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한국운동생리학회> 운동과학> 비만 노쇠와 복합 운동

KCI등재SCOUPUS

비만 노쇠와 복합 운동

Obese Frailty and Combined Exercise

이해성 ( Hae Sung Lee ) , 김종희 ( Jong-hee Kim )
  • : 한국운동생리학회
  • : 운동과학 30권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 11월
  • : 419-431(13pages)
운동과학

DOI


목차

서 론
연구 방법
본 론
결 론
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
ORCID
REFERENCES

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PURPOSE: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that impairs the health and quality of life of older adults. While unintended weight loss is known to be a primary risk factor for frailty, obesity has also been closely associated with frailty. Combined exercise is thought to be an effective way of resolving obesity and frailty, but studies demonstrating the effect of combined exercise on obese frailty are lacking. In this review, we seek to understand the relevant mechanisms by exploring prior studies on obese frailty, and provide the implications of appropriate combined exercise interventions for obese frailty.
METHODS: To collect data for this study, we used academic search systems such as Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science. The keywords used for the search were a combination of words such as ’obesity’, ‘frailty’, ‘combined or multicomponent exercise’, and ‘older or elderly adults’.
RESULTS: The results from the 16 selected articles confirmed that combined exercise reduces body weight, percentage of body fat, and risk of falls. Moreover, it improves muscle strength, balance, and walking function of the obese frail population.
CONCLUSIONS: As we have confirmed the positive outcomes on the combined exercise for obese frail older adults, an optimal exercise program needs to be presented. Older adults with obesity are recommended to exercise at least 2-3 times a week during the initial period. Further, they should begin with low-intensity walking, full-body exercise, balance, and flexibility exercises, then gradually increase the exercise volume. Moreover, to facilitate the positive outcomes of physical training and to encourage autonomy and enjoyment of exercise among obese frail older adults, a novel method and an individualized scientific exercise program need to be developed.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-600-000983771

간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-1726
  • : 2384-0544
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2022
  • : 1087


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1휴먼헬스디지털테크놀로지 시대에서 운동과학의 역할

저자 : 이호성 ( Ho-seong Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-3 (3 pages)

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KCI등재 SCOPUS

2운동과학에서 Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methyl Butyrate 보충의 효과와 적용

저자 : 최은주 ( Eun-ju Choi )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 4-10 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: The effect of hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on leucine is a major area of interest in exercise science. The present review aimed to investigate the various effects of HMB supplementation and provide guidelines for its practical use.
METHODS: This review collected and analyzed previous studies on HMB supplementation from online databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Wiley Online Library.
RESULTS: Although studies suggest different results, this review found that HMB supplementation before or after exercise could have positive effects on body composition (muscle mass), exercise performance (strength and power, endurance), and recovery after muscle damage (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase). In particular, HMB supplementation had a significant effect on resistance exercise, and in general, a daily dose of 3 g is recommended. However, the effects of combined HMB and creatine supplementation remain unclear.
CONCLUSIONS: HMB can be a useful and effective supplement for athletes with various purposes and for ordinary people who regularly exercise. Further research should investigate several limitations of HMB supplementation, as suggested in previous studies.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

3Does Taekwondo Poomsae Training Impact on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Blood Composition in Children and Adolescents? A Systematic Review

저자 : Ye Lei , Hyung-pil Jun

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 11-25 (15 pages)

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PURPOSE: Numerous studies claim that Taekwondo can effectively help obese children improve their physical fitness. In addition, Taekwondo might help prevent lifestyle diseases and metabolic syndrome caused by obesity. However, studies and reviews on the effectiveness of Taekwondo Poomsae are very few compared to those on Taekwondo Kyorugi. Based on previous reviews, this study aims to clarify the effect of Taekwondo Poomsae training on improving body composition, physical fitness, and blood composition of children and adolescents of different groups. Furthermore, the applicability of Taekwondo Poomsae training is to be determined.
METHODS: Two-hundred and two studies were searched via Korea electronic databases RISS, KISS, and DBPIA from March 1 to 3, 2021, and 22 of these were included in this review.
RESULTS: Our review confirms that Taekwondo Poomsae is effective in improving the physical condition of developing children and adolescents. However, we cannot assert that this sport is also an effective exercise therapy for special youth groups, such as those who are overweight, obese, or have a metabolic growth or development syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that sports implementers, Taekwando experts, coaches, and other sport professionals provide more Taekwondo Poomsae training programs suitable for physical and physiotherapeutic exercises for different ages and groups.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

