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수선사학회> 사림(성대사림)> 당대 시박사(市舶使)를 통한 동·서 해상교역과 문화적 만남에 대한 이해

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당대 시박사(市舶使)를 통한 동·서 해상교역과 문화적 만남에 대한 이해

探析唐代市舶使对东西海上交易和文化相遇的理解

우성민
  • : 수선사학회
  • : 사림(성대사림) 79권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2022년 01월
  • : 189-229(41pages)
사림(성대사림)

DOI

10.20457/SHA.79.7


목차

머리말
1. 당대 시박사(市舶使)의 파견과 운용
2. 당대 시박사원(市舶使院)설립 건의와 발전
3. 당대 시박사 설치후의 동·서 해상 교역의 흔적과 문화적 만남
맺음말

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초록 보기

唐太宗时期的“贞观之治”和唐玄宗时期的“开元之治”对唐代经济贸易的发展产生了影响, 对外交流也取得了前所未有的盛况。另外, 当时随着阿拉伯国家的崛起和航海技术发达, 唐朝更加支持对外贸易, 在这样的背景下, 广州、安南、扬州等地发展成国际贸易港。其中广州一跃成为印度、波斯和马来商船等外国船舶进港的代表性城市。
在这样的背景下, 唐玄宗开元二年(714), 唐朝派右威卫中郞将周庆立为专门负责海上对外贸易的市舶使。開元2年以后, 受怛罗斯之战和安史之乱等战争对陆路交通的影响, 海上贸易更加受到重视, 唐朝廷派遣市舶使的次数逐渐增加。
从唐开元到唐末, 派遣广州的市舶使有8次以上, 并由宦官担任, 可见设置市舶使的目的除了管理对外贸易船只交易和征收税金外, 还有确保宫中使用的各种奢侈品。值得注意的是, 有些官员上奏提出设立市舶使院以便保管波斯和泰国等外国船舶的珍贵商品。这反映唐代已经设置了市舶使办公空间, 也是表明唐代市舶使制度体系化和发展的指标。
唐代市舶使持续发展, 在五代十国时期出现了博易务等负责市舶业务的机构, 在宋代主要港口设立了市舶司常设机构, 取得划时代的发展。
唐代市舶使在采购皇室所需的各种奢侈品方面发挥了重要作用, 这说明越是上流阶层奢侈, 市舶使从海外贸易船采购的宫廷奢侈品越是可能增加, 而这种贸易的发展促进了东西及东亚海上贸易的繁荣。
《大唐西域求法高僧传》中的波斯舶和《玄怪录》中的波斯邸表明唐代很多波斯商人在中国内地定居, 而这正是符合唐代东西贸易发展的根据。据《唐六典》, 他们带来的具有异国特色的舶来品中“赤麖皮”是红色鹿皮皮革制品, “瑟瑟”是绿宝石, 这些都是波斯特产。另外据载, 御用物品所需的紫檀、贵族女人使用的翡翠毛等物品是从广州和安南进口的, 但实际上可能是市舶使提供了波斯产进口品。
值得注意的是, 在《三国史记》卷33中的外来商品里发现翡翠毛、瑟瑟, 紫檀等与《唐六典》相同的进口商品。新罗兴德王9年(834年)左右, 禁止贵族女性使用瑟瑟鈿。这表明很有可能新罗从唐朝进口波斯、阿拉伯等国家出口到唐朝的特产品。
庆州雁鸭池出土的木制酒令具很有可能也是波斯相关的饮酒文化道具, 对于这一点应该值得注意。
综上所述, 有必要从东西海上交易和文化交流的角度重新审视唐代的市舶使和宋代市舶司的意义。期待今后能扩大对唐代市舶使的派遣、管理和发展的讨论, 有助于提高对东西海上交流和文化交流的相互理解。

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  • : 2733-4082
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This article explores how Grace Lee Boggs participated in radical black political movements in Cold War America as a Chinese American woman. Her marriage to an African American labor activist, James Boggs, and her activist career in radical Black politics provides a good example of Afro-Asian political alliance in the United States. Grace continuously sought for the meaning of her American citizenship by being a part of the Black community and the Black power movement. Despite or because of being a race and gender minority in the radical black politics, Grace could raise criticism of its male-centered politics.

