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한국정보처리학회> JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems)> KAWS: Coordinate Kernel-Aware Warp Scheduling and Warp Sharing Mechanism for Advanced GPUs

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KAWS: Coordinate Kernel-Aware Warp Scheduling and Warp Sharing Mechanism for Advanced GPUs

Viet Tan Vo , Cheol Hong Kim
  • : 한국정보처리학회
  • : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권6호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 12월
  • : 1157-1169(13pages)
JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems)

DOI


목차

1. Introduction
2. Background
3. Coordinate Kernel-Aware Warp Scheduling and Warp Sharing Mechanism
4. Evaluation
5. Conclusion
Acknowledgement
References

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초록 보기

Modern graphics processor unit (GPU) architectures offer significant hardware resource enhancements for parallel computing. However, without software optimization, GPUs continuously exhibit hardware resource underutilization. In this paper, we indicate the need to alter different warp scheduler schemes during different kernel execution periods to improve resource utilization. Existing warp schedulers cannot be aware of the kernel progress to provide an effective scheduling policy. In addition, we identified the potential for improving resource utilization for multiple-warp-scheduler GPUs by sharing stalling warps with selected warp schedulers. To address the efficiency issue of the present GPU, we coordinated the kernel-aware warp scheduler and warp sharing mechanism (KAWS). The proposed warp scheduler acknowledges the execution progress of the running kernel to adapt to a more effective scheduling policy when the kernel progress attains a point of resource underutilization. Meanwhile, the warp-sharing mechanism distributes stalling warps to different warp schedulers wherein the execution pipeline unit is ready. Our design achieves performance that is on an average higher than that of the traditional warp scheduler by 7.97% and employs marginal additional hardware overhead.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-500-000933692

간행물정보

  • : 공학분야  > 전자공학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 1976-913x
  • : 2092-805X
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2005-2022
  • : 989


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1Implementation of Quality Management System for Wild-Simulated Ginseng Using Blockchain

저자 : Youngjun Sung , Yoojae Won

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 173-187 (15 pages)

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A special government agency has been charged with implementing quality management to guarantee the quality of wild-simulated ginseng. However, these processes are carried out by use of documents, and this has resulted in information omission and high document management costs. To solve this problem, this study analyzed the existing quality management process by using a smart contract for the existing offline form and proposed a new quality management system for storing and managing all log data in the blockchain. This system reduced documentation management costs about quality management and recorded information in the previous step through the quality management steps, thus forming a step-by-step record chain. Experiments were conducted by implementing this system, which improved data integrity and reliability. Additionally, sensitive information, such as personal information, was included in the system by use of the off-chain technology.

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2Path-Based Computation Encoder for Neural Architecture Search

저자 : Ying Yang , Xu Zhang , Hu Pan

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 188-196 (9 pages)

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Recently, neural architecture search (NAS) has received increasing attention as it can replace human experts in designing the architecture of neural networks for different tasks and has achieved remarkable results in many challenging tasks. In this study, a path-based computation neural architecture encoder (PCE) was proposed. Our PCE first encodes the computation of information on each path in a neural network, and then aggregates the encodings on all paths together through an attention mechanism, simulating the process of information computation along paths in a neural network and encoding the computation on the neural network instead of the structure of the graph, which is more consistent with the computational properties of neural networks. We performed an extensive comparison with eight encoding methods on two commonly used NAS search spaces (NAS-Bench-101 and NAS-Bench-201), which included a comparison of the predictive capabilities of performance predictors and search capabilities based on two search strategies (reinforcement learning-based and Bayesian optimization-based) when equipped with different encoders. Experimental evaluation shows that PCE is an efficient encoding method that effectively ranks and predicts neural architecture performance, thereby improving the search efficiency of neural architectures.

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3A Manually Captured and Modified Phone Screen Image Dataset for Widget Classification on CNNs

저자 : Sungchul Byun , Seong-soo Han , Chang-sung Jeong

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 197-207 (11 pages)

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The applications and user interfaces (UIs) of smart mobile devices are constantly diversifying. For example, deep learning can be an innovative solution to classify widgets in screen images for increasing convenience. To this end, the present research leverages captured images and the ReDraw dataset to write deep learning datasets for image classification purposes. First, as the validation for datasets using ResNet50 and EfficientNet, the experiments show that the dataset composed in this study is helpful for classification according to a widget's functionality. An implementation for widget detection and classification on RetinaNet and EfficientNet is then executed. Finally, the research suggests the Widg-C and Widg-D datasets―a deep learning dataset for identifying the widgets of smart devices―and implementing them for use with representative convolutional neural network models.