4Effects of Resistance Training and/or Protein Supplementation on Usual Gait Speed in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

저자 : Jae Ho Park , Junghwan Oh , Sok Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 26-41 (16 pages)

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PURPOSE: The present review aimed to verify the meta-effects of resistance training (RT) or protein supplementation (PS) on usual gait speed (UGS) in postmenopausal women and the additive effect of RT and PS on UGS.
METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed/Medline and Web of Science (core collection) was performed from inception to December 31, 2021. Electronic search methods were used to identify 18 relevant randomized controlled trials. Meta-analyses of standardized mean difference (SMD) calculated using Hedges' g between RT and/or PS groups versus control groups were conducted using a random-effects model. The meta-effects are presented in a forest plot with a 95% confidence interval (CI).
RESULTS: The meta-analysis showed that RT significantly improved UGS (SMD, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.12-0.68; p=.006), while PS did not improve UGS (SMD, -0.17; 95% CI, -0.80 to 0.46; p=.601). A subgroup analysis indicated that there were significant increases in UGS after both 'RT-only intervention (SMD, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.59; p=.046)' and 'RT combined with balance training (BT) (SMD, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.17-1.13; p=.008)', while there was no significant increase in UGS after 'RT combined with power training (PT) (SMD, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.62 to 0.45; p=.765)'. There was no additive effect on UGS after RT combined with PS (SMD, -0.06; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.24; p=.699).
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that RT significantly improved UGS in postmenopausal women, and adding BT to RT further improved UGS. In addition, there was no significant improvement in UGS after PS in postmenopausal women, and no additive effect on UGS after RT combined with PS.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

5유방암 환자의 범이론적 모델 단계에 따른 신체활동량과 운동 제약

저자 : 박하늬 ( Ha Nui Park ) , 연수진 ( Su Jin Yeon ) , 민지희 ( Ji Hee Min ) , 이정민 ( Jeong Min Lee ) , 정안숙 ( Ansuk Jeong ) , 김지예 ( Jee Ye Kim ) , 박형석 ( Hyung Seok Park ) , 김승일 ( Seung Il Kim ) , 전용관 ( Justin Y. Jeon )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 42-52 (11 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the physical activity (PA) and exercise barriers of stages 0-3 breast cancer survivors according to the Transtheoretical Model (TTM).
METHODS: This cross-sectional study that included data from a total of 295 breast cancer survivors (Age: 52.2±8.2 years, BMI: 23.5±3.3 kg/㎡), at Shinchon Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea. The levels of PA and exercise barriers according to TTM were investigated using questionnaires.
RESULTS: PA participation increased in the TTM stage. The proportion of participants categorized according to TTM stage differed according to the time since cancer diagnosis: a higher proportion of participants were in pre-contemplation/contemplation within one year after diagnosis, while a higher proportion of participants were in maintenance after three three years since diagnosis. The five most prevalent exercise barriers were fatigue, low level of physical fitness, poor health, lack of interest, and tendency to be physically inactive. Fatigue is the most prevalent exercise barrier regardless of TTM stage, while most exercise barriers tend to reduce as participants are in the preparation/action and maintenance stages.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we confirmed that the participants in the maintenance stage were the most active, while the proportion of participants in the TTM stage varied according to time since diagnosis. Since PA and exercise barriers vary according to the TTM stage, the TTM stage may increase PA participation in breast cancer patients.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

6양측 및 편측 신장성 운동이 근손상 및 근생리학적 지표에 미치는 영향

저자 : 박종연 ( Jong-yeon Park ) , 이호성 ( Ho-seong Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 53-61 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effects of bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises on muscle damage and muscular physiological indices in healthy men.
METHODS: Using a randomized crossover design, nine adult males without musculoskeletal disorders were divided into a bilateral eccentric exercise group (BEG, n=9) and a unilateral eccentric exercise group (UEG, n=9). Bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises involved five sets of six repetitions of the rhythm metronome speed eccentric contraction 3 seconds at 110% one repetition maximum (1RM) using bilateral of BEG and the dominant and non-dominant of UEG separated by four weeks, respectively. Muscle damage (flexed and extended ROM, CIR, and VAS) and muscular physiological indices (muscle activity, muscle fatigue, and muscle tone) were measured before, immediately after (0 hour), 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours following bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises.
RESULTS: The flexed ROM, CIR, VAS, muscle activity, and muscle tone were significantly increased after both bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises (p<.05, respectively). Extended ROM and muscle activity significantly decreased after both bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises (p<.05, respectively). However, there was no significant interaction between side (S) and time and side (T×S).
CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that there was no difference in muscle damage and physiological indices after measuring and setting the 1RM muscle strength separated by bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