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발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 81권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 123-151 (29 pages)

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In this study, I restored the reality of civil health care through various cases of Koryo Period. In particular, this article has focused on the response patterns to diseases in the private sector.
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Existing currency research looked at the efforts and failure process to establish a single currency system based on the gold standard. Recent research is moving toward exploring the characteristics of monetary management, but still maintains the view that the establishment of a single currency system based on the gold standard is the basis of industrialization, and no research has been conducted on the characteristics of monetary management and the effect of the single currency system.
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81894년 갑오개혁 이후 주한 일본공사 이노우에의 개입과 대원군의 정치적 몰락 ― 이준용역모사건과 김학우암살사건을 중심으로 ―

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In the course of a special court trial in April 1895, Minister of Justice Seo Gwang-Beom attempted to remove Lee Jun-Yong with extreme punishment. The Japanese minister in Seoul Inoue suspected the Ministry of Interior Park Young-Hyo and Queen Min. This means that Queen Min intervened behind her and instigated Lee Jun-Yong to be punished with extreme punishment.
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This article notes what technical manpower training policies were established and developed at the government, schools, and industrial sites in the 1950s after the liberation. After the liberation, the military and the Ministry of Commerce and Industry sought to develop and pursue a short-term training-oriented technical training plan to increase the operating rate of the production sector. Due to the lack of technical manpower, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry first operated mechanical technology and mining technical training centers. Second, the Industrial Technician test was conducted for a short period of time when there were no other certificates except for educational diplomas. After the Korean War, in order for the corporate technical personnels to lead the provision of practical training and retraining for technical personnel in industrial sites. The aid authorities attempted ① the strengthening of the practice for vocational education ② the retraining of workers in the nearby area ③ the retraining of teachers in vocational schools. This was for the purposes of enhancing the effectiveness of aid and economic reconstruction. However, it was not easy to settle this technical training system under high unemployment and people's aspirations to go to universities. It was difficult to change the atmosphere of Korean society in a short period of time, preferring to go to university over finding a job.
The goal of vocational education and training was not for the higher education but to get employed. Hence, it was necessary to 'grow' the industry in order to set a firm footing in the vocational education and training institution. Without the growth of the industry, it was difficult for technical skills to immediately lead to employment. Technical skills were harder to be recognized than university diplomas in the labor market due to the industrial structure, which was challenging to become skilled, get hired, and move up the social ladder after getting technical training and technician certificates. Attempts to change the technical training system intended by the aid authorities in the 1950s seemed to have failed. As a result, since the 1960s, technical manpower training policy has been transformed from educational to labor policy in character.

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3이민서의 나주목사 부임과 부속 도서 진휼

저자 : 김덕진 ( Kim Deok Jin )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 79권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 71-96 (26 pages)

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The Naju area suffered famine and infectious diseases in 1668(ninth year of King Hyeonjong's reign). Lee Min-seo, Moksa of Naju at that time, loaded three ships with hundreds of grain sacks and distributed them to the residents of islands within the jurisdiction of Naju, who were excluded from the relief administration due to the old Suryeongs' disinterest and the powerful institutions' exploitation. Aboard the ships were Na Jun, one of his acquaintances and noblemen of Naju, Tongins and Gwangis of Najumok, and Buddhist monks from Buddhist temples. They departed from Yeongsanpo on April 15 and distributed grain to residents of 18 islands including Ja-eun Island. They climbed mountains on the Ja-eun and Bigeum Islands and appreciated the beauty of the sea and islands for the first time. They had an encounter with a rainstorm on their way from the Palgeum Island to Aphae Island, thus facing a crisis. They got out of the crisis safe and arrived in Naju on April 26 after 12 days. These records are based on Ipdogihaeng, Na Jun's travel essay.

