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한국이슬람학회> 한국이슬람학회 논총> 미국의 탈 중동전략에 따른 지역 경쟁과 이라크의 선택

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미국의 탈 중동전략에 따른 지역 경쟁과 이라크의 선택

Iraq's Choice According to the Rising Regional Rivalry Causing to the U.S. Withdrawal from the Middle East

남옥정 ( Nam Ok-jeong )
  • : 한국이슬람학회
  • : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 02월
  • : 81-111(31pages)
한국이슬람학회 논총

DOI


목차

Ⅰ. 서론
Ⅱ. 미국의 탈 중동전략으로 전환
Ⅲ. 미국의 공백에 따른 지역 경쟁 수준
Ⅳ. 이라크-중국 동맹의 실제
Ⅴ. 그레이트 게임의 서막과 이라크의 선택

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초록 보기

The United States allies in the Middle East, including Iraq, in the face of the US' contraction strategy in the Middle East, are contemplating new options to replace the US. With these crisis factors emerging, China's recent strategy to deeply enter the Middle East with its economic sector at the forefront is a natural step.
However, there is a high risk that the chaos that will follow after Iraq and other middle eastern countries choose China as an option, will return to them during the strategic competition between the US and China. Therefore, it is time to continuously observe which choice will be the lesser worse.
The non-aligned position can give a sense of balance when dealing with a powerful neighboring country from a position exposed to the risk of being victimized by a proxy warfare.
From this point of view, the most demanded foreign policy in Iraq at present would be the establishment of delicately balanced partnerships that ensure cooperation with all influential powers.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 인문과학분야  > 종교학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 연3회
  • : 1226-2811
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1990-2022
  • : 630


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32권3호(2022년 10월) 수록논문
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1배교에 관한 샤리아 규범 연구: 문헌학적 연구 방법을 중심으로

저자 : 임병필 ( Lim Byungpil )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-28 (28 pages)

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Sharia protects the five elements (religion, life, reason, honor, property), and apostasy is prohibited for the protection of religion. Islam saw apostasy as a Muslim becoming a kāfir. Here, kāfir is meant to include unbelievers, atheists, pagans (non-Muslims), skeptics, heretics, those who slander Islam or the prophets, and idolaters. Islam has a very broad understanding of apostasy, and the details of this are defined through Sharia. The Qur'ān warns those who betray or disbelieve Islam that there is an afterlife punishment by Allah and a real punishment by Muslims. Hadith (Sunna) clearly presented the acts of apostasy through specific examples, and confirmed that there are realistic and afterlife punishments for apostates. On the other hand, Sunni's four law schools focused on establishing detailed guidelines for the issues that Muslims should know clearly and issues that are at issue in reality, believing that the acts and punishments of apostasy were clearly and sufficiently mentioned by the Qur'ān and the Hadith. In modern times, more than a dozen Islamic countries have stipulated through their constitutions or criminal laws that apostasy to Islam is a serious crime and should be punishable by death.

KCI등재

2Tracking the Sufi presence in Jerusalem

저자 : Mona Farouk M. Ahmed

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 29-55 (27 pages)

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Tracing Sufism in the Islamic world, Jerusalem was one of the Sufis' centers attracting many of them to settle in this holy city known for its significant spirituality for Muslims. This study traces the Sufi presence in Jerusalem from the past until the present to give an overview of the history of Sufism in this holy city. Through examining the remaining Sufi lodges in Jerusalem today, the study introduces the main Sufi orders and the development of their role and activities in the Jerusalemite society throughout history. The study showed that the golden era of the Sufi role ended with the end of Ottoman rule. Then, there was a decline in this role which faced many challenges including the economic difficulties worsened under the Israeli occupation. Being a part of the Palestinian society, the Sufis of Jerusalem had their contributions to the Arab-Israeli conflict struggling for defending their lands and properties till today.
Introducing the development of the Sufi orders in Jerusalem, the study showed that despite the decline of the Sufi activities in the modern era, the Sufi presence continued, which was seen in their remaining buildings including zawiyas, ribats, and shrines covered by this study. Though many of them lost their Sufi function, there are still some Sufi families continuing to maintain Sufi traditions at present in Jerusalem.

