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이중언어학회> 이중언어학> 중급 한국어 학습자 발화의 조사 연속 구성 연구

KCI등재

중급 한국어 학습자 발화의 조사 연속 구성 연구

A Study on Intermediate-Level Korean Language Learners’ Development of Combined Particles

이승연 ( Lee Seungyeon )
  • : 이중언어학회
  • : 이중언어학 85권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 12월
  • : 187-215(29pages)
이중언어학

DOI


목차

1. 서론
2. 연구의 배경
3. 연구 방법 및 절차
4. 분석 결과
5. 논의 및 결론
<참고문헌>

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초록 보기

This study investigates frequency and accuracy of the combined particles observed in the spoken data of intermediate Korean language learners. Comparing the results of the analysis with the previous study results on beginner-level learners’ data, we tried to discover the differences that occur according to the language proficiency level. Free conversation data were collected from 6 intermediate-level learners over 6 months and a spoken corpus was constructed. As a result of collecting and analyzing a total of 132,000 word-size data, the intermediate learners used 23 types of combined particles composition 138 times in total. Of these, 72 were grammatically correct and 66 were classified as errors, resulting in an error rate of about 48.5%. This is 12.7% higher than the beginner’s error rate (35.8%), indicating that the accuracy of the combined particles is very low at the intermediate level. In Korean particle combination, case-markers and particles cannot be used as precedents. However, it seems this rule is not well established in the intermediate level as can be found through the frequent errors such as ‘을/를 도, 은/는도, 이/가도’. We stress the need for comprehensive education on particles at an appropriate time within the curriculum so that errors in the composition of combined particles in the learner’s language would not be ‘fossilized’. Through this study, it was possible to illuminate the process of learners’ grammar acquisition and its development by observing the patterns of particle combination. (SahmYook University)

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-700-000962271

간행물정보

  • : 어문학분야  > 언어학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1229-1757
  • : 2713-9336
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1983-2022
  • : 1214


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86권0호(2022년 03월) 수록논문
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발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 86권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-25 (25 pages)

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This study aimed to propose the method of Korean literature education using the classical poem Jeongeupsa known to have originated from the Baekje era. To this end, the significance of the poem as a teaching material for Korean literature was reviewed. The contemporary interpretation for foreign learners was newly added through the review of the existing interpretation of Jeongeupsa in modern terms and background stories. Moreover, a linked activity that combines exploration of the Jeongeup area (North Jeolla Province) with “digital camera poems” and parodies was also presented. This would be an effective way for foreign learners to reinterpret and recreate the poem. In addition, the model of Korean literature education regarding Jeongeupsa was composed of seven stages, which could serve as a more practical help in the field of Korean language education. (Jeonbuk National University)

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2초급 한국어 학습자의 통사 복잡성 발달에 대한 종적 연구

저자 : 김효은 ( Kim Hyoeun ) , 심지연 ( Sim Jeeyun ) , 이선영 ( Lee Sunyoung ) , 최유진 ( Choi Yu-jin )

발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 86권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 27-55 (29 pages)

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This study analyzed syntactic complexity development in learners in the initial step of learning Korean longitudinally and examined the aspects and characteristics of their syntactic complexity development. Syntactic complexity is a language's structural complexity, and it can be investigated by converting the degree of complexity in the connection of sentences, phrases, or clauses into values. To analyze syntactic complexity development in learners' spoken language longitudinally, the research team used < Korean learners' longitudinal spoken language corpus > consisting of 85,620 phrases and 11,604 sentences from eight beginner-level Korean language learners' free conversation utterances collected through seven sessions for five months. Also, analysis was done by setting analysis units of spoken language syntactic complexity as words, phrases, clauses (coordinate & subordinate clauses), and AS-unit. According to the analysis results, as their learning proceeded, their syntactic complexity increased in general, but temporarily, the development was either delayed or set back, too. Also, in sentential extension, the use of subordinate clause had more influence on the learner's development of syntactic complexity than coordinate clause; however, individual difference existed in syntactic complexity development. Based on the findings, this study found implications about education for connective endings and the necessity to conduct research on personal variables regarding syntactic complexity development and follow-up research on syntactic complexity of Korean learner's spoken language. Furthermore, this study verified the point that AS-unit can be used as a analysis unit to determine syntactic complexity of learner's spoken language. (Korea University·Korea University·The Cyber University of Korea·Korea University)