7위드 코로나 시대 8주간의 온라인 고강도 인터벌 트레이닝이 과체중 남성의 신체조성, 혈중지질, 사이토카인 및 삶의 질에 미치는 영향

저자 : 최동훈 ( Dong-hun Choi ) , 현아현 ( Ah-hyun Hyun )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 62-71 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), using real-time video application programs, on the body composition, blood lipids, cytokines, and quality of life (QOL) of over-weight men.
METHODS: The participants of this study were overweight men, aged < 45 years, who voluntarily applied to the online notices for this study. The men had a body mass index (BMI) >28. Twenty people participated in this experiment and were divided into two groups: a HIIT group (n=10) and a control group (n=10). Both groups were pre-examined to determine body composition, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and QOL indices and also underwent blood tests. The HIIT group underwent high-intensity interval training for 8 weeks (twice a week and 35 minutes per day) using real-time video programs. The main exercise program for HIIT was 20 seconds high-intensity (85-90% HRmax) exercise followed by 30 seconds exercise at a 60% HRmax.
RESULTS: Comparison and analysis of the effects observed before and after the exercise revealed that the real-time online HIIT group showed reduced body fat (F=5.690, p=.028). Results of the blood tests showed that the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL; F=24.584, p=.001) was increased, while the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL; F=24.963, p=.001), triglycerides (TG; F=7.295, p=.015;), and total cholesterol (TC; F=14.934, p=.001) levels were decreased. No significant effects were observed on the insulin and c-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Finally, the QOL test results showed that the total score of the HIIT group had increased (F=190.815, p=.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Online HIIT is a useful method that aids in reducing fat levels in obese men and improving their blood lipid profile and QOL during the COVID-19 pandemic.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

8Changes in Heart Rate, Muscle Temperature, Blood Lactate Concentration, Blood Pressure, and Fatigue Perception Following Jogging and Running: An Observational Study

저자 : Junhyeong Lim , Hyeongjun Park , Seunghee Lee , Jihong Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 72-79 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: To report the magnitude of changes in heart rate, muscle temperature, blood lactate concentration, blood pressure, and fatigue perception after treadmill jogging and running.
METHODS: Eleven healthy male adults (174±7 cm, 72±10 kg) visited the laboratory twice. After a 10-minute rest each visit, subjects performed a treadmill jog (maintaining a speed of 9 km/h at a 1% incline) or a treadmill run (initially 5 km/h at a 1% incline, belt speed, and incline increased by 1 km/h and 0.5% every minute; average speed of 9 km/h). Heart rate and muscle (gastrocnemius) temperature were recorded before, during, and after the treadmill jog/run. Blood lactate concentration, blood pressure, and fatigue perception were assessed before and after. The effect of the condition over time was analysed using parametric or nonparametric tests (p≤.05) with Cohen's d effect sizes.
RESULTS: There was a condition effect over time in heart rate (F1,30=22.16, p<.0001), blood lactate concentration (χ2=34.88, df=3, p<.0001), systolic blood pressure (F1,30=4.18, p=.05), and fatigue perception (F1,30=10.24, p=.003). Specifically, subjects who ran showed a higher heart rate (187 vs. 158 bpm, p<.0001, d=2.11), blood lactate concentration (11.4 vs. 3.8 mmol/L, p<.0001, d=3.39), systolic blood pressure (164 vs. 147 mmHg, p=.006, d=1.34), and fatigue perception (2.7 vs. 5.0 cm, p=.0005, d=1.46) than those who jogged. There was a time effect (F1,30=94.84, p<.0001) on muscle temperature, with a 1.5°C increase in muscle temperature after jogging/running (p<.0001, d=1.88).
CONCLUSIONS: While treadmill jogging and running induced a similar temperature increase in the gastrocnemius, running resulted in higher heart rate, blood lactate concentration, systolic blood pressure, and fatigue perception. These results can be used as a basis for planning warm-up protocols.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

