of P450 enzymes in many insects, including Drosophila melanogaster.

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10Growth Factors Upregulated by Uric Acid Affect Guanine Deaminase-Induced Melanogenesis

저자 : Nan-hyung Kim , Ai-young Lee

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2023 페이지 : pp. 89-97 (9 pages)

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Uric acid produced by guanine deaminase (GDA) is involved in photoaging and hyperpigmentation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by uric acid plays a role in photoaging. However, the mechanism by which uric acid stimulates melanogenesis in GDA-overexpressing keratinocytes is unclear. Keratinocyte-derived paracrine factors have been identified as important mechanisms of ultraviolet-induced melanogenesis. Therefore, the role of paracrine melanogenic growth factors in GDA-induced hypermelanosis mediated by uric acid was examined. The relationships between ROS and these growth factors were examined. Primary cultured normal keratinocytes overexpressed with wild type or mutant GDA and those treated with xanthine or uric acid in the presence or absence of allopurinol, H2O2, or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were used in this study. Intracellular and extracellular bFGF and SCF levels were increased in keratinocytes by wild type, but not by loss-of-function mutants of GDA overexpression. Culture supernatants from GDA-overexpressing keratinocytes stimulated melanogenesis, which was restored by anti-bFGF and anti-SCF antibodies. Allopurinol treatment reduced the expression levels of bFGF and SCF in both GDA-overexpressing and normal keratinocytes exposed to exogenous xanthine; the exogenous uric acid increased their expression levels. H2O2-stimulated tyrosinase expression and melanogenesis were restored by NAC pretreatment. However, H2O2 or NAC did not upregulate or downregulate bFGF or SCF, respectively. Overall, uric acid could be involved in melanogenesis induced by GDA overexpression in keratinocytes via bFGF and SCF upregulation not via ROS generation.

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1Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition-Inducing Factors Involved in the Progression of Lung Cancers

저자 : Min-woo Nam , Cho-won Kim , Kyung-chul Choi

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 213-220 (8 pages)

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Although there have been advances in cancer therapy and surgical improvement, lung cancer has the lowest survival rate (19%) at all stages. This is because most patients are diagnosed with concurrent metastasis, which occurs due to numerous related reasons. Especially, lung cancer is one of the most common and malignant cancers in the world. Although there are advanced therapeutic strategies, lung cancer remains one of the main causes of cancer death. Recent work has proposed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the main cause of metastasis in most cases of human cancers including lung cancer. EMT involves the conversion of epithelial cells, wherein the cells lose their epithelial abilities and become mesenchymal cells involved in embryonic development, such as gastrulation and neural crest formation. In addition, recent research has indicated that EMT contributes to altering the cancer cells into cancer stem cells (CSCs). Although EMT is important in the developmental stages, this process also activates lung cancer progression, including complicated and diverse signaling pathways. Despite the numerous investigations on signaling pathways involved in the progression of lung cancer, this malignancy is considered critical for treatment. EMT in lung cancer involves many transcription factors and inducers, for example, Snail, TWIST, and ZEB are the master regulators of EMT. EMT-related factors and signaling pathways are involved in the progression of lung cancer, proposing new approaches to lung cancer therapy. In the current review, we highlight the signaling pathways implicated in lung cancer and elucidate the correlation of these pathways, indicating new insights to treat lung cancer and other malignancies.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

2The Role of Adiponectin in the Skin

저자 : Jieun Oh , Yeongyeong Lee , Sae-woong Oh , Tiantian Li , Jiwon Shin , See-hyoung Park , Jongsung Lee

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 221-231 (11 pages)

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Adiponectin (Ad), a 30 kDa molecule, is an anti-diabetic adipokine; although derived from adipose tissue, it performs numerous activities in various other tissues. It binds to its own receptors, namely adiponectin receptor 1(AdipoR1), adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2), and T-cadherin (CDH13). Ad plays several roles, especially as a regulator. It modulates lipid and glucose metabolism and promotes insulin sensitivity. This demonstrates that Ad has a robust correlation with fat metabolism. Furthermore, although Ad is not in direct contact with other tissues, including the skin, it can be delivered to them by diffusion or secretion via the endocrine system. Recently it has been reported that Ad can impact skin cell biology, underscoring its potential as a therapeutic biomarker of skin diseases. In the present review, we have discussed the association between skin cell biology and Ad. To elaborate further, we described the involvement of Ad in the biology of various types of cells in the skin, such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, and immune cells. Additionally, we postulated that Ad could be employed as a therapeutic target to maintain skin homeostasis.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