KCI등재

3인터넷 미디어를 통해 본 탈레반 재집권과 아프가니스탄

저자 : 이주한 ( Lee Joo-han )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 57-85 (29 pages)

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This study analyzed online news articles related to the return to power of the Taliban in Afghanistan covered by two major Internet news outlets in Korea: namely, Pressian and New Daily. This study adopted Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to look into the perspectives of both media outlets on the current situation in Afghanistan and discourse strategies. CDA is interdisciplinary research methodology and it is used not only in linguistics but also in politics.
The key findings of this study are as follows. Pressian reported the situation in Afghanistan by using various discourse strategies such as nonrationalization, presentation of negative image, presentation of positive image, dichotomy and warning. Also, Pressian showed a critical stance on the Taliban and the United States. New Daily reported the situation in Afghanistan by using the same discourse strategies too. However, unlike Pressian, there was no criticism of the United States in New Daily. Lastly, for a better understanding of the current situation in Afghanistan, it is necessary to look at the political and social changes in Afghanistan from various angles. More specifically, it is important to consider not only women's human rights but also a variety of themes such as poverty, refugee issues and regional security.

KCI등재

42011년 이후 이집트인들이 무슬림형제단에 환멸을 느끼는 이유 연구

저자 : 건하산 ( Geon Hassan )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 87-116 (30 pages)

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2013 년 7 월 무함마드 무르시 대통령의 군사 타도 이후 무슬림 형제단의 권력 상실은 이집트를 30 년간 통치한 호스니 무바라크 대통령의 2011 년 민중봉기에 이어 이집트의 민주적 전환을 이루려는 시도가 실패했음을 의미하면서 다양한 논쟁을 불러일으켰다. 이 연구에서 다룬 주요 주제는 왜 무슬림 형제단이 이집트의 통치를 지키지 못하였는지에 중점을 두며, 이집트 인들이 무슬림 형제단에 믿음을 잃게 된 이유는 무엇인가? 무슬림 형제단의 계획은 얼마나 잘 고안되었고 유용했는가? 무슬림 형제단은 “이슬람 국가”의 이상을 잘 구현했는가? 제대로 준비도 되지 않은 채 집권했다는 점에서 무슬림 형제단이 저지른 정치적 실수는 무엇인가?에 대해 연구를 진행하였다. 또 무슬림 형제단은 다원적 사고방식을 채택하지 못하여 외교 및 경제 정책 모두에서 실수를 저질러 결국 가장 큰 아랍 국가의 통제권을 장악하는데 실패하였고 그것은 결국 정치적 이슬람의 명성에 부정적인 영향을 미쳤다. 본 연구는 이러한 질문들에 대해 새로운 관점에서 답하고자 하며 이집트에서 무슬림 형제단의 통치 실패의 이유를 정확히 지적하고자 노력하였다. 그리하여 본 연구의 결과는 보수와 혁명 정신의 부재, 진보적 계획의 부재 그리고 지도자들의 무능과 통치 경험의 부족등과 깊게 연관이 되었음을 밝힌다. 또한 이 연구는 이슬람교와 정치 이슬람 분야의 정책입안자와 학자들에게 도움이 되고, 이 주제와 관련된 학문적 논의에 기여할 것이라 믿는다.

KCI등재

5종파 갈등의 재생산: 사우디와 이란의 범 아랍어 뉴스의 예멘 내전 보도 방식의 차이를 중심으로

저자 : 안소연 ( Ahn So Yeon )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 117-148 (32 pages)

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This study examines Saudi-Iranian rivalry and its influence on sectarian conflict in the Middle East using the Yemeni Civil War as a case study. Typically, Saudi-Iranian rivalry is considered as a sectarian conflict between Sunni and Shi'a. However, sectarianism is being used as a tool to consolidate power. Since the Arab Spring, power struggles between Saudi Arabia and Iran has escalated. In this process, Saudi and Iranian intervention has contributed to escalating sectarian conflicts in the Middle East. Furthermore, sectarian biased news coverage of both state owned Saudi and Iranian news channels led to spread sectarian antagonism and spur sectarian split in the Middle East. The study looks into the origins of the Yemeni Civil War and its relations with Saudi Iranian rivalry. In particular, this study contributes to investigating how Saudi and Iranian state owned Arabic news channels deployed sectarian discourses in their coverage of the Houthi movement, Operation of Decisive Storm and Yemen humanitarian crisis and used this to their advantage in the Yemeni Civil War. This study confirms that Saudi Arabia and Iran use their news channels to perpetuate sectarian fissures by reinstating their own sectarian propaganda. Sectarianism which is produced by political power is reproduced through the media and the people who accept and benefit from it.