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3한 중 외교 브리핑 담화에 반영된 '개입' 연구

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발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 86권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 57-90 (34 pages)

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This study aims to reveal commonalities and differences by contrasting Engagement in the Chinese and Korean diplomatic briefing discourse. To this end, 100 piece(Korean 50, Chinese 50) diplomatic briefing discourses was selected and then we extracted the Engagement based on the Appraisal Theory. As a result, the inter-textual resources was used the most in all diplomatic discourses between Korean and Chinese. This shows that all diplomatic discourses between Korean and Chinese place importance on communicating facts. This seems related to the main function of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' regular briefing is to convey the facts. Also, it can be said that it is characteristic that the entertain is used a lot in Korean diplomatic discourse, whereas pronounce is used a lot in Chinese diplomatic discourse. This shows that the Korean diplomatic discourse places importance on interaction with the audience, and the Chinese diplomatic discourse values the expression of its own position. This seems to be related to the roles of spokespersons for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China and Korea, the foreign policies of the two countries, and the customs of expression in Korean and Chinese. (Jilin University)

KCI등재

4쓰기 활동에서 나타나는 자가수정 인지 오류: 스페인 한국어 학습자의 음소오류

저자 : 박목원 ( Morgan Mok-won Park )

발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 86권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 91-113 (23 pages)

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본 연구는 스페인 초급 한국어 학습자들의 쓰기 활동 시 자가수정(self-correction)의 효용성을 연구하였다. 대상은 대학에서 한국어를 전공하는 23명의 스페인 학생들이다. 자료는 강사가 준비한 스페인어-한국어 역번역문이며, 교실수업에서 학습자들에게 간접적 피드백을 제공하고 해당오류를 자가수정하게 하여 그 결과를 조사 분석하였다. 학습자들은 수업시간 내 교사가 동료 학습자들에게 제공하는 피드백을 관찰하고 동료의 본보기 텍스트(model text)를 바탕으로 자신의 오류를 직접 수정하였다. 학습자들은 자가수정 과정에서 동료 및 교사에게 질문하거나 상의할 수 있으며, 교과서, 수업자료, 노트필기, 사전 등을 참고했다. 분석 결과 간접 피드백 및 자가수정 이후에도 지속적으로 발견된 오류는 철자오류(53.6%), 조사사용(19.9%), 동사활용(17.1%), 어휘선택 (9.2%)으로 분류할 수 있었다. 학습자들의 자가 수정되지 않은 오류의 절반 이상은 철자오류로 나타났으며, 자음오류(31.8%)가 모음오류(21.8%)보다 많았다. 이는 스페인 학습자들의 모어 간섭으로 인한 한국어 음소 인식 문제인 것으로 보인다. (살라망카 대학교)


This study investigated the effectiveness of self-correction in writing of Spanish L1 students of Korean as a Foreign Language. The subjects were 23 Spanish students majoring in Korean in university. The writing activities consisted of Spanish-Korean back translation prepared by the teacher. L2 learners self-corrected their errors while indirect feedback was provided in the classroom and then uncorrected errors were examined; L2 students observed the feedback provided by the teacher to their fellow learners during class time and corrected their own errors based on the model texts of their peers. During the self-correction process, students could ask questions or discuss with their peers and the teacher and referred to textbooks, class materials, note taking, and dictionaries. The results showed that the learners' uncorrected errors could be classified into orthographic errors (53.6%), particle errors (19.9%), conjugation errors (17.1%), and lexical errors (9.2%). More than half of the errors that were not self-corrected were grapho-phonological errors: consonant errors (31.8%) were more frequent than vowel errors (21.8%). It is largely attributable to Spanish L1 learner's difficulty with noticing certain Korean phonemes due to the interference of their mother tongue. (University of Salamanca)

KCI등재

5예비 한국어 교사를 위한 상호문화 인식 교육 사례 연구 -고정관념 성찰, 자문화 낯설게 보기를 중심으로-

저자 : 박소연 ( Park Soyeon )

발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 86권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 115-143 (29 pages)

