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대한상하수도학회> 상하수도학회지> 최근(2008-2019년) 하수도통계 자료 분석 기반 국내 하수재이용량 예측

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최근(2008-2019년) 하수도통계 자료 분석 기반 국내 하수재이용량 예측

Recent(2008-2019) trend and expectations in future of the water reuse capacity based on the statistics of sewerage in Republic of Korea

마정혁 ( Jeong-hyeok Ma ) , 정성필 ( Seongpil Jeong )
  • : 대한상하수도학회
  • : 상하수도학회지 35권6호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 12월
  • : 477-487(11pages)
상하수도학회지

DOI


목차

1. 서 론
2. 연구방법
3. 결과 및 고찰
4. 결 론
사 사
References

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Due to the global climate change, Korean peninsula is has been experiencing flooding and drought severely. It is hard difficult to manage water resources sustainably, because due to intensive precipitation in short periods and severe drought has increased in Korea. Reused water from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) could be a sustainable and an alternative water source near the urban areas. In order to understand the patterns of water reuse in Korea, annual water reuses data according to the times and regional governments were investigated from 2008 to 2019. The reused water from WWTP in Korea has been mainly used for river maintenance flow and industrial use, while agricultural use of water reuse has decreased with time. Metropolitan cities in Korea such as Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Ulsan, and Incheon have been mainly used reused reusing water for river maintenance flow. Industrial water reuse has been limitedly applied recently for the planned industrial districts in Pohang, Gumi, Paju, and Asan. By using the collected annual water reuse data from the domestic sewerage statistics of sewerage, the optimistic and pessimistic future estimations of for future annual water reuse were suggested from 2020 to 2040 on a five year interval for every five years.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-500-000950455

간행물정보

  • : 공학분야  > 토목공학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 격월
  • : 1225-7672
  • : 2287-822X
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1987-2022
  • : 2048


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36권2호(2022년 04월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

1대한상하수도학회지 목차

저자 : 대한상하수도학회

발행기관 : 대한상하수도학회 간행물 : 상하수도학회지 36권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-2 (2 pages)

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2미량오염물질 관리를 위한 산화 및 흡착 기반 하수 방류수 강화처리 기술의 연구 동향 및 시사점

저자 : 최상기 ( Sangki Choi ) , 이웅배 ( Woongbae Lee ) , 김영모 ( Young Mo Kim ) , 홍석원 ( Seok Won Hong ) , 손희종 ( Heejong Son ) , 이윤호 ( Yunho Lee )

발행기관 : 대한상하수도학회 간행물 : 상하수도학회지 36권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 59-79 (21 pages)

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Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) do not fully remove micropollutants. Enhanced treatment of sewage effluents is being considered or implemented in some countries to minimize the discharge of problematic micropollutants from WWTPs. Representative enhanced sewage treatment technologies for micropollutant removal were reviewed, including their current status of research and development. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as ozonation and UV/H2O2 and adsorption processes using powdered (PAC) and granular activated carbon (GAC) were mainly discussed with focusing on process principles for the micropollutant removal, effect of process operation and water matrix factors, and technical and economic feasibility. Pilot- and full-scale studies have shown that ozonation, PAC, and GAC can achieve significant elimination of various micropollutants at economically feasible costs(0.16-0.29 €/m3). Considering the current status of domestic WWTPs, ozonation and PAC were found to be the most feasible options for the enhanced sewage effluent treatment. Although ozonation and PAC are all mature technologies, a range of technical aspects should be considered for their successful application, such as energy consumption, CO2 emission, byproduct or waste generation, and ease of system construction/operation/maintenance. More feasibility studies considering domestic wastewater characteristics and WWTP conditions are required to apply ozonation or PAC/GAC adsorption process to enhance sewage effluent treatment in Korea.