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4Models and Methods for the Evaluation of Automobile Manufacturing Supply Chain Coordination Degree Based on Collaborative Entropy

저자 : Qiang Xiao , Hongshuang Wang

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 208-222 (15 pages)

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Through the analysis of the coordination mechanism of the supply chain system of China's automobile manufacturing industry, the factors affecting the supply subsystem, the manufacturing subsystem, the sales subsystem, and the consumption subsystem are sorted out, the supply chain coordination index system based on the influence factor of four subsystems is established. The evaluation models of the coordination degree in the subsystem of the supply chain, the coordination degree among the subsystems, and the comprehensive coordination degree are established by using the efficiency coefficient method and the collaborative entropy method. Experimental results verify the accuracy of the evaluation model using the empirical analysis of the collaborative evaluation index data of China's automobile manufacturing industry from 2000 to 2019. The supply chain synergy of automobile manufacturing industry was low from 2001 to 2005, and it increased to a certain extent from 2006 to 2008 with a small growth rate from 0.10 to 0.15. From 2009 to 2013, the supply chain synergy of automobile manufacturing industry increased rapidly from 0.24 to 0.49, and it also increased rapidly but fluctuated from 2014 to 2019, first rising from 0.68 to 0.84 then dropping to 0.71. These results provide reference for the development of China's automobile manufacturing supply chain system and scientific decision-making basis for the formulation of relevant policies of the automobile manufacturing industry.

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5Automated Print Quality Assessment Method for 3D Printing AI Data Construction

저자 : Hyun-ju Yoo , Nammee Moon

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 223-234 (12 pages)

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The evaluation of the print quality of 3D printing has traditionally relied on manual work using dimensional measurements. However, the dimensional measurement method has an error value that depends on the person who measures it. Therefore, we propose the design of a new print quality measurement method that can be automatically measured using the field-of-view (FOV) model and the intersection over union (IoU) technique. First, the height information of the modeling is acquired from a camera; the output is measured by a sensor; and the images of the top and isometric views are acquired from the FOV model. The height information calculates the height ratio by calculating the percentage of modeling and output, and compares the 2D contour of the object on the image using the FOV model. The contour of the object is obtained from the image for 2D contour comparison and the IoU is calculated by comparing the areas of the contour regions. The accuracy of the automated measurement technique for determining, which derives the print quality value was calculated by averaging the IoU value corrected by the measurement error and the height ratio value.

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6A Fast Inter-prediction Mode Decision Algorithm for HEVC Based on Spatial-Temporal Correlation

저자 : Weixin Yao , Dan Yang

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 235-244 (10 pages)

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Many new techniques have been adopted in HEVC (High efficiency video coding) standard, such as quadtree-structured coding unit (CU), prediction unit (PU) partition, 35 intra-mode, and so on. To reduce computational complexity, the paper proposes two optimization algorithms which include fast CU depth range decision and fast PU partition mode decision. Firstly, depth range of CU is predicted according to spatial-temporal correlation. Secondly, we utilize the depth difference between the current CU and CU corresponding to the same position of adjacent frame for PU mode range selection. The number of traversal candidate modes is reduced. The experiment result shows the proposed algorithm obtains a lot of time reducing, and the loss of coding efficiency is inappreciable.

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7A Deep Learning Approach for Identifying User Interest from Targeted Advertising

저자 : Wonkyung Kim , Kukheon Lee , Sangjin Lee , Doowon Jeong

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 245-257 (13 pages)

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In the Internet of Things (IoT) era, the types of devices used by one user are becoming more diverse and the number of devices is also increasing. However, a forensic investigator is restricted to exploit or collect all the user's devices; there are legal issues (e.g., privacy, jurisdiction) and technical issues (e.g., computing resources, the increase in storage capacity). Therefore, in the digital forensics field, it has been a challenge to acquire information that remains on the devices that could not be collected, by analyzing the seized devices. In this study, we focus on the fact that multiple devices share data through account synchronization of the online platform. We propose a novel way of identifying the user's interest through analyzing the remnants of targeted advertising which is provided based on the visited websites or search terms of logged-in users. We introduce a detailed methodology to pick out the targeted advertising from cache data and infer the user's interest using deep learning. In this process, an improved learning model considering the unique characteristics of advertisement is implemented. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed method can effectively identify the user interest even though only one device is examined.