9여성 노인의 낙상과 비낙상의 보행변인 비교 및 평지와 장애물 보행 중 보행속도에 따른 낙상여부의 비교위험도

저자 : 강현주 ( Hyun-joo Kang ) , 이병근 ( Byung-kun Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 80-87 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the gait variables and the relative risk of falling between elderly Korean women that fall and do not fall based on the walking speed during flat walking and in the presence of obstacles.
METHODS: The study included 148 women, aged 65 years or older (22 fallers, aged 75.05±5.38 years; 126 non-fallers, aged 71.80±5.14 years). The gait variables were measured in a space of 9 m×1 m, and obstacle walking was measured while crossing obstacles measuring, 5 cm and 30 cm. A t-test, correlation analysis, and logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the gait variables to determine if there was a fall and to analyze the relationship and the risk ratio of a fall at a walking speed.
RESULTS: Out of 148 participants, 22 participants (14.9%), fell while walking. During flat ground walking, right step length (p<.01) left step length (p<.05), and stride lengths (p<.01) were smaller in the faller group, while the stance phase (p<.01) and double-support time ratio (p<.05) were smaller in the non-faller group. In obstacle walking, slower walking speeds were observed for the 5-cm obstacles (p<.01) and 30-cm obstacles (p<.05) in the faller group. For the low-speed and medium-high speed groups, the odds ratio of the fall experience was 2.844 (1.125-7.191) (p<.05) for flat gait, 3.585 (1.354-9.491) (p<.05) for the 5 cm obstacle, and 4.877 (1.731- 13.742) (p<.01) for the 30 cm obstacle. As the height of the obstacle increased, the fall odds ratio increased.
CONCLUSIONS: In the faller group, the step and stride lengths were smaller during flat walking, and the walking speed of the obstacles was low. The low-speed group had a high falling experience odds ratio, and as the height of the obstacle increased, the falling experience odds ratio increased.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

10웨이트 트레이닝 전 자가근막이완 기법이 기능적 움직임과 지연성 근육통에 미치는 효과

저자 : 이미래 ( Mi-rae Lee ) , 김종희 ( Jong-hee Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 88-97 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effect of the self-myofascial release technique conducted before weight training on functional movement and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS).
METHODS: The study subjects were divided into three groups: a control group (CON, n=8), an active stretching group (DS, n=8), and a self-myofascial release group (SMR, n=8). All three groups performed the same leg press exercise program for 30 minutes, twice a week for eight weeks. Active stretching and self-myofascial release techniques were conducted before exercise for 30 minutes. Body composition, 1RM, and functional movement screen (FMS) were tested before the 1st-week exercise and after the 4th- and 8th-week exercise training. The DOMS levels were assessed immediately after exercise and at 24, 48, and 72 hours post-exercise using the visual analog scale (VAS).
RESULTS: Body weight and body fat percentage showed a significant decrease (p<0.01), and muscle mass and 1RM increased with the exercise period (p<0.01). The FMS score differed between the groups (p<0.05), periods (p<0.01), and groups×periods (p<0.01). The FMS score was significantly higher in the SMR than in the CON group at the 4th- and 8th-week exercise. The exercise-induced VAS level peaked at 48 hours post-exercise in all groups and significantly decreased at 72 hours post-exercise in the SMR group.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that self-myofascial release positively affects functional movements and effectively alleviates exercise-induced pain levels. Therefore, self-myofascial release techniques could be used as an effective warm-up strategy to improve physical function and relieve exercise-induced injury and muscle pain.

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KCI등재SCOUPUS

1Emerging Era of Exercise Genomics

저자 : Seung Kyum Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 407-411 (5 pages)

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KCI등재SCOUPUS

2앞십자인대 손상 예방을 위한 근신경 훈련의 최신 경향: 문헌 고찰

저자 : 이광진 ( Kwang-jin Lee ) , 안근옥 ( Keun-ok An )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 412-418 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are the most common in sports and have doubled in the past 20 years. This study aimed to analyze the latest trends and changes in training programs for ACL injury prevention.
METHODS: In this study, literature was searched using academic search sites, such as 'PubMed', 'Google Scholar', and 'Wiley Online Library'. The literature published between 2015 and 2021 was used.
RESULTS: Eleven papers were selected based on the literature selection criteria. Five warm-up exercise papers and six ACL injury prevention training program papers emphasized neuromuscular training.
CONCLUSIONS: The ACL injury prevention program can be applied in warm-up exercises and training programs. It consists of an exercise form that includes multidimensional components such as plyometrics, muscle strength, balance, and agility. The key to the ACL injury prevention program is to reflect multidimensional components in neuromuscular training and to obtain a significant effect, and it is recommended to participate in regular training for 12-18 sessions and at least 6 months. In addition, it is suggested to utilize the ACL injury prevention program presented in this study until an individual study for ACL injury prevention by sports type is conducted.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