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This study focused on intercultural awareness as part of enhancing intercultural competence to improve intercultural communication competence. So we theoretically considered critical cultural awareness and cultural self-consciousness through stereotypes and unfamiliarity with self-culture. And by applying and analyzing these to intercultural teacher education, practical and experiential intercultural awareness teacher education methods were sought. Therefore, the background and causes of problems of cultural bias such as stereotypes were examined, and as a way to overcome this, the unfamiliar view of self-culture was reviewed and applied to actual classes experientially to have an opportunity for introspection. Furthermore, it was recognized that it is not an easy process to break out of the self-culture frame, and reviewed that continuous introspection and training process are necessary to minimize this. (Honam University)

KCI등재

6한국어 '-ㄴ 것이다' 구문과 중국어 '是……的' 구문의 대조 연구

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발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 86권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 145-170 (26 pages)

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The study analyzes the similarities and differences between two constructions, '-eun keosita' in Korean and 'shì……de' in Chinese, to shed light on the corresponding relationship between these two constructions. The construction '-eun keosita' can be divided into three types. Type 1 is composed by 'keos' which has the function of reference and 'ita' which marks the identity relation. Type 2 is composed by the 'keos' complement clause and the copula 'ita'. Type 3 of '-eun keosita' is used as an idiomatic expression, which has the modality meaning of “emphasizing the established facts”. The construction 'shì… …de' also can be divided into three types: judgment construction, emphasis construction and affirmative construction. In the case of the judgment construction, 'shì' is a copula and 'de' is a structural auxiliary. In the cases of the emphasis construction and the affirmative construction, 'shì' is a modal adverb and 'de' is a modal particle. When 'shì……de' is deleted, the emphasis construction and the affirmative construction can be distinguished according to whether the meaning of the perfect is maintained. When comparing the construction of '-eun keosita' and 'shì……de', it has been found that Type 1 of '-eun keosita' corresponds with the judgment construction of 'shì……de'. But when the subject is a person, Type 1 of '-eun keosita' does not correspond with the judgment construction of 'shì…… de'. In addition, Type 2 of '-eun keosita' does not correspond with the construction of 'shì……de'. Type 3 corresponds with the affirmative construction of 'shì…… de', and at the same time, it also corresponds with the emphasis construction of 'shì……de' in particular context. When 'shì……de' is used as the meaning of affirmative, it can be used in suppositional contents. But this meaning contradicts with type 3 of '-eun keosita', so they can not replace each other in this case. (Seoul National University)

KCI등재

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저자 : 이용상 ( Lee Yongsang ) , 신동광 ( Shin Dongkwang ) , 김현정 ( Kim Hyunjung )

발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 86권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 171-191 (21 pages)

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The present study aimed at exploring the feasibility of the automated scoring in a writing test of Korean language. To this end, a scoring model was constructed and score prediction was performed by utilizing machine learning based on writing responses and their scoring data from the pesudo-test of Sejong Korean language Assessment (SKA). Random Forest, one of the representative supervised learning algorithms, was used for this machine learning, and the performance of the scoring model was validated in terms of 'Accuracy,' 'Precision,' 'Recall,' 'F1,' and 'Kappa' values. As a result, the performance of the scoring model in the two scoring domains of 'language use' and 'content' was good even though the data size for machine learning in this study was very small and the scoring rubric was not customized for the SKA writing test items. This results showed very positive implications for applying an automated scoring to the SKA writing test. In particular, the correlation between scores predicted by the automated scoring model and given by the human rater was smaller than that between scores by two human raters, however, the difference of the two groups was just about .10, which might be overcome by using a larger amount of data for machine learning and customizing automated scoring features. (Inha University, Gwangju University of Education, King Sejong Institute Foundation)

KCI등재

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발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 86권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 193-223 (31 pages)

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This study aims to analyze the format of video lecture materials for Korean language learners in the view of Semiotics. Two materials from the King Sejong Institute Foundation, a public institution, were selected, and analysis standards were prepared employing Saussure's structural semiotics, and NVivo 12 Plus was used as an analysis tool. As a result, either the external and internal domains were not clearly separated, or heterogeneity was found in the internal information to which the same rule should be applied, thus violating the 'binary opposition'. In addition, the variability of 'value' was reported as a specific meaning was expressed by several signs or a single sign was used in several meanings. These results implied that the format of video lectures was less systematic than that of printed textbooks. For educational application, some application measures for the reported problems were proposed. An example of application of 'binary opposition' in terms of hierarchical arrangement or design of information, and another one of using a 'sign' in which the signifier, i.e. the language information, was properly combined with the signified such as font, color, line or figure design, and icon in consideration of the relationship between 'paradigmes', were presented. (Hongik University)