3Autism-Like Behavioral Phenotypes in Mice Treated with Systemic N-Methyl-D-Aspartate

저자 : Keremkleroo Jym Adil , Edson Luck Gonzales , Chilly Gay Remonde , Kyung-jun Boo , Se Jin Jeon , Chan Young Shin

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 232-237 (6 pages)

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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) having core characteristics of social interaction problems and repetitive behaviors and interests affects individuals at varying degrees and comorbidities, making it difficult to determine the precise etiology underlying the symptoms. Given its heterogeneity, ASD is difficult to treat and the development of therapeutics is slow due to the scarcity of animal models that are easy to produce and screen with. Based on the theory of excitation/inhibition imbalance in the brain with ASD which involves glutamatergic and/or GABAergic neurotransmission, a pharmacologic agent to modulate these receptors might be a good starting point for modeling. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative acting as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor and therefore imitates the action of the neurotransmitter glutamate on that receptor. In contrast to glutamate, NMDA selectively binds to and regulates the NMDA receptor, but not other glutamate receptors such as AMPA and kainite receptors. Given this role, we aimed to determine whether NMDA administration could result in autistic-like behavior in adolescent mice. Both male and female mice were treated with saline or NMDA (50 and 75 mg/kg) and were tested on various behavior experiments. Interestingly, acute NMDA-treated mice showed social deficits and repetitive behavior similar to ASD phenotypes. These results support the excitation/inhibition imbalance theory of ASD and that NMDA injection can be used as a pharmacologic model of ASD-like behaviors.

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4Differentially Expressed Genes in Period 2-Overexpressing Mice Striatum May Underlie Their Lower Sensitivity to Methamphetamine Addiction-Like Behavior

저자 : Leandro Val Sayson , Mikyung Kim , Se Jin Jeon , Raly James Perez Custodio , Hyun Jun Lee , Darlene Mae Ortiz , Jae Hoon Cheong , Hee Jin Kim

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 238-245 (8 pages)

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Previous reports have demonstrated that genetic mechanisms greatly mediate responses to drugs of abuse, including methamphetamine (METH). The circadian gene Period 2 (Per2) has been previously associated with differential responses towards METH in mice. While the behavioral consequences of eliminating Per2 have been illustrated previously, Per2 overexpression has not yet been comprehensively described; although, Per2-overexpressing (Per2 OE) mice previously showed reduced sensitivity towards METH-induced addiction-like behaviors. To further elucidate this distinct behavior of Per2 OE mice to METH, we identified possible candidate biomarkers by determining striatal differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in both drug-naïve and METH-treated Per2 OE mice relative to wild-type (WT), through RNA sequencing. Of the several DEGs in drug naïve Per2 OE mice, we identified six genes that were altered after repeated METH treatment in WT mice, but not in Per2 OE mice. These results, validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, could suggest that the identified DEGs might underlie the previously reported weaker METH-induced responses of Per2 OE mice compared to WT. Gene network analysis also revealed that Asic3, Hba-a1, and Rnf17 are possibly associated with Per2 through physical interactions and predicted correlations, and might potentially participate in addiction. Inhibiting the functional protein of Asic3 prior to METH administration resulted in the partial reduction of METH-induced conditioned place preference in WT mice, supporting a possible involvement of Asic3 in METH-induced reward. Although encouraging further investigations, our findings suggest that these DEGs, including Asic3, may play significant roles in the lower sensitivity of Per2 OE mice to METH.

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5Betulin Targets Lipin1/2-Meidated P2X7 Receptor as a Therapeutic Approach to Attenuate Lipid Accumulation and Metaflammation

저자 : Jia-yi Dou , Yu-chen Jiang , Zhong-he Hu , Kun-chen Yao , Ming-hui Yuan , Xiao-xue Bao , Mei-jie Zhou , Yue Liu , Zhao-xu Li , Li-hua Lian , Ji-xing Nan , Yan-ling Wu

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 246-256 (11 pages)