KCI등재

6기후변화, 탄소중립 그리고 중동: 사우디아라비아의 탄소중립정책을 중심으로

저자 : 이주성 ( Lee Joosong ) , 백승훈 ( Paik Seunghoon )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 149-176 (28 pages)

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The MENA region is the most vulnerable region to global climate change. Temperature rise, desertification and coastline changes caused by climate change are highly likely to have a profound impact on the lives of the people of MENA countries. As a result, many MENA countries are agile in the international movement to slow the pace of climate change.
Saudi Arabia, one of the world's largest oil producers, announced in October 2021 an ambitious plan to achieve zero carbon emissions by 2060 by actively accepting the recommendations of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report. Saudi Arabia's declaration of Net Zero as a rentier state, in which the country is operated with a rent obtained from oil, caused a sensation in the international community. However, unlike Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MBS)'s carbon-neutral announcement, Saudi Arabia's plans to invest in fossil fuels including oil and gas and expand infrastructure are still in progress.
Therefore, this study aims to analyze how the transitional transformation in the MENA region will develop in the future by looking at Saudi Arabia's carbon-neutral policy.

KCI등재

7ESG 채권과 ESG 수쿠크 비교를 통한 수쿠크에 대한 재인식

저자 : 이희열 ( Lee Hee-yul ) , 김동환 ( Kim Dong-hwan )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 177-203 (27 pages)

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Recently, in the global bond market, the issuance of ESG bonds, which are different from the existing bond investment method aimed at achieving financial returns, is increasing. ESG bonds are issued to attract investment based on a company's ESG performance or future sustainability.
Green Sukuk, which has a similar concept, has been issued in the Islamic financial market, and this trend is expanding to attract funds for businesses aimed at resolving social issues. Some scholars have begun to classify such Sukuks as ESG Sukuk.
In general, conventional bonds are debt instruments with fixed returns. On the other hand, the Islamic Sukuk is a certificate confirming the possession of a stake in the assets used in the business. Therefore, the holder of Sukuk becomes the owner of a certain percentage of the investment and assets.
This study attempts to identify what similarities, differences, and advantages and disadvantages exist when conventional bonds and Sukuk, which are structurally different, are combined with the ESG concept. It is hoped that Korean companies wishing to raise funds for ESG-purpose projects and Korean investors wishing to invest in ESG projects will consider ESG Sukuk as another alternative in addition to conventional bonds.

KCI등재

8Determinants of the Choice of Foreign Direct Investment Modes: An Empirical Analysis of Multinational Enterprises in Kazakhstan

저자 : Wonchan Ra , Vitaliy Tsoy

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 205-247 (43 pages)

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Multinational enterprises (MNEs) have recently increased their presence in Kazakhstan, but research on their choice of foreign direct investment (FDI), a major form of entry, has not been sufficiently conducted despite its significance for firm strategy and the local economy. This study addresses the determinants of the choice of FDI modes by foreign firms in Kazakhstan, focusing on two major FDI modes, i.e., setting up a joint venture (JV) or a wholly owned subsidiary (WOS). Six hypotheses on how country-level factors affect MNEs' choice between the two modes were established. Using secondary data on 187 firms from 41 countries operating in Kazakhstan as of 2019, a binomial logistic regression was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results show that a longer cultural distance, a higher corruption level, and a weaker economic relationship between home and host countries have a significant effect on MNEs' choice of a JV over a WOS.