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발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 86권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 225-255 (31 pages)

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This study aims at identifying differences between native speakers and Korean learners in the usage patterns of passive voice and analyzing Korean learner's asymmetrical and functional errors of passive forms. Passive voice in Korean is grammatically important research field, and in practice, many Korean learners have difficulties acquiring it and commonly make errors in it. Current passive voice education for foreign learners, however, mainly focuses on the transformation of active forms into its passive forms and the irregularity of passive verbs that combine with passive suffix such as '-i, hi, ri, gi'. Therefore, it does not cover the asymmetrical characteristics according to its semantic classes of polysemous verbs and its functional aspects. As a result, it is overlooked that Korean learners tend to simply memorize passive forms as its active pairs as a vocabulary, resulting in limited usage of specific passive expressions or semantic and functional errors. Firstly, this study compares the actual usage patterns between native speakers and Korean learners focusing on the meaning of verbs and classifies verbs into three groups according each group's characteristics, and presents implications. Also, this study analyzes learner's usage patterns and errors in terms of asymmetrical characteristics of passive voice and atypical passive function. It is expected the study can be used as a material for enhancing the understanding of Korean learners in passive voices by focusing on its meaning and function. (Graduate School of Kyung Hee Cyber University)

KCI등재

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저자 : 조청화 ( Zhao Qinghua )

발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 86권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 257-291 (35 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the complexity and accuracy developments of Korean in three Chinese immigrant youths based on the Dynamic System Theory. The analysis of three participants showed different developmental trends and nonlinearities of development and regression in syntactic complexity, lexical complexity, and accuracy.
Furthermore, the educational characteristics of each student were discussed along with the changes in complexity and accuracy. The immigrant youths who have been involved in the Korean language classes utilized various and stable Korean phrases and sentences, while their lexical varieties were somewhat limited. On the other hand, the youths who have only attended basic classes tended to have limited complexity in their Korean phrases and sentences. Moreover, extracurricular activities and Korean friends were shown to be important factors affecting their Korean abilities. According to the study, youths who have participated more in extracurricular activities or kept interactions with Korean friends demonstrated better diversities in vocabulary. This result implies that it is necessary to continue Korean education through extracurricular programs, like Korean preparatory classes, for immigrant youths.
The Results of this study shed light on Korean language education for immigrant youths, on which there has been little study, by examining the influential factors and the aspects of Korean language education in immigrant youths using qualitative methods. (Seoul National University)

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발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 85권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-28 (28 pages)

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In modern Mongolian, the imperative mood is conveyed through what are sometimes called imperative optative terminating suffixes which are formed by connecting various types of personal terminating suffixes to the predicate verb. In Korean, in contrast, the imperative mood is formed by connecting several different types of imperative terminating suffixes to predicate verbs, and each is determined according to the Korean hearer honorific system. Both languages thus employ similar methods in the imperative mood by using terminating suffixes at the end of predicate verbs. Commands and strongly directive imperative sentences normally use second person endings of “ø,” “-аарай⁴,” “-аач⁴,” and “-гтун².” The personal terminating suffix of a Mongolian imperative mood indicates the person first, second, or third through its personal terminating suffixes, thus expressing very clearly which person is to receive the command. This differs from the Korean in that a Korean imperative terminating suffix itself reveals a variety of possible social distances based on the Korean system of honorifics. Korean commonly omits the subject of the command, which is the second person listener, while Mongolian will more often mention the subject's title. Korean imperatives can therefore be classified according to its system of honorifics contained within the imperative terminating suffixes, whereas Mongolian is relatively weak in this aspect. For this reason, Mongolian learners of Korean have difficulty in correctly understanding and gaining proficiency in imperative terminating suffixes at the varying honorific levels which reveal the relationship between the speaker and listener. As a solution to the problem, this study presents Mongolian imperative sentences that can be taught comparatively with Korean imperative sentences. (Dankook University)