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The present study focused on the potential mechanism of betulin (BT), a pentacyclic triterpenoid isolated from the bark of white birch (Betula pubescens), against chronic alcohol-induced lipid accumulation and metaflammation. AML-12 and RAW 264.7 cells were administered ethanol (EtOH), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or BT. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing 5% EtOH for 4 weeks, followed by single EtOH gavage on the last day and simultaneous treatment with BT (20 or 50 mg/kg) by oral gavage once per day. In vitro, MTT showed that 0-25 mM EtOH and 0-25 μM BT had no toxic effect on AML-12 cells. BT could regulate sterolregulatory-element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), lipin1/2, P2X7 receptor (P2X7r) and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) expressions again EtOH-stimulation. Oil Red O staining also indicated that BT significantly reduced lipid accumulation in EtOH-stimulated AML-12 cells. Lipin1/2 deficiency indicated that BT might mediate lipin1/2 to regulate SREBP1 and P2X7r expression and further alleviate lipid accumulation and inflammation. In vivo, BT significantly alleviated histopathological changes, reduced serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and triglyceride (TG) levels, and regulated lipin1/2, SREBP1, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α/γ (PPARα/γ) and PGC-1α expression compared with the EtOH group. BT reduced the secretion of inflammatory factors and blocked the P2X7r-NLRP3 signaling pathway. Collectively, BT attenuated lipid accumulation and metaflammation by regulating the lipin1/2-mediated P2X7r signaling pathway.

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6Urushiol V Suppresses Cell Proliferation and Enhances Antitumor Activity of 5-FU in Human Colon Cancer Cells by Downregulating FoxM1

저자 : Ji Hye Jeong , Jae-ha Ryu

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 257-264 (8 pages)

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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumor. 5-FU is commonly used for the treatment of CRC. However, the development of drug resistance in tumor chemotherapy can seriously reduce therapeutic efficacy of 5-FU. Recent data show that FoxM1 is associated with 5-FU resistance in CRC. FoxM1 plays a critical role in the carcinogenesis and drug resistance of several malignancies. It has been reported that urushiol V isolated from the cortex of Rhus verniciflua Stokes is cytotoxic to several types of cancer cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for its antitumor activity and its potential to attenuate the chemotherapeutic resistance in CRC cells remain unknown. Here, we found that urushiol V could inhibit the cell proliferation and induced S-phase arrest of SW480 colon cancer cells. It inhibited protein expression level of FoxM1 through activation of AMPK. We also investigated the combined effect of urushiol V and 5-FU. The combination treatment reduced FoxM1 expression and consequently reduced cell growth and colony formation in 5-FU resistant colon cancer cells (SW480/5-FUR). Taken together, these result suggest that urushiol V from Rhus verniciflua Stokes can suppress cell proliferation by inhibiting FoxM1 and enhance the antitumor capacity of 5-FU. Therefore, urushiol V may be a potential bioactive compound for CRC therapy.

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7The Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Mediates Shikonin-Induced Apoptosis of 5-Fluorouracil-Resistant Colorectal Cancer Cells

저자 : Mei Jing Piao , Xia Han , Kyoung Ah Kang , Pincha Devage Sameera Madushan Fernando , Herath Mudiyanselage Udari Lakmini Herath , Jin Won Hyun

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 265-273 (9 pages)

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Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is a significant problem in the treatment of colorectal cancer, resulting in low response rates and decreased survival. Recent studies have shown that shikonin, a naphthoquinone derivative, promotes apoptosis in colon cancer cells and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cells, raising the possibility that this compound may be effective in drug-resistant colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular mechanisms underpinning shikonin-induced apoptosis, with a focus on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, in a 5-fluorouracil-resistant colorectal cancer cell line, SNU-C5/5-FUR. Our results showed that shikonin significantly increased the proportion of sub-G1 cells and DNA fragmentation and that shikonin-induced apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation. Shikonin treatment also increased the expression of ER-related proteins, such as glucose regulatory protein 78 (GRP78), phospho-protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), phospho-phosphoinositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1), spliced X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1), cleaved caspase-12, and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP). In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of CHOP attenuated shikonin-induced apoptosis, as did the ER stress inhibitor TUDCA. These data suggest that ER stress is a key factor mediating the cytotoxic effect of shikonin in SNU-C5/5-FUR cells. Our findings provide an evidence for a mechanism in which ER stress leads to apoptosis in shikonin-treated SNU-C5/5-FUR cells. Our study provides evidence to support further investigations on shikonin as a therapeutic option for 5-fluorouracil-resistant colorectal cancer.

