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서울대학교 행정대학원> Journal of Policy Studies (JPS)> Political Failure and Bureaucratic Potential in Africa

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Political Failure and Bureaucratic Potential in Africa

Cameron Wimpy
  • : 서울대학교 행정대학원
  • : Journal of Policy Studies (JPS) 36권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 12월
  • : 15-25(11pages)
Journal of Policy Studies (JPS)

DOI


목차

Introduction
Political Failure and the Effects on Bureaucracy in Africa
Operationalizing Political Failure in Africa
Data & Method
Results
Comparing Results to Citizen Survey Measures
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
REFERENCES
Appendix

키워드 보기


초록 보기

Recent scholarship theorizes that shortcomings in good governance are a result of political, not bureaucratic, failures. These challenges are no less important in the developing world, and they are particularly acute in many African countries where resources are scarce and political development is relatively limited. Although the impacts of public administration quality on governance outcomes in Africa are well established, the empirical relationship between political failures and bureaucratic capacity remains underexplored. In addition, political issues in developing countries often cause bureaucratic pathologies to vary across the additional dimensions of corruption, judicial independence, and political pluralism. Using a combination of unique datasets, I turn the recent theories on political failure into testable propositions for how these processes unfold in the African context. The findings are of interest both for improving governance in developing countries and adding to the growing body of literature examining the severity of the challenges posed by political failure in various contexts.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-300-001033537

간행물정보

  • : 사회과학분야  > 행정학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 2799-9130
  • : 2765-2807
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1986-2022
  • : 509


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Local State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) play an increasingly important role in the delivery of key public services to citizens across the world. Because they operate at arms' length from their parent organizations, arrangements for the effective governance of local SOEs are a major concern for public administration researchers and policy-makers alike. In many countries, local SOEs are supervised by boards of directors responsible for managing and monitoring service provision. Agency theory suggests that the size and composition of these boards is likely to be influenced by the ownership structure, organizational complexity, and growth opportunities. Using seemingly unrelated regressions to analyse the size and composition of local SOE boards in England, this study finds that large, minority public-owned, not-for-profit SOEs and those with more public sector partners have larger boards of directors, and that older, majority public-owned, and not-for-profit SOEs have more politicians on the board. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings for the governance, accountability and performance of local SOEs are discussed.

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Existing studies see foreign donors as (a) brokers between sustainable development goals (SDGs) and aid-recipient countries' needs, or (b) intruders into aid-recipient countries' internal affairs. The intruder view has triggered regulations of NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) in aid-recipient countries. However, little is known, empirically, about how foreign donors respond to regulatory burden. We suggest regulatory burden adds uncertainty and turbulence to the operating context, negatively affecting government effectiveness in securing aid. This negative effect is moderated by the number of foreign donors operating in a jurisdiction. Propositions are tested in a data set derived from the 221 Ecuadorian municipalities during 2007-2018. Findings suggest regulations of NGOs have decreased municipalities' ability to secure international cooperation. This negative effect is larger in municipalities with a higher presence of donor supply. These results encourage policy makers to consider counterproductive costs of overregulating foreign NGOs and other civil society organizations when designing regulatory tools.

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3Which Combinations of Human Resource Management and National Culture Optimize Government Effectiveness?

저자 : Phil Kim , Ran Kim , Tobin Im

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Despite the need for culturally-grounded public sector management practices, only a few studies have empirically investigated the compatibility between HRM practices and national culture. This study used fsQCA to investigate 'bundles' of HRM practices (recruitment, appraisal, and compensation) and Hofstede's original four dimensions of national culture as antecedent conditions for government effectiveness in 30 OECD countries. We found that performance-based appraisal, compensation and informal recruitment form a causal relationship with high individualism and low uncertainty avoidance for stronger government effectiveness. The results imply that local national culture is an important context for the transferability of public management practices.

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발행기관 : 서울대학교 행정대학원 간행물 : Journal of Policy Studies (JPS) 37권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 45-64 (20 pages)

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Recent administrations in Korea have greatly emphasized the importance of decentralization and autonomous local governments. However, numerous efforts on decentralization have not been accompanied by adequate level of fiscal decentralization. Some critiques have long claimed that local governments are not equipped with enough financial independence or autonomy to deliver preferred services. Some others have challenged this claim, accusing local governments on potential waste of financial resources and local administration capacities, with no significant improvement in public service performance.
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It is advised that administrations in Korea emphasize decentralized expenditure more than decentralized taxation. Decentralized expenditure does not hinder local government performance, and thus the government should continue to promote it to resolve imbalances across local governments.

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1The Bureaucratic Perils of Presidentialism: Political Impediments to Good Governance in Latin America

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In the face of poorly performing bureaucracies, public management specialists and policy experts have been quick to suggest administrative reforms. Yet, since governance lies at the nexus of politics and administration, reforms limited to the administrative dimension are likely to fall short without concomitant political change. This essay argues that in contemporary Latin America, certain political-institutional arrangements or institutional traits are more likely to produce (in)effective governance than others. Specifically, Latin American presidentialism creates several “perils” for governance, including: the rigidity and short time horizons of presidentialism; multipartyism under presidentialism; weakly institutionalized party systems and non-programmatic parties; an imbalance of power between strong presidents and weak legislatures; the plebiscitarian nature of presidentialism; and democratic backsliding and the centralization of power in the presidency. These institutional traits incentivize patronage, promote myopic policymaking, and weaken bureaucratic autonomy. To illustrate how they manifest themselves in public policy, the paper uses evidence from the region's responses to the Covid-19 pandemic, then concludes by suggesting political reforms that may help to improve governance in the region.

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2Political Failure and Bureaucratic Potential in Africa

저자 : Cameron Wimpy

발행기관 : 서울대학교 행정대학원 간행물 : Journal of Policy Studies (JPS) 36권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 15-25 (11 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

Recent scholarship theorizes that shortcomings in good governance are a result of political, not bureaucratic, failures. These challenges are no less important in the developing world, and they are particularly acute in many African countries where resources are scarce and political development is relatively limited. Although the impacts of public administration quality on governance outcomes in Africa are well established, the empirical relationship between political failures and bureaucratic capacity remains underexplored. In addition, political issues in developing countries often cause bureaucratic pathologies to vary across the additional dimensions of corruption, judicial independence, and political pluralism. Using a combination of unique datasets, I turn the recent theories on political failure into testable propositions for how these processes unfold in the African context. The findings are of interest both for improving governance in developing countries and adding to the growing body of literature examining the severity of the challenges posed by political failure in various contexts.

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3Populism and Bureaucratic Frictions: Lessons From Bolsonarism

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How do populist governments approach public bureaucracies? Here we reflect on the rise of Bolsonarism as a form of populism in the Brazilian context and on its relationship with public bureaucracies. Bolsonaro's “strategy of governing” builds on an unstable coalition that combines neoconservatism, market-oriented economic approach and military nationalism and corporativism. We analyze how the antagonism at the center of this coalition shapes bureaucratic strategic positions and defend an understanding of Bolsonarism as an ideology of contentious governing that nurtures divisive bureaucracies.

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