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3광주지역 영산강의 NBOD 발생에 대한 암모니아성 질소 및 미생물 영향 연구

저자 : 장동 ( Dong Jang ) , 조광운 ( Gwangwoon Cho ) , 손경록 ( Gyeongrok Son ) , 김하람 ( Haram Kim ) , 강유미 ( Yumi Kang ) , 이승기 ( Seunggi Lee ) , 황순홍 ( Soonhong Hwang ) , 배석진 ( Seokjin Bae ) , 김연희 ( Yunhee Kim )

발행기관 : 대한상하수도학회 간행물 : 상하수도학회지 36권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 81-95 (15 pages)

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The present study was performed to investigate the effects of NH3-N and nitrifying microorganisms on the increased BOD of downstream of the Yeongsan river in Gwangju. Water samples were collected periodically from the 13 sampling sites of rivers from April to October 2021 to monitor water qualities. In addition, the trends of nitrogenous biochemical oxygen demand (NBOD) and microbial clusters were analyzed by adding different NH3-N concentrations to the water samples. The monitoring results showed that NH3-N concentration in the Yeongsan river was 22 times increased after the inflow of discharged water from the Gwangju 1st public sewage treatment plant (G-1-PSTP). Increased NH3-N elevated NBOD levels through the nitrification process in the river, consequently, it would attribute to the increase of BOD in the Yeongsan river. Meanwhile, there was no proportional relation between NBOD and NH3-N concentrations. However, there was a significant difference in NBOD occurrence by sampling sites. Specifically, when 5 mg/L NH3-N was added, NBOD of the river sample showed 2-4 times higher values after the inflow of discharged water from G-1-PSTP. Therefore, it could be thought other factors such as microorganisms influence the elevated NBOD levels. Through next-generation sequencing analysis, nitrifying microorganisms such as Nitrosomonas, Nitroga, and Nitrospira (Genus) were detected in rivers samples, especially, the proportion of them was the highest in river samples after the inflow of discharged water from G-1-PSTP. These results indicated the effects of nitrifying microorganisms and NH3-N concentrations as important limiting factors on the increased NBOD levels in the rivers. Taken together, comprehensive strategies are needed not only to reduce the NH3-N concentration of discharged water but also to control discharged nitrifying microorganisms to effectively reduce the NBOD levels in the downstream of the Yeongsan river where discharged water from G-1-PSTP flows.

KCI등재

4미세플라스틱 표면에 형성된 담수 유래 생물막 군집 고찰

저자 : 최우단 ( Woodan Choi ) , 히엔티뉴옌 ( Hien Thi Nguyen ) , 김은주 ( Eun-ju Kim ) , 조경진 ( Kyungjin Cho )

발행기관 : 대한상하수도학회 간행물 : 상하수도학회지 36권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 97-106 (10 pages)

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Recently microplastic (MP) biofilm is being attracted as an important environmental issue because it can act as a pollutant carrier in aqueous system. Therefore, this study investigated the MP biofilm communities originated from freshwater. The results showed the bacterial community structure of MP biofilm was distinctively different from the freshwater regardless of biofilm-forming condition and MP type. For MP biofilm communities exposed to raw freshwater, Solimonas variicoloris-like microbe, Frigidibacter albus-like microbe, Nitrospirillum amazonense-like microbe, and Pseudochroococcus couteii-like microbe became abundant, while Acinetobacter johnsonii, Macellibacteroides fermentans, and Sedimentibacter acidaminivorans-like microbe were found as major bacteria for MP biofilm communities exposed to organic rich condition. The results of this study suggest that the unique freshwater biofilm community could be formed on the MP surface.