KCI등재

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발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 85권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 29-51 (23 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to develop a digital reading textbook for advanced Korean learners. While research on textbooks for Korean language learners is being carried out steadily, most of the textbooks were published for intermediate and advanced levels published are integrated textbooks mainly used by language education institutes, textbooks for academic learners, and test books for preparing for TOPIK(Test of Proficiency in Korean) etc. However, there is a shortage of advanced textbooks for general purpose learners who are constantly learning Korean with interest in the Korean language and Korean culture. In particular, development of digital textbooks for the digital generation who are familiar with digital devices has not achieved much in terms of research achievements compared to the necessity. Digital textbooks are equipped with various learning materials, which further arouse learners' interest, enable them to learn self-directedly, and facilitate the supply and demand of textbooks overseas. In this study, the development of reading materials containing various topics was suggested to improve learners' reading ability. In particular, considering the characteristics of learners of the digital generation, I intend to develop digital textbooks that are easy to access even abroad. The content was based on a travel destination that learners may be interested in, and a theme-based textbook was developed by connecting it with reading texts on unfamiliar topics. In addition, reading strategies are included in the textbook to improve the reading skills of learners by learning reading strategies. In this study, a digital textbook was developed using a reading strategy, and it is expected that the discussion on digital textbooks will become more active in the future. (Seoul National University)

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3필리핀 중등학교 한국어 교재 개발 방향 -필리핀 중등학교 현지인 한국어 교사 인식을 중심으로-

저자 : 김성희 ( Kim Sunghee )

발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 85권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 53-80 (28 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to understand teachers' perceptions on developing Korean language education textbook for secondary school students in the Philippine SPFL Korean program. The results are as follows. 1) Teachers recognized the importance of each Korean teaching area in the order of grammar, speaking, reading, writing, and listening. It was recognized that teaching and learning skills should be improved in the order of speaking, reading, grammar, listening, and writing. Teachers recognized the need for in-depth learning in the order of grammar, speaking, writing, listening, and reading; 2) Currently, “Sejong Korean 1-4” is used for secondary school textbooks by grade 7-10. Korean university languages' center textbooks and self-made online videos are also used. Teachers recognized that it was essential to develop localized textbooks for secondary school students; 3) Teachers demanded 'development of easier, localized textbooks considering the youth learning context'. It called for the integration of curriculum and textbooks, the development of localized textbooks, the development of teacher guidance books, consideration of youth learners, and the development of advanced textbooks. (Inha University)

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4한국어 입문 단계 교육 자모 제시 방법 연구 -한글의 형태적 특징을 중심으로-

저자 : 김참이 ( Kim Charmyee )

발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 85권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 81-104 (24 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to present an effective Hangeul teaching method at the introductory stage of Korean language education. To this end, this study attempted to propose an educational plan to expand the number of Hangeul letters from 17(8 vowels and 9 consonants) to 40 characters by adding or combining strokes on basic characters which were selected by the researcher. To increase the readability of educational materials in the teaching and learning process, each step was presented in a table so that learners could logically understand the concept of expanding letters. The educational effect was statistically verified by conducting the 'Hangeul summer course' for four weeks for two different classes composed of Italian students. As a result, it was confirmed that the method presented in this study could improve the understanding of Hangeul by early Korean learners, and it was particularly effective in the 'reading' part. However, the fact that the experiment was held online due to the COVID-19 situation and the subject with prior Hangeul learning experience was mixed in the randomly recruited sample group remains a limitation of this study. (Chonnam National University)

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5세종학당의 한국어 초급 콘텐츠 재정비 및 활용 방안 연구 -온라인 세종학당 '사이버 한국어 초급'과 누리-세종학당 한국어 초급 콘텐츠를 중심으로-

저자 : 노채환 ( Roh Chaehwan ) , 박기선 ( Park Keeseon ) , 안유진 ( An Yujin )

발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 85권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 105-129 (25 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to prepare contents reorganization plan and linkage utilization plan by analyzing the 'Cyber Korean Beginner' of the online King Sejong Institute developed in 2019 and the previously developed contents of Nuri-King Sejong Institute. To this end, reorganization of contents plan was established, and the contents were reviewed by selecting target contents based on the learners demand. Afterwards, meta-analysis and tagging of the 160 contents was conducted. Based on this analysis, it was proposed to find a way to maximize the linkage between contents and information sharing through micro-contentization, segmentation, re-editing, and strengthening of search functions. In addition, a method for linking and utilizing online contents for beginners through contents reorganization was proposed. (Cyber Hankuk University of Foreign Studies·Cyber Hankuk University of Foreign Studies·University of Niigata Prefecture)