KCI등재

9문학텍스트 아-한 기계번역의 가용성과 한계 연구

저자 : 곽순례 ( Gwag Soon-lei )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 249-276 (28 pages)

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This study aims to identify the limitations and availability of neural machine translation(NMT) through a comparative analysis of the Arabic-Korean human translation and NMT of a literary text. To this end, the NMT of Saud Alsanousi's novel The Bamboo Stalk is analyzed compared to its human translation published in Korean. Errors in the NMT output are classified into nine categories for quantitative analysis, and exemplary errors are qualitatively examined. According to the findings of analysis, many errors involve polysemous words that must be translated according to their context. In particular, when negative words are included, the whole sentence is often translated into the opposite meaning. The explicitation of pronouns has not been done as much as predicted. The Arabic phrases of inanimate subject with animate object appeared and the inanimate subjects of Arabic were rendered into other sentence components. Specifically, they were rendered into adverb phrases and predicates. In addition, this study presents good cases of NMT to confirm it's availability. Although this study uses limited data for analysis, it is meaningful in that it confirms the limitations and availability of Arabic-Korean NMT.

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1아즈하르의 종교적 검열이 이집트 사회에 미친 영향

저자 : 김정명 ( Kim Jeoung-myoung )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-27 (27 pages)

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The purpose of this paper is to examine the laws and institutions regulating art and literary works for religious reasons and what role al-Azhar has played as an informal religious censorship body.
Religious censorship means restricting freedom of expression based on religious authority or religious teaching. In 1961, the Nasser regime issued the al-Azhar reform law. Since then, al-Azhar not only became financially dependent on the Egyptian government, but also became part of the bureaucracy.
The regimes of Nasser, Sadat and Mubarak have entrusted al-Azhar with the role of banning or regulating books and cultural creations deemed religiously inappropriate to prevent the spread of radical Islamist groups. But al-Azhar's participation in the censorship unexpectedly backfired, severely restricting the activities of liberal and secular intellectuals, writers, and artists such as Faraj Fuda, Najib Mahfuz, and Abu Zayd.

KCI등재

2사회자본으로서 아랍지역의 와스타 관행 연구: 변용과 지속가능성을 중심으로

저자 : 엄익란 ( Eum Ikran )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 29-59 (31 pages)

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The term wasta, meaning 'intermediate,' is derived from the Arabic word 'wasat,' meaning 'in between' or 'middle.' Wasta is recognized today as being synonymous with injustice and corruption in Arab countries, as it favors people who have connections, while depriving the opportunities and rights of others. However, although wasta is negatively perceived within Arab society, people appear to prefer to utilize it when it is available. Unlike the negative perception of wasta today, it once carried a positive meaning, especially in traditional tribal societies where faith and trust were the basic principles of wasta operation. Wasta was used as a primary means to solve problems and conflicts among tribal members, while keeping one's face and reputation within the community. In addition, wasta was also used as a method of distributing resources and providing welfare to tribal people. By tracing the transformation of wasta's social meaning within a specific social context, this study examines how wasta practice, which existed as a virtue in traditional Arab society, has changed today, and how it may develop in the future. Wasta is analyzed within a theoretical framework of social capital and trust. Rather than evaluating its positive or negative meanings, this study focuses upon the background of why and how it works today.

KCI등재

3국제법상 문화재 및 문화유산 보호에 대한 고찰

저자 : 조정현 ( Jung-hyun Cho )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 61-79 (19 pages)

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The system to protect cultural property and cultural heritage under international law has been established for last several decades. Along with UNESCO's special efforts, international society developed relevant rules, both in respect of armed conflicts and during peacetime. This law basically prohibits illicit export of cultural property and requires return of the illegally exported cultural objects. In addition, UNESCO provides the World Cultural Heritage protection mechanisms. Although this law also has various defects, the review of the international law and system of protecting cultural property and cultural heritage could give some useful and practical implications for recent cultural tragedies happening in the Islamic areas.

KCI등재

4미국의 탈 중동전략에 따른 지역 경쟁과 이라크의 선택

저자 : 남옥정 ( Nam Ok-jeong )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 81-111 (31 pages)

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The United States allies in the Middle East, including Iraq, in the face of the US' contraction strategy in the Middle East, are contemplating new options to replace the US. With these crisis factors emerging, China's recent strategy to deeply enter the Middle East with its economic sector at the forefront is a natural step.
However, there is a high risk that the chaos that will follow after Iraq and other middle eastern countries choose China as an option, will return to them during the strategic competition between the US and China. Therefore, it is time to continuously observe which choice will be the lesser worse.
The non-aligned position can give a sense of balance when dealing with a powerful neighboring country from a position exposed to the risk of being victimized by a proxy warfare.
From this point of view, the most demanded foreign policy in Iraq at present would be the establishment of delicately balanced partnerships that ensure cooperation with all influential powers.