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5현장 모니터링과 기초통계분석에 기반한 국내 하수처리장 미량오염물질 발생 및 거동 조사

저자 : 채성호 ( Sung Ho Chae ) , 임승지 ( Seung Ji Lim ) , 이지호 ( Jiho Lee ) , Seid Mingizem Gashaw , 이웅배 ( Woongbae Lee ) , 최상기 ( Sangki Choi ) , 이윤호 ( Yunho Lee ) , 이우림 ( Woorim Lee ) , 손희종 ( Heejong Son ) , 홍석원 ( Seok-won Hong )

발행기관 : 대한상하수도학회 간행물 : 상하수도학회지 36권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 107-119 (13 pages)

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The frequent detection and occurrence of micropollutants (MPs) in aquatic ecosystems has raised public health concerns worldwide. In this study, the behavior of 50 MPs was investigated in three different domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Furthermore, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the geographical and seasonal variation of MPs in the WWTPs. The results showed that the concentrations of 43 MPs ranged from less than 0.1 to 237.6 μg L-1, while other seven MPs including 17-ethynylestradiol, 17-estradiol, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, clofibric acid, simvastatin, and lovastatin were not detected in all WWTPs. Among the detected MPs, the pharmaceuticals such as metformin, acetaminophen, naproxen, and caffeine were prominent with maximum concentrations of 133.4, 237.6, 71.5, and 107.7 μg L-1, respectively. Most perfluorinated compounds and nitrosamines were found at trace levels of 1.2 to 55.3 ng L-1, while the concentration of corrosion inhibitors, preservatives (parabens), and endocrine disruptors ranged from less than 0.1 to 4310.8 ng L-1. Regardless of the type of biological treatment process such as MLE, A2O, and MBR, the majority of pharmaceuticals (except lincomycin, diclofenac, iopromide, and carbamazepine), parabens (except Methyl paraben), and endocrine disruptors were removed by more than 80%. However, the removal efficiencies of certain MPs such as atrazine, DEET, perfluorinated compounds (except PFHxA), nitrosamines, and corrosion inhibitors were relatively low or their concentration even increased after treatment. The results of statistical analysis reveal that there is no significant geographical difference in the removal efficacy of MPs, but there are temporal seasonal variations in all WWTPs.

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6활성탄 흡착공정에 의한 과불화화합물의 제거 및 활성탄 자동재생 성능 평가

저자 : 정진호 ( Jinho Jung ) , 이상훈 ( Sanghoon Lee ) , 윤원상 ( Wonsang Yun ) , 최대희 ( Daehee Choi ) , 정진영 ( Jinyoung Jung ) , 한인섭 ( Ihnsup Han )

발행기관 : 대한상하수도학회 간행물 : 상하수도학회지 36권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 121-134 (14 pages)

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In this study, the removal efficiency of PFCs(perfluorinated compounds) in the GAC(granule activated carbon) process based on the superheated steam automatic regeneration system was investigated in laboratory scale and pilot-scale reactor. Among PFCs, PFHxS(perfluorohexyl sulfonate) was most effectively removed. The removal efficiency of PFCs was found to be closely related to the EBCT, and the removal efficiencies of PFOA(perfluorooctanoic acid), PFOS(perfluorooctyl sulfonate), and PFHxS were 43.7, 75, and 100%, respectively, under the condition of EBCT of 6 min. Afterward, PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS exhibited the earlier breakthrough time in the order. After that, GAC was regenerated, and the removal efficiency of the PFCs before and after regeneration was compared. As a result, it was shown that the PFCs removal efficiency in the regenerated GAC process were higher, and that of PFOA was improved to 75%. The findings of this study indicate the feasibility of the superheated steam automatic regeneration system for the stable removal of the PFCs, and it was verified that this technology can be applied stably enough even in field conditions.

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In general, trans-membrane pressure (TMP), flux, filtration resistance are used as indicators to evaluate the degree of fouling in MBR. However, they have limitations in determining the level of EPS generation, which is known as an important factor of fouling. Therefore, a new evaluation method is required to monitor the amount of EPS generation. In this study, the applicability of capillary suction time (CST), which is used to measure the dewaterability of sludge, was evaluated as an indirect fouling evaluation index. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of EPS on CST, and to determine whether EPS has high similarity with representative fouling evaluation indicators and CST, and quantitatively compared them. As a result, the correlation coefficient between CST and bEPS was 0.7988, which was higher than the correlation coefficient between filtration resistance and bEPS. Since bEPS is a major factor inducing fouling by affecting the formation of the cake layer, it was evaluated that CST, which has a high correlation with bEPS, is suitable to represent EPS. In addition, it was evaluated that the correlation coefficient between filtration resistance and CST was high as 0.7187, which could be used as a fouling evaluation index.