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6공손 표현에 대한 중국인 한국어 학습자와 한국어 모어 화자의 인식 차이 비교 연구 -인스턴트 메신저 대화를 중심으로-

저자 : Niu Lei , 권순희 ( Kwon Soonhee )

발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 85권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 131-165 (35 pages)

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This study analyzed the expression patterns of polite expressions used by advanced Chinese learners of Korean when sending instant messengers. In addition, this study investigated the responses of Chinese Korean learners and native Korean speakers to the polite expression of messengers used by Chinese learners. Chinese Korean learners showed a high percentage of polite expressions through the use of honorific endings in instant messengers. In particular, the usage patterns of 'Biumnida(ㅂ니다)', 'Biumnigga(ㅂ니까)' accounted for 55.2% of the total 'honorable endings'. I was found that Chinese learners use respectful endings of honorific words the most when expressing politeness. In particular, 'Hapshoche(합쇼체)', which is the highest grade, was often used.
Instant messages sent by 10 Chinese graduate students to professors and seniors from September 2019 to March 2021 were analyzed. In order to understand the difference in politeness in expression of politeness between Chinese and Koreans, a 5-point scale perception survey was conducted on instant messages sent by Chinese learners to 30 Chinese and Koreans each. The average politeness scores of the two groups were compared and analyzed, and the survey results were examined focusing on low scores, high scores, and large differences in scores among them. Looking at the overall score, Koreans showed a wider range of recognition scores for politeness than Chinese.
It was found that the Chinese gave a generous score to politeness compared to the Koreans. This means that even if Chinese people recognize and use certain expressions as polite expressions, Koreans can underestimate politeness. If you look at the expressions that Koreans consider to be low in politeness, most of the cases in which Chinese learners speak only their own business and take other people's circumstances into account cannot be revealed in the message. These expressions may make the other person feel rude. In general, some think that native speakers lack politeness due to grammatical errors, but more importantly, it is due to the emotional attitude that Chinese learners contain in their messages. Through this, it can be interpreted that the criteria for judging Chinese and Korean politeness are different. In the case of most Chinese learners, they express their politeness centering on grammar. From the collected instant messages sent by Chinese learners, it can be seen that most Chinese learners mainly use 'Hapshoche (합쇼체)' when talking with professors. On the other hand, native Korean speakers do not simply consider grammatical factors regarding politeness through the results of recognition of the politeness level of native Korean speakers. There is a tendency to think that pragmatic elements such as feelings and emotions implied in the expression are more important than grammatical content. For this reason, there is a difference in the perception of politeness between advanced Chinese learners and native Korean speakers. (Ewha Womans University)

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7한국어 교사의 쓰기 채점 방식이 쓰기 평가에 미치는 영향

저자 : 신희랑 ( Shin Heerang ) , 원미진 ( Won Mijin )

발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 85권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 167-186 (20 pages)

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This study focuses on how Korean teachers' writing grading methods affect writing scores for advanced learners. In addition, we tried to examine the correlation between the evaluation criteria of analytic grading and the comprehensive grading, and to find out which sub-criteria has the greatest relevance among them. Lastly, it was examined whether the difference in experience of teaching Korean and the difference in their experience of grading TOPIK are factors that affect the writing scoring. To this end, 30 skilled Korean teachers who teach Korean at Korean language institutions in University with different backgrounds, including experience teaching Korean, advanced Korean learners' education experience, and experience of grading TOPIK, grade advanced learner's writing in comprehensive and analytic way. The results are as follows: First, raters differed in their writing scores according to the grading method, but they give more strict scores for analytical grading than comprehensive grading. Second, all five sub-criteria of analytic grading had high correlation with comprehensive grading. Lastly, the difference between the raters' experience of teaching Korean and experience of grading TOPIK did not affect the analytic grading, but it was confirmed that the experience of grading TOPIK affected the Comprehensive grading. (Yonsei University)

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8중급 한국어 학습자 발화의 조사 연속 구성 연구

저자 : 이승연 ( Lee Seungyeon )