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8Implementation of Image Transmission Based on Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

저자 : Changhao Piao , Xiaoyue Ding , Jia He , Soohyun Jang , Mingjie Liu

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 258-267 (10 pages)

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Weak over-the-horizon perception and blind spot are the main problems in intelligent connected vehicles (ICVs). In this paper, a V2V image transmission-based road condition warning method is proposed to solve them. The encoded road emergency images which are collected by the ICV are transmitted to the on-board unit (OBU) through Ethernet. The OBU broadcasts the fragmented image information including location and clock of the vehicle to other OBUs. To satisfy the channel quality of the V2X communication in different times, the optimal fragment length is selected by the OBU to process the image information. Then, according to the position and clock information of the remote vehicles, OBU of the receiver selects valid messages to decode the image information which will help the receiver to extend the perceptual field. The experimental results show that our method has an average packet loss rate of 0.5%. The transmission delay is about 51.59 ms in low-speed driving scenarios, which can provide drivers with timely and reliable warnings of the road conditions.

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9An Approach to Applying Multiple Linear Regression Models by Interlacing Data in Classifying Similar Software

저자 : Hyun-il Lim

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 268-281 (14 pages)

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The development of information technology is bringing many changes to everyday life, and machine learning can be used as a technique to solve a wide range of real-world problems. Analysis and utilization of data are essential processes in applying machine learning to real-world problems. As a method of processing data in machine learning, we propose an approach based on applying multiple linear regression models by interlacing data to the task of classifying similar software. Linear regression is widely used in estimation problems to model the relationship between input and output data. In our approach, multiple linear regression models are generated by training on interlaced feature data. A combination of these multiple models is then used as the prediction model for classifying similar software. Experiments are performed to evaluate the proposed approach as compared to conventional linear regression, and the experimental results show that the proposed method classifies similar software more accurately than the conventional model. We anticipate the proposed approach to be applied to various kinds of classification problems to improve the accuracy of conventional linear regression.

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10A BERT-Based Automatic Scoring Model of Korean Language Learners' Essay

저자 : Jung Hee Lee , Ji Su Park , Jin Gon Shon

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 282-291 (10 pages)

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This research applies a pre-trained bidirectional encoder representations from transformers (BERT) handwriting recognition model to predict foreign Korean-language learners' writing scores. A corpus of 586 answers to midterm and final exams written by foreign learners at the Intermediate 1 level was acquired and used for pre-training, resulting in consistent performance, even with small datasets. The test data were pre-processed and fine-tuned, and the results were calculated in the form of a score prediction. The difference between the prediction and actual score was then calculated. An accuracy of 95.8% was demonstrated, indicating that the prediction results were strong overall; hence, the tool is suitable for the automatic scoring of Korean written test answers, including grammatical errors, written by foreigners. These results are particularly meaningful in that the data included written language text produced by foreign learners, not native speakers.

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1Study on Data Processing of the IOT Sensor Network Based on a Hadoop Cloud Platform and a TWLGA Scheduling Algorithm

저자 : Guoyu Li , Kang Yang

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1035-1043 (9 pages)

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An Internet of Things (IOT) sensor network is an effective solution for monitoring environmental conditions. However, IOT sensor networks generate massive data such that the abilities of massive data storage, processing, and query become technical challenges. To solve the problem, a Hadoop cloud platform is proposed. Using the time and workload genetic algorithm (TWLGA), the data processing platform enables the work of one node to be shared with other nodes, which not only raises efficiency of one single node but also provides the compatibility support to reduce the possible risk of software and hardware. In this experiment, a Hadoop cluster platform with TWLGA scheduling algorithm is developed, and the performance of the platform is tested. The results show that the Hadoop cloud platform is suitable for big data processing requirements of IOT sensor networks.

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2The Nexus among Globalization, ICT and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis

저자 : Ximei Liu , Zahid Latif , Daoqi Xiong , Mengke Yang , Shahid Latif , Kaif Ul Wara

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1044-1056 (13 pages)

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Globalization has integrated the world through interaction among countries and people with the help of information and telecommunication technology (ICT). The rapid mode of globalization has put a new life in ICT and economic sector. The key focus of this study is to examine the nexus among the globalization, ICT and economic growth. This study uses autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL), vector error correction model (VECM) and econometric method spanning from 1990 to 2015. The empirical result highlights that the globalization stimulates economic growth of a country. In addition, both the internet penetration and the mobile phone usage contribute to the economic growth. Lastly, this article contributes important policy lessons on strengthening the economy by utilizing ICT with the rapid globalization.