3비만 노쇠와 복합 운동

저자 : 이해성 ( Hae Sung Lee ) , 김종희 ( Jong-hee Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 419-431 (13 pages)

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PURPOSE: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that impairs the health and quality of life of older adults. While unintended weight loss is known to be a primary risk factor for frailty, obesity has also been closely associated with frailty. Combined exercise is thought to be an effective way of resolving obesity and frailty, but studies demonstrating the effect of combined exercise on obese frailty are lacking. In this review, we seek to understand the relevant mechanisms by exploring prior studies on obese frailty, and provide the implications of appropriate combined exercise interventions for obese frailty.
METHODS: To collect data for this study, we used academic search systems such as Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science. The keywords used for the search were a combination of words such as 'obesity', 'frailty', 'combined or multicomponent exercise', and 'older or elderly adults'.
RESULTS: The results from the 16 selected articles confirmed that combined exercise reduces body weight, percentage of body fat, and risk of falls. Moreover, it improves muscle strength, balance, and walking function of the obese frail population.
CONCLUSIONS: As we have confirmed the positive outcomes on the combined exercise for obese frail older adults, an optimal exercise program needs to be presented. Older adults with obesity are recommended to exercise at least 2-3 times a week during the initial period. Further, they should begin with low-intensity walking, full-body exercise, balance, and flexibility exercises, then gradually increase the exercise volume. Moreover, to facilitate the positive outcomes of physical training and to encourage autonomy and enjoyment of exercise among obese frail older adults, a novel method and an individualized scientific exercise program need to be developed.

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4유방암 환자의 인지 손상에 미치는 운동 효과: 메타분석적 접근

저자 : 은홍범 ( Hong-bum Eun ) , 백성수 ( Seung-soo Baek )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 432-443 (12 pages)

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PURPOSE: Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is exposed to cognitive impairments that interfere with their daily lives after a complete recovery. Exercise is one of the effective non-pharmacological treatments to prevent or improve cognitive function decline. This study evaluated the effects of exercise interventions on cognitive function improvement in CRCI breast cancer patients and searched the association of various aspects in which exercise affects cognitive function improvement.
METHODS: PubMed, ScienceDirect, ACS journal, and Google scholar databases from 1 January 2014 to 31 May 2021 were utilized for searching articles related to research purpose. Meta-analysis was conducted with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 using the random-effect model.
RESULTS: A meta-analysis of seven studies showed that walking (ES=0.59, p=.000) was the most effective in improving cognitive function, and moderate-intensity (ES=0.60, p=.000) was more effective than moderate-to-high intensity (ES=0.27, p=.007) exercise in CRCI patients with breast cancer. Cognitive function improvement was observed in short-term exercise intervention for four weeks (ES=0.46, p=.038), and after that, it was found that the cognition improvement effect was maintained or improved through long-term (12 or 24 weeks) exercise. Moreover, the cognitive function of CRCI patients with breast cancer improved without supervision during exercise interventions (ES=0.39, p=.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Walking and moderate-intensity exercise can suppress cognitive impairment in CRCI patients with breast cancer. Personalized exercise prescription through short-term and long-term exercise periods can alleviate cognitive decline and improve the cognitive function of CRCI breast cancer patients. Exercise interventions without supervision also show a positive influence on cognitive function improvement.

