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한국축산학회> 한국축산학회지> Improvement of conception rate on Hanwoo; The key hormones and novel estrus detector

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Improvement of conception rate on Hanwoo; The key hormones and novel estrus detector

Young Ho Joo , Seung Min Jeong , Dimas Hand Vidya Paradhipta , Hyuk Jun Lee , Seong Shin Lee , Jeong Seok Choi , Hyeon Tak Noh , Hong Hee Chang , Eun Joong Kim , Sam Churl Kim
  • : 한국축산학회
  • : 한국축산학회지 63권6호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 11월
  • : 1265-1274(10pages)
한국축산학회지

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

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초록 보기

Two field experiments were conducted to improve the conception rate of Hanwoo cow. The first experiment aimed to investigate the physiological condition of Hanwoo cows on estrus, including metabolic profiles and body condition score (BCS). The second experiment investigated the effect of a novel estrus detector on the artificial insemination (AI) conception rate for Hanwoo cows. For the first experiment, 80 Hanwoo cows (2.5 ± 0.10 of parity), approximately one month before estrus, were housed in 16 pens and offered the experimental diets twice daily with free water access. The BCS were recorded, and blood was collected from the jugular veins just before AI. The collected blood was used to measure physiological conditions, such as metabolite and hormone levels. For the second experiment, each cow was equipped with a neck-mounted estrus detector collar, which had a sensor connected through the internet. Approximately one month before estrus, three hundred sixty Hanwoo cows (2.4 ± 0.21 of parity) were assigned into groups with or without W-Tag collar treatments. The animals were managed the same as in the first experiment. The pregnancy rate reached 55% in the first experiment. The concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH) was higher (p < 0.012; 1.56 vs. 1.08 ng/mL) in cows that were not pregnant (NPG) than in cows that were pregnant (PG) after AI. The BCS and other concentrations of metabolites and hormones in the blood were not different in both NPG and PG cows. The ranges of estrogen, LH, and follicle-stimulating hormone for PG cows were 11.9 to 39.0 pg/mL, < 0.25 to 1.98 ng/mL, and < 0.50 to 0.82 ng/ mL, respectively. In the second experiment, cows with the estrus detector had lower days open (p < 0.001; 78.1 vs. 84.8 d), insemination frequency (p < 0.001; 1.26 vs. 2.52), and return of estrus (p < 0.001; 70.9 vs. 79.1 d) than those in cows without the estrus detector. In conclusion, the present study indicated that lower LH concentration just before AI potentially increased the pregnancy rate of Hanwoo cows. Furthermore, the application of estrus detectors to Hanwoo cows could improve the conception success rate for AI.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-500-000829288

간행물정보

  • : 농학분야  > 축산
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 2672-0191
  • : 2055-0391
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1958-2022
  • : 4608


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1Novel zinc sources as antimicrobial growth promoters for monogastric animals: a review

저자 : Xin Jian Lei , Zhang Zhuang Liu , Jae Hong Park , In Ho Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 64권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 187-196 (10 pages)

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The essentiality of zinc for animals has been recognized over 80 years. Zinc is an essential trace element that is a component of many enzymes and is associated with the various hormones. Apart from the nutritional function, zinc has antimicrobial property and often be supplemented in diets in the quantities greater than which is required to meet the nutritional requirement, especially for weaning pigs. This review will focus on the application of pharmacological zinc and its mechanisms which may be responsible for the effects of zinc on performance and health of monogastric animals. Various novel sources of zinc in non-ruminant animal production will also be discussed. These should assist in more precisely formulating feed to maximize the production performance and to maintain the health condition of monogastric animals.

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2Perspectives and advances in probiotics and the gut microbiome in companion animals

저자 : Daniel Lee , Tae Wook Goh , Min Geun Kang , Hye Jin Choi , So Young Yeo , Jungwoo Yang , Chul Sung Huh , Yoo Yong Kim , Younghoon Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 64권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 197-217 (21 pages)

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As the number of households that raise dogs and cats is increasing, there is growing interest in animal health. The gut plays an important role in animal health. In particular, the microbiome in the gut is known to affect both the absorption and metabolism of nutrients and the protective functions of the host. Using probiotics on pets has beneficial effects, such as modulating the immune system, helping to reduce stress, protecting against pathogenic bacteria and developing growth performance. The goals of this review are to summarize the relationship between probiotics/the gut microbiome and animal health, to feature technology used for identifying the diversity of microbiota composition of canine and feline microbiota, and to discuss recent reports on probiotics in canines and felines and the safety issues associated with probiotics and the gut microbiome in companion animals.

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3Development of strategies to manufacture low-salt meat products - a review

저자 : Gracia Henreita Suci Aprilia , Hyeong Sang Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 64권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 218-234 (17 pages)

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Urbanization is usually followed by changes in eating habits, with a specific trend toward the consumption of ready-to-eat products, such as processed foods. Among the latter, meat products are known contributors to high dietary sodium owing to salt addition. Salt plays an essential role in maintaining the quality of meat products in terms of acceptability and safety. However, an excessive salt intake is linked to high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. Hence, several studies have been competing for the discovery of salt alternatives performing in a similar way as common salt. A number of replacements have been proposed to reduce salt consumption in meat products while taking into account consumer preferences. Unfortunately, these have resulted in poorer product quality, followed by new adverse effects on health. This review addresses these recent issues by illustrating some established approaches and providing insight into further challenges in developing low-salt meat products.