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3Case-Related News Filtering via Topic-Enhanced Positive-Unlabeled Learning

저자 : Guanwen Wang , Zhengtao Yu , Yantuan Xian , Yu Zhang

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1057-1070 (14 pages)

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Case-related news filtering is crucial in legal text mining and divides news into case-related and case-unrelated categories. Because case-related news originates from various fields and has different writing styles, it is difficult to establish complete filtering rules or keywords for data collection. In addition, the labeled corpus for case-related news is sparse; therefore, to train a high-performance classification model, it is necessary to annotate the corpus. To address this challenge, we propose topic-enhanced positive-unlabeled learning, which selects positive and negative samples guided by topics. Specifically, a topic model based on a variational autoencoder (VAE) is trained to extract topics from unlabeled samples. By using these topics in the iterative process of positive-unlabeled (PU) learning, the accuracy of identifying case-related news can be improved. From the experimental results, it can be observed that the F1 value of our method on the test set is 1.8% higher than that of the PU learning baseline model. In addition, our method is more robust with low initial samples and high iterations, and compared with advanced PU learning baselines such as nnPU and I-PU, we obtain a 1.1% higher F1 value, which indicates that our method can effectively identify case-related news.

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4Anomaly Detection of Facilities and Non-disruptive Operation of Smart Factory Using Kubernetes

저자 : Guik Jung , Hyunsoo Ha , Sangjun Lee

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1071-1082 (12 pages)

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Since the smart factory has been recently recognized as an industrial core requirement, various mechanisms to ensure efficient and stable operation have attracted much attention. This attention is based on the fact that in a smart factory environment where operating processes, such as facility control, data collection, and decision making are automated, the disruption of processes due to problems such as facility anomalies causes considerable losses. Although many studies have considered methods to prevent such losses, few have investigated how to effectively apply the solutions. This study proposes a Kubernetes based system applied in a smart factory providing effective operation and facility management. To develop the system, we employed a useful and popular open source project, and adopted deep learning based anomaly detection model for multi-sensor anomaly detection. This can be easily modified without interruption by changing the container image for inference. Through experiments, we have verified that the proposed method can provide system stability through nondisruptive maintenance, monitoring and non-disruptive updates for anomaly detection models.

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5Massive MIMO Channel Estimation Algorithm Based on Weighted Compressed Sensing

저자 : Zhiguo Lv , Weijing Wang

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1083-1096 (14 pages)

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Compressed sensing-based matching pursuit algorithms can estimate the sparse channel of massive multiple input multiple-output systems with short pilot sequences. Although they have the advantages of low computational complexity and low pilot overhead, their accuracy remains insufficient. Simply multiplying the weight value and the estimated channel obtained in different iterations can only improve the accuracy of channel estimation under conditions of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), whereas it degrades accuracy under conditions of high SNR. To address this issue, an improved weighted matching pursuit algorithm is proposed, which obtains a suitable weight value uop by training the channel data. The step of the weight value increasing with successive iterations is calculated according to the sparsity of the channel and uop. Adjusting the weight value adaptively over the iterations can further improve the accuracy of estimation. The results of simulations conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithm show that it exhibits improved performance in terms of accuracy compared to previous methods under conditions of both high and low SNR.

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6Wireless Mobile Sensor Networks with Cognitive Radio Based FPGA for Disaster Management

저자 : G. A. Preethi Ananthachari

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1097-1114 (18 pages)

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The primary objective of this work was to discover a solution for the survival of people in an emergency flood. The geographical information was obtained from remote sensing techniques. Through helpline numbers, people who are in need request support. Although, it cannot be ensured that all the people will acquire the facility. A proper link is required to communicate with people who are at risk in affected areas. Mobile sensor networks with field-programmable gate array (FPGA) self-configurable radios were deployed in damaged areas for communication. Ad-hoc networks do not have a centralized structure. All the mobile nodes deploy a temporary structure and they act as a base station. The mobile nodes are involved in searching the spectrum for channel utilization for better communication. FPGA-based techniques ensure seamless communication for the survivors. Timely help will increase the survival rate. The received signal strength is a vital factor for communication. Cognitive radio ensures channel utilization in an effective manner which results in better signal strength reception. Frequency band selection was carried out with the help of the GRA-MADM method. In this study, an analysis of signal strength for different mobile sensor nodes was performed. FPGA-based implementation showed enhanced outcomes compared to software-based algorithms.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