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5Differential Gene Expression in Cell Types of the Human Skeletal Muscle: A Bioinformatics-Based Meta-Review

저자 : Kyung-wan Baek , So-jeong Kim , Ji-seok Kim , Sun-ok Kwon

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 444-452 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study evaluates the differences in the expression of genes frequently analyzed in the field of exercise science between the skeletal muscle tissue and various cell types that comprise the skeletal muscle tissue.
METHODS: We summarized the genes and proteins expressed in the skeletal muscle that were published in “Exercise Science” journal from 2015 to present. Thereafter, we selected 15 genes and proteins that were the most analyzed genes and proteins in the skeletal muscle. These genes and proteins were horizontally compared for expression differences in skeletal muscle components and cultured cells based on NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets.
RESULTS: The most analyzed genes (encoding analyzed proteins) in skeletal muscle tissues in “Exercise Science” were PPARGC1A, PPARD, MTOR, MAP1LC3A, MAP1LC3B, PRKAA1, AKT1, SLC2A4, MAPK1, COX4I1, MAPK14, MEF2A, MAPK8, RPS6KB1, and SOD1. Among them, PPARGC1A, AKT1, SLC2A4, MAPK1, and COX4I1 were specifically expressed in the skeletal muscle. However, expression of other genes was found to be significantly affected in other cell types of the skeletal muscle tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: Genes such as PPARGC1A, which are specifically expressed in the skeletal muscle, may be analyzed without pretreating (such as perfusion) the skeletal muscle tissue. However, expression of other genes may depend on the skeletal muscle cell type. Thus, in such instances, pretreatment, such as perfusion and isolation, should be considered.

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6국소 부위 고온 및 저온 스트레스가 안정 시 및 운동 시 온냉감 민감도 및 중성역에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김대환 ( Dae-hwan Kim ) , 한진희 ( Jean-hee Han ) , 장민혁 ( Min-hyeok Jang ) , 김정현 ( Jung-hyun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 453-461 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of local cold and heat stimuli on cutaneous thermal sensitivity and inter-threshold zone at rest and during exercise.
METHODS: Cutaneous warm and cold thresholds were measured on two body regions (forehead and hand) in three types of local thermal stress environments (neutral, heat, cold) using a method of limit in sixteen young, healthy male subjects (25.44±2.28 years) at rest and during exercise.
RESULTS: The results showed that the thermal inter-threshold zone was wider on the hand than on the forehead under thermal stress conditions at rest and during exercise. The thermal inter-threshold zone on both body regions widened with exercise (p<.05). Exercise significantly blunted both the warm and cold sensitivity in the forehead (p<.05), but only cold sensitivity in the hand (p<.05). Moreover, the thermal inter-threshold zone on both the forehead and hand became significantly wider when heat or cold stress was applied to the local body region (p<.001). In the forehead, warm and cold sensitivity were significantly blunted in both heat and cold stress environments (p<.05), whereas in the hard they were significantly blunted only in the heat stress environment (p<.01).
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the present study showed that the forehead is more sensitive to both warm and cold stimuli than the hand, regardless of thermal stress or exercise. Furthermore, the thermal inter-threshold zone on both the forehead and the hand widened with exercise and local thermal stimuli.

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7중년 남성의 신체활동량과 형태가 백혈구 텔로미어 길이에 미치는 영향

저자 : 신윤아 ( Yun-a Shin ) , 김창선 ( Chang-sun Kim ) , 이상현 ( Sang-hyun Lee ) , 이용우 ( Yong-woo Lee ) , 김준수 ( Jun-soo Kim ) , 박동호 ( Dong-ho Park )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 462-471 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a potential indicator of cellular senescence. However, its relationship with the type and volume of regular exercise is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the type and volume of long-term regular exercise on the LTL in middle-aged men (N=109, mean age=44.7±4.1 years [range: 40-56 years]).
METHODS: For all participants, the volume of physical activity (PA) was evaluated using a self-report questionnaire, and blood samples were collected simultaneously. We cross-sectionally examined the associations among the type and volume of PA, LTL, telomerase activity (TA), mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA), and body composition in three groups: 1) bodybuilders (BBs) with at least 5 years of athletic experience (n=36, mean age: 42.3±3.3 years [40-51 years]), 2) cyclists (CCs) with an athletic career similar to that of the BBs (n=37, mean age: 45.4±4.4 years [range: 40-53 years]), and 3) healthy ordinary people (CON; n=36, mean age: 46.3±3.3 years [range: 40-56 years]).
RESULTS: The LTL showed a significant positive correlation with the volume of PA (r=.285, p=.003), regardless of the type of PA. Furthermore, the LTLs were longer in the BB (p=.007) and CC (p=.003) groups (who performed moderate-to-vigorous PA for 150 minutes or more per week) than in the CON group. Conversely, the TA was significantly higher in the BB group (p=.009) than in the CON group; however, it only tended to be high in the CC group (p=.115). There were no intergroup differences in both the mtDNA (p=.127) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (p=.289) levels.
CONCLUSIONS: The TA was found to increase, and thus prevent telomere loss, in middle-aged men who performed PA of moderate-to-vigorous intensity, regardless of the PA type.