발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 85권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 187-215 (29 pages)

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This study investigates frequency and accuracy of the combined particles observed in the spoken data of intermediate Korean language learners. Comparing the results of the analysis with the previous study results on beginner-level learners' data, we tried to discover the differences that occur according to the language proficiency level. Free conversation data were collected from 6 intermediate-level learners over 6 months and a spoken corpus was constructed. As a result of collecting and analyzing a total of 132,000 word-size data, the intermediate learners used 23 types of combined particles composition 138 times in total. Of these, 72 were grammatically correct and 66 were classified as errors, resulting in an error rate of about 48.5%. This is 12.7% higher than the beginner's error rate (35.8%), indicating that the accuracy of the combined particles is very low at the intermediate level. In Korean particle combination, case-markers and particles cannot be used as precedents. However, it seems this rule is not well established in the intermediate level as can be found through the frequent errors such as '을/를 도, 은/는도, 이/가도'. We stress the need for comprehensive education on particles at an appropriate time within the curriculum so that errors in the composition of combined particles in the learner's language would not be 'fossilized'. Through this study, it was possible to illuminate the process of learners' grammar acquisition and its development by observing the patterns of particle combination. (SahmYook University)

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9자기결정성 이론에 기반한 한국어 학습자의 학문적 학습 동기 항목의 척도 개발 및 타당화 연구

저자 : 이주미 ( Lee Ju-mi )

발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 85권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 217-246 (30 pages)

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The purpose of this paper is to develop items to measure the academic learning motivation of Korean learners studying at university and to verify the validity of them based on the self-determination theory, To this end, we analyzed AMTB, SRQ-A, SMS, and KASRQ, which are learning motivation measurement tools developed based on the self-determination theory, and extracted measurement items by considering the learning situational factors of foreign Korean learners. The extracted items were verified for validity according to the consensus of the expert panel. In most cases, the validity process was carried out in 2 rounds, but the external regulation item had a low alpha value in the reliability analysis of the 2nd result, so 3rd verification was additionally performed through an interview with the expert panel. Each item validated in this way was classified into items with a Cronbach's-α value of 0.7 or higher through reliability analysis, and as a result, 56 items were selected. Cronbach's-α for the 56 items classified with measurement tools was 0.887, indicating an excellent level of reliability and high internal consistency as measurement tools. (Ajou University)

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10말뭉치를 활용한 '-으러', '-으려고'의 사용 양상 분석 연구 -중국인 학습자를 중심으로-

저자 : 정미 ( Zheng Mei )

발행기관 : 이중언어학회 간행물 : 이중언어학 85권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 247-282 (36 pages)

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This study shows the necessity of an effective teaching method that can help Chinese learners to communicate precisely in Korean, to avoid them using'-eureo(-으러)', '-euryeogo(-으려고)' incorrectly.
To achieve that, the differences between the usage of '-eureo(-으러)', '-euryeogo(-으려고)' by Korean native speakers and the errors made by Chinese learners are analysed in this study, based on the Korean corpus released by National Institute of Korean Language. The aspects that have to be considered to make the teaching method are discussed based on the result.
The error analysis results of Chinese learners are as follows. Firstly, it is found that after showing students the grammar item, focusing on the morphological characteristics, reinforced input of various conjugation of verbs and meaningful practices are needed. Secondly, syntactic errors of using '-eureo(-으러)', '-euryeogo(-으려고)' are frequently found. For '-eureo(-으러)', errors of violating grammatical restriction of preceding or following clauses are observed, interference from native language is also found. For '-euryeogo(-으려고)', errors of preceding clause restrictions and sentence type restrictions are found. Student also find it difficult to understand the usage of '-euryeogo(-으려고)' in expressing purposes. In this study, the way of how grammatical restrictions of '-eureo(-으러)', '-euryeogo(-으려고)' is presented in textbooks are analysed in terms of educational purpose. Educational materials for Chinese learners should include grammatical restrictions of preceding or following clauses for '-eureo(-으러)', preceding clause restrictions and sentence type restrictions for '-euryeogo(-으려고)' respectively.
This study is meaningful in terms of describing an effective teaching method of '-eureo(-으러)', '-euryeogo(-으려고)' for Chinese learners at beginner level in morphological, semantical, syntactical, pragmatical aspects. (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies)

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