KCI등재

51970~1980년대 사우디아라비아 석유 정책 결정 메커니즘 분석: 경제 모델을 중심으로

저자 : 송상현 ( Song Sang Hyun )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 113-149 (37 pages)

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It is natural that Saudi oil policy should have begun to attract significant attention from all the parties concerned with the world oil market after it took direct control of oil production and prices during the 1970s. The capacity of the Saudi oil industry, with its huge oil reserves and production levels, is and probably always will be sufficient to play a key role not only in OPEC, but also more generally on the world oil market. In addition to its huge oil reserves, its productive capacity of over 10 million b/d, which allows Saudi Arabia to increase or cut its considerable production in accordance with market situations or its own political interests, makes both producers and consumers pay close attention to its oil policies, which are likely to have a profound effect on volatile oil prices.
For an explanation of Saudi oil policy, various factors affecting the decisions of Saudi oil policy makers should be considered, either economic or political. From an economic perspective, commentators have tried to find a rational strategy underlying the attempts of Saudi decision-makers to optimize the long-term value of their oil by applying various economic models. Through the analysis of these models, the study would like to suggest which model best explains Saudi Arabia's oil policy from an economic point of view. This study is expected to contribute to understanding the economic mechanism by which Saudi Arabia's oil policy operates.

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6마그립 지역의 베르베르족 문화와 언어에 대한 연구

저자 : 최진영 ( Choi Jin-young )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 151-174 (24 pages)

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This paper proposes to introduce the Berber culture and language as a minor tribe of more than 25 million people living in North Africa, the Sahara Desert, and Sahalian West Africa. To make a practical approach to the Berber culture and languages, the paper, in the second section, deals with the Berber society and culture according to the main tribes and, in the third section, reports on the results of the research of the Berber languages conducted by European scholars. In addition to that, this part suggests a set of phonological, morphological rules of the Berber languages and surveys the social function of the Berber languages in Morocco, Algeria, Tunis. The Berber language's using region is very broad. Also, the Berber language has the characteristics of the isolated language (linguistic island) because it doesn't have relevances with the languages used in North Africa. In the past, it had once been a single unified language, but now it is not configured. The distribution of Morocco's Berber language is relatively unified while the Berber language in Algeria and Tunisia has a different distribution. A reduction of the Berber population according to the urbanization and population movements provoked a big change in the Berber language's using range. These various elements didn't make the Berber see themselves as a national unit or a political presence. The paper concludes that a study on the Berber culture and language deserves to be made as a study on the minor tribes, stressing the need of the studies on the minor tribes in Korea and settling an objective viewpoint of the problems of minor tribes.

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7문항 유형이 아랍어 학습자의 듣기 이해도 및 듣기 전략에 미치는 영향

저자 : 문지영 ( Mun Ji-young )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 175-208 (34 pages)

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This study aims to examine the effects of question types on the listening comprehension and listening strategy use of Arabic Learners. 24 Arabic learners(First Year 2nd Semester) were divided into two groups regarding question type: one group was given multiple-choice questions, and the other was given short answer questions. A survey on strategy use of the participants were conducted.
There searcher compared the listening comprehension of the two groups by using the T-test. The listening strategy use of the two groups was analyzed in the way of counting frequency of strategy use.
The results of this study are as follows: First, the group with multiple-choice questions received higher scores than the group with short answer questions. This proved that question types had an effect on the participants' listening comprehension.
Second, the group with multiple-choice questions used more strategies than the group with short answer questions. Among the strategies related to options, the group with multiple-choice questions the most frequently employed strategy was the strategy of inferring unknown meaning by using options. Among the strategies which were not related to options, three strategies were used more by the group with multiple-choice questions than by the group with short answer questions. The three strategies included taking notes, translating in Korean, and using known words in an utterance to guess the meaning of the message.
Third, advanced learners employed fewer strategies than low-level learners. On the multiple-choice test, the advanced learners used three strategies more than the low-level learners. One was the strategy of activating appropriate schemas related to the topic, another was the strategy of deciding to focus on specific aspects of language input, and the other was the strategy of deciding to focus on the language input in general. The strategies related to options were employed more by the advanced learners than by the low-level learners.
On the short answer test, the advanced learners used four strategies more than the low-level learners. They included the strategy of activating appropriate schemas related to the topic, the strategy of deciding to focus on specific aspects of language input, the strategy of deciding to focus on the language input in general, the strategy of uttering known words to guess the meaning of the message.