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8소변배출, 유산소 운동, 음식 및 물섭취가 생체전기 저항법을 이용한 신체조성측정에 미치는 영향

저자 : 조채은 ( Chaeeun Cho ) , 이세원 ( Sewon Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 472-480 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: Body composition is strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, and accurate measurement of body composition is vital for the management of chronic diseases. In this study, we assessed whether major factors such as urination, aerobic exercise, food, and water consumption had significant effects on body composition by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).
METHODS: To achieve the goal of this study, research was conducted on 32 healthy young males (n=18) and females (n=14). All participants underwent body composition analysis in four different conditions (both pre- and post-urination, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for 30 minutes, immediately after food and water consumption, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after each treatment), and segmental BIA was performed using Inbody720.
RESULTS: We found that after urination, body weight, skeletal muscle mass, and basal metabolic rate (BMR) significantly decreased. However, water intake significantly increased body weight, body fat mass, and body fat percentage. Furthermore, an acute 30-minutes aerobic exercise significantly decreased body weight, fat mass, and fat percentage, and increased skeletal muscle mass and BMR. In addition, impedance decreased immediately and increased 120 minutes after the acute aerobic exercise. Finally, food ingestion significantly increased the body weight, skeletal muscle mass, and BMR.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that variables such as urination, exercise, food consumption, and water intake should be considered to accurately assess body composition.

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9폐 기능 및 운동수행력 증진을 위한 비 확장기의 효용성

저자 : 김동규 ( Dong-kyu Kim ) , 김맹규 ( Maeng-kyu Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 481-490 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine changes in pulmonary function induced by an internal nasal dilator (IND) and to determine whether an IND enhances exercise performance.
METHODS: Young, healthy men (n=13) were randomly assigned either an IND or control (CON) session to perform a pulmonary function test (PFT). All participants then completed treadmill exercise tests that consisted of maximal and submaximal running with or without an IND.
RESULTS: Some variables of PFTs were increased in men that used INDs compared to those in the CON group (p<.05, respectively). There was a significant difference between sessions in energy cost during the running test (65% VO2max) (p<.05). In the IND group, respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise was lower, and relaxation of respiratory muscles after exercise was faster, as compared with the CON group (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: IND may contribute to improvements in pulmonary function. Furthermore, INDs may reduce energy costs and respiratory muscle fatigue during submaximal exercise by maintaining nasal breathing and facilitating respiratory muscle relaxation after maximal exercise tests.

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10Acute Effects of Foam Rolling Exercises on Arterial Stiffness, Flexibility and Autonomic Nervous System Function in Young and Middle-Aged Women

저자 : Cheonok Lee , Sewon Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 491-500 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: Arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with flexibility. Self-myofascial release (SMR) using a foam roller is a popular intervention to improve flexibility, restore the muscles, fascia, tendons, and ligaments, and regain soft-tissue extensibility. This study aimed to investigate whether a single bout of SMR has a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness and the function of the autonomic nervous system and the relationships among these variables in young and middle-aged women by age.
METHODS: Ten healthy young (23.20±0.59 years) and 10 middle-aged women (44.50±0.91 years) completed an instructed SMR using a foam roller. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), augmentation index (AIx), trunk flexibility, shoulder flexibility, heart rate variability, including standard deviation of normal R-R intervals (SDNN), and the root mean square of the standard deviation of the time between heartbeats (RMSSD) were measured before and after one 30-minutes bout of SMR.
RESULTS: After one bout of SMR, trunk and shoulder flexibility increased in both groups of women, while AIx decreased significantly (from 6.9±2.9 to -1.9±4.6%, p=.0072, young women group; from 22.1±3.4 to 14.7±1.7%, p=.0049, middle-aged women group). However, the baPWV, RMSSD, and SDNN did not change. In the analysis of correlations between all measured variables, changes in AIx showed negative correlations with flexibility and SDNN.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that one bout of SMR using a foam roller positively affected arterial stiffness in women by reducing AIx and improving flexibility.

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