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4MMBR에서 탄소원 종류 및 질소 농도가 S. quadricauda의 P-EPS 및 Chl-a 생성에 미치는 영향

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발행기관 : 대한상하수도학회 간행물 : 상하수도학회지 35권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 405-415 (11 pages)

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MMBR system has been suggested as a promising system to resolve harvesting problems induced from low settling efficiency of microalgae. And recently, a lot of research on reducing fouling at the MMBR system has investigated focused on EPS in many cases. EPS of microalgae mainly consists of polysaccharides and protein components, and is produced through photosynthesis and nitrogen-carbon metabolic pathways. Especially, P-EPS is one of major compounds which occur membrane fouling phenomenon, as its hydrophobic protein components cause floc formation and cake layer accumulation. And it is already known that almost every microalgae can metabolize P-EPS or Chl-a when nitrogen sources as a substrate is insufficient or exhausted situation. With the above backgrounds, uptake rates of P-EPS or Chl-a by Scenedesmus quadricauda according to the type of carbon source and nitrogen concentration were evaluated in order to verify correlation between carbon source vs P-EPS production, and indeed Scenedesmus quadricauda uses P-EPS or Chl-a when the amounts of nitrogen sourc es in the feed is not satisfied. As a result, it was shown that P-EPS and Chl-a production were increased proportional to nitrogen concentration under organic carbon condition. And especially, the amo unts of P-EPS and Chl-a in the cell were diminished with the nitrogen source becomes insufficient or exhausted. Because P-EPS accelerates fouling at the MMBR system, P-EPS degradation by Scenedesmus quadricauda in order to get nitrogen source may contribute to reducing fouling. About a affects of N-consumed Chl-a to the MMBR fouling, more survey is needed. On the contrary, considering the purpose of MMBR system of this study, i.e. harvesting useful high value microalgae efficiently feeding adequate industrial process wastewater, it seems like difficult to maintain satisfied metabolic activity and to harvest with high yield rate using nitrogen-poor MMBR feed.

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This study investgates Korean water technology through the water market perspective and analyses its competitiveness. Based on the water technology classification, water technology competitiveness is analysed through the technological influence index and market dominance index which are based on the extracted water technology patents from the US, Europe, Korea, and Japan for the last decade. As a result, the Korean water technology patents were lack in influence and competitiveness in global market considering the large volume of patents. There are two most tech-influential industries in Korea; manufacturing industry consisting pipes, sterilization, disinfection, and advanced water purification equipment, and construction industry including seawater desalination and water resource development. Due to the domestic usage of the patents, the Korean water technology patents scored low in global market PFS(Patent Family Size) index compared to their CPP(Cites Per Patent) index. The study is meaningful in a way that the analysis on Korean water technology competitiveness using water technology classification system and patent analysis was conducted based on the perspective of the global water market.

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8Cu(II)를 이용하여 표면개질된 활성탄의 인산염 제거효율 향상

저자 : 신정우 ( Jeongwoo Shin ) , 강서연 ( Seoyeon Kang ) , 안병렬 ( Byungryul An )

발행기관 : 대한상하수도학회 간행물 : 상하수도학회지 35권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 455-463 (9 pages)

