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서울대학교 한국행정연구소> Journal of Policy Studies (JPS)> Fiscal Decentralization and Local Government Performance: Decentralized Taxation and Expenditure in Korean Local Governments

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Fiscal Decentralization and Local Government Performance: Decentralized Taxation and Expenditure in Korean Local Governments

Hyunkuk Lee , Dongwook Seoh
  • : 서울대학교 한국행정연구소
  • : Journal of Policy Studies (JPS) 37권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 03월
  • : 45-64(20pages)
Journal of Policy Studies (JPS)

DOI


목차

Ⅰ. Introduction
Ⅱ. Theoretical Background
Ⅲ. Research Methods
Ⅳ. Results
Ⅴ. Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References

키워드 보기


초록 보기

Recent administrations in Korea have greatly emphasized the importance of decentralization and autonomous local governments. However, numerous efforts on decentralization have not been accompanied by adequate level of fiscal decentralization. Some critiques have long claimed that local governments are not equipped with enough financial independence or autonomy to deliver preferred services. Some others have challenged this claim, accusing local governments on potential waste of financial resources and local administration capacities, with no significant improvement in public service performance.
This research analyzes fiscal decentralization in terms of taxation and expenditure. It empirically investigates whether decentralized taxation and decentralized expenditure affect public service performance in Korean local governments. Based on an assortment of data on local government finance and public service performance, the analysis shows that decentralized taxation and decentralized expenditure have positive effects on a local government performance when either one of them was included in the model. In contrast, in the research model that included both variables, the effect of decentralized taxation on the government performance was not statistically significant. Meanwhile, the positive effect of decentralized expenditure was statistically significant. Results show that decentralized expenditure does not necessarily hinder local government performance, contrary to many concerns.
It is advised that administrations in Korea emphasize decentralized expenditure more than decentralized taxation. Decentralized expenditure does not hinder local government performance, and thus the government should continue to promote it to resolve imbalances across local governments.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 사회과학분야  > 행정학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 2799-9130
  • : 2765-2807
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1986-2022
  • : 502


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The paper seeks to develop some preliminary ideas about the relation of corruption and incompetence, two different but perhaps related instances of political and administrative failure. We pose a corruption-competence nexus and suggest that corruption and incompetence are related in predictable ways. Indeed, in extreme cases of incompetence, incompetence often enables corruption due to a variety of factors including the inability to monitor corruption or to select quality advisors. We further suggest that a variety of factors mitigate the relation of incompetence and corruption, including level of political authority and impact, size of political and business networks, and availability of professionalized and empowered public service. To further examine the corruption-incompetence nexus, we use simple typology (e.g., corrupt-competent or corrupt-incompetent) to help organize and, to some extent, explain the forms of relationship between incompetence and corruption in the organizational setting. Four cases of U.S. mayors' performance are evaluated to better understand the propositions.

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In the early era of the study of public management, Luther Gulick (1937) argued that span of control determines organizational performance. Theoretically, span of control has a non-linear relationship with performance as its marginal benefit diminishes due to transaction costs. Meier and Bohte (2000) revisited this argument and showed empirical evidence that an optimal span of control enhances organizational performance using hundreds school districts in the United States. However, it is necessary to expand the scope of study to examine whether Gulick's theory can be generalizable to public service organizations in non-western countries. Using Korean quasi-governmental organizations, this study explores how span of control affects performance and whether the effect differs depending on structural levels and performance indicators (archival performance scores by the government and customer satisfaction). Four years pooled data for 101 Korean quasi-governmental organizations were analyzed using multivariate models. The findings show that a wider span of control at top-level management is positively associated with the government's performance scores, but it is negatively associated at mid-level management. On the other hand, span of control has no significant relationship with customer satisfaction. The findings of this study contribute to the generalizability of Gulick's theory in a new context, and highlight that the impact of span of control on performance can differ based on structural levels and who evaluates organizations.

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Our project investigates the impact of minority bureaucratic and political representation on the distribution of disciplinary measures in public schools, in contrast with its impact on gifted and talented class placement. It is motivated by the contrast in accumulating research on the consequences of minority bureaucratic representation between findings that minority teacher representation yields beneficial outcomes for minority students while minority representation on police forces does not yield beneficial outcomes for minority residents. Similarly, we note that public school teaching involves two kinds of organizational roles: one involving distribution of benefits (such as placement in gifted and talented programs) which is consistent with an educator role, while the other, involving the distribution of discipline, approximates a policing role, which could be less consistent with an educator role. In short, the educator role benefits the client and the policing role regulates the client. We theorize that (a) modeling the impact of greater minority representation on teaching staffs will yield contrasting results for these two roles, (b) that there will also be differences based on type of discipline at issue, and that (c) the role of minority representation on the school board must also be taken into account. We examine these issues by employing merged data from several data sources ranging from 2007 to 2010 for our analyses. Our results suggest that higher minority teacher representation does increase minority student placement in gifted programs, but does not significantly reduce punishment of minority students. Our analyses also suggest that future research needs to more fully incorporate contextual variables, such as school board representation and state policy. Scholars of representative bureaucracy should also consider the multiple organizational roles that many bureaucrats have.

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Recent laws and court rulings have increased legal protections for faith-based organizations that refuse to provide services to certain individuals based on deeply held religious beliefs. Using data from a 2019 email correspondence study, we examine if religiously-affiliated foster care agencies respond to inquiries from white same-sex couples differently from public and secular foster care agencies. This paper provides preliminary, descriptive results that public sector discrimination can vary by the type of organization that is providing the service. We find suggestive evidence that religiously-affiliated foster care agencies are less likely to respond to same-sex male couples. However, this study lacks sufficient statistical power to find conclusive evidence of differential treatment by type of organization, which highlights the challenges of conducting correspondence studies that examine intersectional discrimination. Despite this limitation, we argue that it is increasingly important for scholars of public administration and public policy to examine and understand how discrimination in the public sector may vary by group membership or organizational type. While exploring this intersectional discrimination may be limited in certain contexts, understanding how and why organizations and public servants are more or less likely to respond to particular groups is an important first step in designing interventions or crafting policies to reduce differential treatment.

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다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

Recent administrations in Korea have greatly emphasized the importance of decentralization and autonomous local governments. However, numerous efforts on decentralization have not been accompanied by adequate level of fiscal decentralization. Some critiques have long claimed that local governments are not equipped with enough financial independence or autonomy to deliver preferred services. Some others have challenged this claim, accusing local governments on potential waste of financial resources and local administration capacities, with no significant improvement in public service performance.
This research analyzes fiscal decentralization in terms of taxation and expenditure. It empirically investigates whether decentralized taxation and decentralized expenditure affect public service performance in Korean local governments. Based on an assortment of data on local government finance and public service performance, the analysis shows that decentralized taxation and decentralized expenditure have positive effects on a local government performance when either one of them was included in the model. In contrast, in the research model that included both variables, the effect of decentralized taxation on the government performance was not statistically significant. Meanwhile, the positive effect of decentralized expenditure was statistically significant. Results show that decentralized expenditure does not necessarily hinder local government performance, contrary to many concerns.
It is advised that administrations in Korea emphasize decentralized expenditure more than decentralized taxation. Decentralized expenditure does not hinder local government performance, and thus the government should continue to promote it to resolve imbalances across local governments.

1
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