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4642년 백제의 정변과 대왜관계에 대한 재검토

저자 : 박민경 ( Park Min-kyung )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 79권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 97-125 (29 pages)

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Territorial expansion policies of Tang Dynasty around east Asia had influenced on both Korean peninsula and Japan. With the political upheaval of 642, therefore, King Uija expelled all the counterforce including Kyogi to Japan in order to strengthen the king's power. And most of Kyogi colluded with the dominant political power holder, Soga, in Japan at that time building a anti-Baekje group. The reason why a japanese noble family, Soga accepted the banished force from Baekje was to block in advance any effect of the changing geopolitical situation in East Asia by focusing valuable informations about Baekje from Kyogi.
In order to decrease the anti-Baekje atmosphere, Baekje sent Sataek-Jijeok to Japan and restored the previous relations with Japan. Thanks to the Isshi Incident of 645, Soga fell shortly being superseded by the reform of government.
Foreign policies of the new government was both pro-Tang and Silla. Yet, shortly afterwards, a political group who did not agree with this foreign polices of the reform government emerged since Pungjang, one of Baekje royal family, had resumed political activities. Baekje tried to improve a better relationship with Tang Dynasty. Yet, Tang overtly formalized hostility against Baekje while making a military alliance with Silla. In 653, therefore, Baekje recovered the former friendly relationship with Japan and established the military alliance system among Baekje, Japan, and Goguryeo. It was for against the alliance of Silla-Tang. And this military alliance was extended to the reconstruction movement of Baekje even after the fall of Baekje

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5『총동원』을 통해 살펴본 전시체제기 '국민' 형성 기획의 특징과 성격

저자 : 황선미 ( Sunmee Hwang )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 79권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 127-153 (27 pages)

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This article analyzes the 'Korean Federation for Total Mobilization of National Spirit(國民精神總動員朝鮮聯盟)' and its organ 'General Mobilization(總動員).' Among the process, in particular, it focuses on the method and characteristics of making 'National People' in the wartime period.
The 'Korean Federation for Total Mobilization of National Spirit,' a wartime mobilizing organization, which was launched in July 1938, focused on the administrative and spiritual systematization of Korea by mobilizing its administrative power. Therefore the Federation made efforts to attract Korean people into the wartime mobilization system by applying external pressure such as mobilizing laws, administrative bodies, and bureaucrats. However, this method of external pressure faced opposition and rejection from them.
To their response, the Federation simultaneously tried to gain control of the inner world of Korean people via non-compulsory and cultural means, such as the official organ General Mobilization. These movements were aimed to encourage colonial Korean people to participate the war actively as members of the Imperial Japan and to reduce their antipathy toward wartime mobilization through non-forced means. In particular, General Mobilization was published to promote the wartime mobilization policy to the expanded patriots, and accordingly, the Federation wanted to recruit women, senior citizens and students who were staying outside the existing wartime mobilization policy.

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61957~1961년 법관 인사 논란과 그 귀결

저자 : 곽규일 ( Kwak Gyu-il )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 79권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 155-187 (33 pages)

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Under Syngman Rhee regime, the judiciary had been threatened with independence. The Progressive Party Affair(진보당 사건) in 1958, the 5.2 general election(5.2총선), 24 crisis(24파동) and the Kyunghyang Shinmun's Closing Affair(경향신문 폐간 사건) that occurred its extension clearly showed that the judiciary was under pressure from Syngman Rhee regime. In each case, the judiciary had room to exercise a kind of determination in Korean politics. Dissatisfied with this, Syngman Rhee regime tried to exert pressure on the judiciary through the personnel rights of judges.
From the above cases, the judiciary was given the role of the last bastion for democracy. However, the judiciary was not so free from the pressure of Syngman Rhee regime. There was an opportunity to revise the judge personnel system, but it was only limited it to the monopoly and oligopoly of the legal elite. In the end, the judiciary was subjugated to the military regime as the military regime, which emerged after the May 18 coup, took control of the judicial personnel system.