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The adsorption process using GAC is one of the most secured methods to remove of phosphate from solution. This study was conducted by impregnating Cu(II) to GAC(GAC-Cu) to enhance phosphate adsorption for GAC. In the preparation of GAC-Cu, increasing the concentration of Cu(II) increased the phosphate uptake, confirming the effect of Cu(II) on phosphate uptake. A pH experiment was conducted at pH 4-8 to investigate the effect of the solution pH. Decrease of phosphate removal efficiency was found with increase of pH for both adsorbents, but the reduction rate of GAC-Cu slowed, indicating electrostatic interaction and coordinating bonding were simultaneously involved in phosphate removal. The adsorption was analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm to determine the maximum phosphate uptake(qm) and adsorption mechanism. According to correlation of determination(R2), Freundlich isotherm model showed a better fit than Langmuir isotherm model. Based on the negative values of qm, Langmuir adsorption constant(b), and the value of 1/n, phosphate adsorption was shown to be unfavorable and favorable for GAC and GAC-Cu, respectively. The attempt of the linearization of each isotherm obtained very poor R2. Batch kinetic tests verified that ~30% and ~90 phosphate adsorptions were completed within 1 h and 24 h, respectively. Pseudo second order(PSO) model showed more suitable than pseudo first order(PFO) because of higher R2. Regardless of type of kinetic model, GAC-Cu obtained higher constant of reaction(K) than GAC.

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9아연 이온화 장치에 의한 상수배관 내 스케일 및 녹 생성 억제효과 실증 연구

저자 : 염경택 ( Kyung-taek Yum ) , 최정욱 ( Jung-wook Choi ) , 양성봉 ( Sung-bong Yang ) , 심학섭 ( Hak-sup Shim ) , 유미선 ( Mee-seon Yu )

발행기관 : 대한상하수도학회 간행물 : 상하수도학회지 35권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 465-476 (12 pages)

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Scale and rust generation in water pipes is a common phenomenon when cast iron water pipes have been used for a long time. A physical water treatment device is known among various means for suppressing rust in a water pipe, and a zinc ionization device for putting zinc metal into a pipe and emitting the zinc cation into water is one of such devices. This research measured the amount of zinc ion generated, which is known to exhibit an effect of inhibiting rust and scale generation in a pipe, and examined the scale and rust inhibition effect of the ionization device installed for ground or building water supply. In the case of distilled water, the concentration of zinc ion increased by circulating water in the ionization device several times, and it was verified to be hundreds of μg/L, and in the case of discharging ground or tap water, it was verified to be tens of μg/L. In addition, a verification pipe was installed to confirm the change inside the pipe before and after installation of the zinc ionization device, and the internal condition of the pipe was observed 3 months to several years after installation. It was confirmed that the corrosion area of the surface of the pipe was no longer increased by installing a corrosion inhibitor, and if the pipe was already filled with corrosion products, the amount of corrosion products gradually decreased every year after installation. The phenomenon of fewer corrosion products could be interpreted as expanding the space in the pipe due to the corrosion product as Fe2O3 adhered to the inner surface of the pipe and turned into a smaller black Fe3O4. In addition, we found that scale such as CaCO3 together in the corrosion by-products gradually decreased with the attachment of the ionization device.

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10최근(2008-2019년) 하수도통계 자료 분석 기반 국내 하수재이용량 예측

저자 : 마정혁 ( Jeong-hyeok Ma ) , 정성필 ( Seongpil Jeong )

발행기관 : 대한상하수도학회 간행물 : 상하수도학회지 35권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 477-487 (11 pages)

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Due to the global climate change, Korean peninsula is has been experiencing flooding and drought severely. It is hard difficult to manage water resources sustainably, because due to intensive precipitation in short periods and severe drought has increased in Korea. Reused water from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) could be a sustainable and an alternative water source near the urban areas. In order to understand the patterns of water reuse in Korea, annual water reuses data according to the times and regional governments were investigated from 2008 to 2019. The reused water from WWTP in Korea has been mainly used for river maintenance flow and industrial use, while agricultural use of water reuse has decreased with time. Metropolitan cities in Korea such as Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Ulsan, and Incheon have been mainly used reused reusing water for river maintenance flow. Industrial water reuse has been limitedly applied recently for the planned industrial districts in Pohang, Gumi, Paju, and Asan. By using the collected annual water reuse data from the domestic sewerage statistics of sewerage, the optimistic and pessimistic future estimations of for future annual water reuse were suggested from 2020 to 2040 on a five year interval for every five years.

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