7Improved Deep Residual Network for Apple Leaf Disease Identification

저자 : Changjian Zhou , Jinge Xing

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1115-1126 (12 pages)

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Plant disease is one of the most irritating problems for agriculture growers. Thus, timely detection of plant diseases is of high importance to practical value, and corresponding measures can be taken at the early stage of plant diseases. Therefore, numerous researchers have made unremitting efforts in plant disease identification. However, this problem was not solved effectively until the development of artificial intelligence and big data technologies, especially the wide application of deep learning models in different fields. Since the symptoms of plant diseases mainly appear visually on leaves, computer vision and machine learning technologies are effective and rapid methods for identifying various kinds of plant diseases. As one of the fruits with the highest nutritional value, apple production directly affects the quality of life, and it is important to prevent disease intrusion in advance for yield and taste. In this study, an improved deep residual network is proposed for apple leaf disease identification in a novel way, a global residual connection is added to the original residual network, and the local residual connection architecture is optimized. Including that 1,977 apple leaf disease images with three categories that are collected in this study, experimental results show that the proposed method has achieved 98.74% top-1 accuracy on the test set, outperforming the existing state-of-the-art models in apple leaf disease identification tasks, and proving the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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8Research on the Impact of Agricultural Mechanization Service on Wheat Planting Cost: A Case Study of Henan Province

저자 : Zhang Cheng

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1127-1137 (11 pages)

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Given the different effects of agricultural mechanization on various stages of wheat planting in Henan, this article selects 78 observation samples from Henan, a major wheat-growing province. It uses different research methods (multiple linear regression, social network analysis model, multi-layer sensory nerves network) to conduct a comparative study, and the calculation results of the model show that the experimental results have a strong convergence and consistency. Agricultural mechanization services have significant effects on the three stages of wheat planting: harvesting, plowing and sowing. A higher degree of mechanized service in several stages can reduce the cost of growing wheat on family farms.

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9A Survey on Image Emotion Recognition

저자 : Guangzhe Zhao , Hanting Yang , Bing Tu , Lei Zhang

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1138-1156 (19 pages)

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Emotional semantics are the highest level of semantics that can be extracted from an image. Constructing a system that can automatically recognize the emotional semantics from images will be significant for marketing, smart healthcare, and deep human-computer interaction. To understand the direction of image emotion recognition as well as the general research methods, we summarize the current development trends and shed light on potential future research. The primary contributions of this paper are as follows. We investigate the color, texture, shape and contour features used for emotional semantics extraction. We establish two models that map images into emotional space and introduce in detail the various processes in the image emotional semantic recognition framework. We also discuss important datasets and useful applications in the field such as garment image and image retrieval. We conclude with a brief discussion about future research trends.

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10KAWS: Coordinate Kernel-Aware Warp Scheduling and Warp Sharing Mechanism for Advanced GPUs

저자 : Viet Tan Vo , Cheol Hong Kim

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1157-1169 (13 pages)

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Modern graphics processor unit (GPU) architectures offer significant hardware resource enhancements for parallel computing. However, without software optimization, GPUs continuously exhibit hardware resource underutilization. In this paper, we indicate the need to alter different warp scheduler schemes during different kernel execution periods to improve resource utilization. Existing warp schedulers cannot be aware of the kernel progress to provide an effective scheduling policy. In addition, we identified the potential for improving resource utilization for multiple-warp-scheduler GPUs by sharing stalling warps with selected warp schedulers. To address the efficiency issue of the present GPU, we coordinated the kernel-aware warp scheduler and warp sharing mechanism (KAWS). The proposed warp scheduler acknowledges the execution progress of the running kernel to adapt to a more effective scheduling policy when the kernel progress attains a point of resource underutilization. Meanwhile, the warp-sharing mechanism distributes stalling warps to different warp schedulers wherein the execution pipeline unit is ready. Our design achieves performance that is on an average higher than that of the traditional warp scheduler by 7.97% and employs marginal additional hardware overhead.

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