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7당대 시박사(市舶使)를 통한 동·서 해상교역과 문화적 만남에 대한 이해

저자 : 우성민

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 79권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 189-229 (41 pages)

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唐太宗时期的“贞观之治”和唐玄宗时期的“开元之治”对唐代经济贸易的发展产生了影响, 对外交流也取得了前所未有的盛况。另外, 当时随着阿拉伯国家的崛起和航海技术发达, 唐朝更加支持对外贸易, 在这样的背景下, 广州、安南、扬州等地发展成国际贸易港。其中广州一跃成为印度、波斯和马来商船等外国船舶进港的代表性城市。
在这样的背景下, 唐玄宗开元二年(714), 唐朝派右威卫中郞将周庆立为专门负责海上对外贸易的市舶使。開元2年以后, 受怛罗斯之战和安史之乱等战争对陆路交通的影响, 海上贸易更加受到重视, 唐朝廷派遣市舶使的次数逐渐增加。
从唐开元到唐末, 派遣广州的市舶使有8次以上, 并由宦官担任, 可见设置市舶使的目的除了管理对外贸易船只交易和征收税金外, 还有确保宫中使用的各种奢侈品。值得注意的是, 有些官员上奏提出设立市舶使院以便保管波斯和泰国等外国船舶的珍贵商品。这反映唐代已经设置了市舶使办公空间, 也是表明唐代市舶使制度体系化和发展的指标。
唐代市舶使持续发展, 在五代十国时期出现了博易务等负责市舶业务的机构, 在宋代主要港口设立了市舶司常设机构, 取得划时代的发展。
唐代市舶使在采购皇室所需的各种奢侈品方面发挥了重要作用, 这说明越是上流阶层奢侈, 市舶使从海外贸易船采购的宫廷奢侈品越是可能增加, 而这种贸易的发展促进了东西及东亚海上贸易的繁荣。
《大唐西域求法高僧传》中的波斯舶和《玄怪录》中的波斯邸表明唐代很多波斯商人在中国内地定居, 而这正是符合唐代东西贸易发展的根据。据《唐六典》, 他们带来的具有异国特色的舶来品中“赤麖皮”是红色鹿皮皮革制品, “瑟瑟”是绿宝石, 这些都是波斯特产。另外据载, 御用物品所需的紫檀、贵族女人使用的翡翠毛等物品是从广州和安南进口的, 但实际上可能是市舶使提供了波斯产进口品。
值得注意的是, 在《三国史记》卷33中的外来商品里发现翡翠毛、瑟瑟, 紫檀等与《唐六典》相同的进口商品。新罗兴德王9年(834年)左右, 禁止贵族女性使用瑟瑟鈿。这表明很有可能新罗从唐朝进口波斯、阿拉伯等国家出口到唐朝的特产品。
庆州雁鸭池出土的木制酒令具很有可能也是波斯相关的饮酒文化道具, 对于这一点应该值得注意。
综上所述, 有必要从东西海上交易和文化交流的角度重新审视唐代的市舶使和宋代市舶司的意义。期待今后能扩大对唐代市舶使的派遣、管理和发展的讨论, 有助于提高对东西海上交流和文化交流的相互理解。

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8홀저 카힐의 아메리칸 드림 ― 뉴딜시기 연방미술프로젝트를 중심으로 ―

저자 : 김진희 ( Jin Hee Kim )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 79권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 231-257 (27 pages)

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This article explores the characteristics of the New Deal cultural policy and the vision of the United States pursued by the New Dealers, focusing on the life and thoughts of Holger Cahill, who was in charge of the Federal Art project from 1935 to 1943. This article especially pays attention to the aspect that Holger Cahill, a son of poverty stricken immigrant family and an outsider with no formal education, was in charge of a major government public art project during the Great Depression, and argues that such a characteristic may hint the American identity and the vision pursued by the New Dealers. The goal that Holger Cahill wanted to achieve was to integrate the arts into the lives of ordinary people so that to improve the quality of their lives and allow them to grow into democratic citizens. This was experienced not only by other people, but also by Holger Cahill himself. Although the Federal Art Project ended in failure, the value it pursued remains significant as an ongoing process.

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