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8고전 페르시아 시문학에 비친 투르크 족의 다중적 이미지 연구

저자 : 신양섭 ( Shin Yang-sup )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 209-237 (29 pages)

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In general, the attitude of the 'majority' toward the 'minority' in a community is ridicule and contempt. This attitude is directly reflected in the literature of lingua franca used by the 'majority'. A typical example is the image of the Jews in Persian literature. In Persian literature, both classical and modern, Jews are seen as an object of ridicule and contempt.
This general rule, however, does not apply to the Turks, another “minority” in Iranian society. The attitudes and views of the Iranians toward the Turks are multiple and contradictory. In classical Persian poetry, the Turks are objects of condemnation and resentment, objects of admiration and praise, and objects of love. This is because the Turks were a “minority like majority” in Iranian society. In other words, the Turks were a “ethnic minority” but a “political majority” because they emerged as invaders and conquerors in Iran. The brutal and barbaric acts of the Turks during their invasion and conquest were expressed with condemnation and resentment, but the valiant conquest against the pagans by the Turkic monarchs who ruled Iran and their generous support for Persian poets were expressed with praise and admiration. Another Turkic image added to these is beauty. While freely contacting young Turks who entered Iranian society as slave mercenaries or servants in the early days, the unique appearance of Turks attracted the attention of Persian poets and this interest developed the young Turk into an ideal lover.
Another reason that Persian poets had a relatively friendly feeling towards the Turks compared to the Jews is religion. After both Iranians and Turks converted to Islam, ethnic boundaries were eliminated and common religious boundaries were formed. In other words, the Jews were outside the boundary, but the Turks were within it, so a coexistence between the two peoples could easily be established. The Persian poets supported by the Turkic rulers were able to freely condemn the cruelty and barbarity of the other Turks, because they regarded the Turkic rulers as “himself” who had already entered the boundary and assimilated into Persian culture, but the new Turkic invaders as “others” who were outside the boundary.

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9소설 『자밀라』에서 영화 <자밀라>로의 서사 구조 변용과 주제의식 구현 양상

저자 : 손영훈 ( Son Young-hoon ) , 이난아 ( Lee Nan-a )

발행기관 : 한국이슬람학회 간행물 : 한국이슬람학회 논총 32권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 239-260 (22 pages)

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The cinematization of a novel is the transformation of literary fiction using the features of a medium known as film. This transformation, however, is a complementary interaction between the two media rather than a separate creative process. The novel Jamila, written by Chinghiz Aitmatov, and the film Jamila, based on the original work, are about the life of Jamila, the epitome of an enterprising and challenging woman, and her brother-in-law, Seyit, who forges his own path under the influence of her will to live an independent life. When a novel is adapted into a film, it can become a completely different story than the original work; however, the film < Jamilah > faithfully reproduces the original work's contents and concept by adhering to a similar narrative framework, such as the development process and story flow. In other words, when a novel is adapted into a film, it is developed three-dimensionally without dramatic changes in the narrative structure and story transformation, with the director's reinterpretation and cinematic device added. Both works use flashback techniques to recall the past, and the novel's narrative method is used in the film. In terms of translating theme consciousness from novel to film, both works are superficially centered on the love story of Jamila and Daniyar, but this is not a story based on a simple heterosexuality motif. In contrast to the obedient women of the time who followed traditional customs, the adventurous Jamila's actions of challenging for what she craves, and Seyit's changing appearance, who also left the way toward the life he desires, teach readers and audiences a lesson about who owns their life. It can be confirmed that the novel and film faithfully reproduce the original work's theme consciousness through the same narrative structure in dealing with the process of life of Jamila and Seyit growing into independent individuals through love.

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