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8Combination Therapy of the Active KRAS-Targeting Antibody inRas37 and a PI3K Inhibitor in Pancreatic Cancer

저자 : Ji Eun Lee , Min Gyu Woo , Kyung Hee Jung , Yeo Wool Kang , Seung-min Shin , Mi Kwon Son , Zhenghuan Fang , Hong Hua Yan , Jung Hee Park , Young-chan Yoon , Yong-sung Kim , Soon-sun Hong

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 274-283 (10 pages)

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KRAS activating mutations, which are present in more than 90% of pancreatic cancers, drive tumor dependency on the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathways. Therefore, combined targeting of RAS/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways may be required for optimal therapeutic effect in pancreatic cancer. However, the therapeutic efficacy of combined MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling target inhibitors is unsatisfactory in pancreatic cancer treatment, because it is often accompanied by MAPK pathway reactivation by PI3K/AKT inhibitor. Therefore, we developed an inRas37 antibody, which directly targets the intra-cellularly activated GTP-bound form of oncogenic RAS mutation and investigated its synergistic effect in the presence of the PI3K inhibitor BEZ-235 in pancreatic cancer. In this study, inRas37 remarkably increased the drug response of BEZ-235 to pancreatic cancer cells by inhibiting MAPK reactivation. Moreover, the co-treatment synergistically inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and exhibited synergistic anticancer activity by inhibiting the MAPK and PI3K pathways. The combined administration of inRas37and BEZ-235 significantly inhibited tumor growth in mouse models. Our results demonstrated that inRas37 synergistically increased the antitumor activity of BEZ-235 by inhibiting MAPK reactivation, suggesting that inRas37 and BEZ-235 co-treatment could be a potential treatment approach for pancreatic cancer patients with KRAS mutations.

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9Direct Contact with Platelets Induces Podoplanin Expression and Invasion in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

저자 : Se-young Park , Sun Kyoung Lee , Mihwa Lim , Bomi Kim , Byeong-oh Hwang , Eunae Sandra Cho , Xianglan Zhang , Kyung-soo Chun , Won-yoon Chung , Na-young Song

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 284-290 (7 pages)

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Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is mostly diagnosed at an advanced stage, with local and/or distal metastasis. Thus, locoregional and/or local control of the primary tumor is crucial for a better prognosis in patients with OSCC. Platelets have long been considered major players in cancer metastasis. Traditional antiplatelet agents, such as aspirin, are thought to be potential chemotherapeutics, but they need to be used with caution because of the increased bleeding risk. Podoplanin (PDPN)-expressing cancer cells can activate platelets and promote OSCC metastasis. However, the reciprocal effect of platelets on PDPN expression in OSCC has not been investigated. In this study, we found that direct contact with platelets upregulated PDPN and integrin β1 at the protein level and promoted invasiveness of human OSCC Ca9.22 cells that express low levels of PDPN. In another human OSCC HSC3 cell line that express PDPN at an abundant level, silencing of the PDPN gene reduced cell invasiveness. Analysis of the public database further supported the co-expression of PDPN and integrin β1 and their increased expression in metastatic tissues compared to normal and tumor tissues of the oral cavity. Taken together, these data suggest that PDPN is a potential target to regulate platelet-tumor interaction and metastasis for OSCC treatment, which can overcome the limitations of traditional antiplatelet drugs.

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10Transcriptome Analysis of Long-Term Exposure to Blue Light in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

저자 : Hong Lan Jin , Kwang Won Jeong

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 291-297 (7 pages)

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Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a type of progressive blindness that is primarily due to dysfunction and the loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The accumulation of N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), a by-product of the visual cycle, causes RPE and photoreceptor degeneration that impairs vision. Genes associated with dry AMD have been identified using a blue light model of A2E accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium and transcriptomic studies of retinal tissue from patients with AMD. However, dry macular degeneration progresses slowly, and current approaches cannot reveal changes in gene transcription according to stages of AMD progression. Thus, they are limited in terms of identifying genes responsible for pathogenesis. Here, we created a model of long-term exposure to identify temporally-dependent changes in gene expression induced in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) exposed to blue light and a non-cytotoxic dose of A2E for 120 days. We identified stage-specific genes at 40, 100, and 120 days, respectively. The expression of genes corresponding to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during the early stage, glycolysis and angiogenesis during the middle stage, and apoptosis and inflammation pathways during the late stage was significantly altered by A2E and blue light. Changes in the expression of genes at the late stages of the EMT were similar to those found in human eyes with late-stage AMD. Our results provide further insight into the pathogenesis of dry AMD induced by blue light and a novel model in vitro with which relevant genes can be identified in the future.

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