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4Osteopontin enhances sperm capacitation and in vitro fertilization efficiency in boars

저자 : Yun Chen , Kai Wang , Shouquan Zhang

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 64권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 235-246 (12 pages)

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In this study, we used more reliable experimental materials and methods to detect the effects of osteopontin (OPN) on boar sperm in vitro capacitation, acrosome reaction, and fertilization efficiency. We reorganized and obtained the OPN protein of the porcine source. Immunofluorescence and Western blot show the localization and expression of the OPN protein before and after sperm capacitation. To determine whether OPN can affect sperm during sperm capacitation, we examined cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations after sperm capacitation, and the results showed that OPN significantly increased the cAMP concentration in sperm (p < 0.05). Flow cytometry showed that 0.1 μg/mL OPN-treated sperm had better acrosome reaction ability. In vitro fertilization (IVF) showed that 0.1 μg/mL OPN significantly increased the rate of embryo division. In conclusion, this study found that 0.1 μg/mL porcine OPN protein can significantly improve porcine capacitated sperm motility, cAMP concentration after capacitation sperm, acrosome reaction ability, and embryo division during IVF and provides new clues to explore the mechanism of OPN's function on sperm.

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5Metabolic profiling of serum and urine in lactating dairy cows affected by subclinical ketosis using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

저자 : Jun Sik Eom , Shin Ja Lee , Hyun Sang Kim , Youyoung Choi , Seong Uk Jo , Sang Suk Lee , Eun Tae Kim , Sung Sill Lee

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 64권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 247-261 (15 pages)

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Ketosis is associated with high milk yield during lactating or insufficient feed intake in lactating dairy cows. However, few studies have been conducted on the metabolomics of ketosis in Korean lactating dairy cows. The present study aimed to investigate the serum and urine metabolites profiling of lactating dairy cows through proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy and comparing those between healthy (CON) and subclinical ketosis (SCK) groups. Six lactating dairy cows were categorized into CON and SCK groups. All experimental Holstein cows were fed total mixed ration. Serum and urine samples were collected from the jugular vein of the neck and by hand sweeping the perineum, respectively. The metabolites in the serum and urine were determined using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Identification and quantification of metabolites was performed by Chenomx NMR Suite 8.4 software. Metabolites statistical analysis was performed by Metaboanalyst version 5.0 program. In the serum, the acetoacetate level was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the SCK group than in the CON group, and whereas acetate, galactose and pyruvate levels tended to be higher. CON group had significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of 5-aminolevulinate and betaine. Indole-3-acetate, theophylline, p-cresol, 3-hydroxymandelate, gentisate, N-acetylglucosamine, N-nitrosodimethylamine, xanthine and pyridoxine levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the urine of the SCK group than that in the CON group, which had higher levels of homogentisate, ribose, gluconate, ethylene glycol, maltose, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate and glycocholate. Some significantly (p < 0.05) different metabolites in the serum and urine were associated with ketosis diseases, inflammation, energy balance and body weight. This study will be contributed useful a future ketosis metabolomics studies in Korea.

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6Harvesting schedule effects on forage yield and nutritive values in low-lignin alfalfa

저자 : Xuan Xu , Doohong Min

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 64권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 262-273 (12 pages)

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Under the four-cut system, low-lignin alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) may extend harvesting intervals improving harvest management flexibility and producing forage products with higher nutritive values. The objective of this study was to compare forage yield and nutritive values of low-lignin and conventional alfalfa varieties when applied to six different harvest schedules in the first (2016) and second (2017) production years. There were 12 treatments of two alfalfa varieties as whole plots and six harvest schedules as subplots. Across harvest schedules, there were four cuttings in two production years. Three harvest intervals including “Standard” (high quality, HQ), “Standard+5-day” (medium quality, MQ), and “Standard+10-day” (high yield, HY) were chosen for the first cutting, and 30-day (HQ) and 35-day (HY) for the second cuttings. The third and fourth cuttings in 2016 were timed near final harvest date and in 2017 occurred at 35-day (MQ) and 40-day (HY). Variety by harvest schedule interaction was not significant, but the whole plot and sub-plot effects were significant. Hi-Gest 360 was consistently higher in nutritive value and with a similar yield as Gunner. Harvest schedules did not consistently differ in forage yield and nutritive values. HS-1 (“Standard” + 35-day + Medium Quality + High Yield) with shorter first two cutting intervals provided lower acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), higher relative feed value (RFV), and similar forage yield compared to other schedules. HS-1 had the highest economic incomes when considering RFV and yield among the six different harvest schedules.

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7Influence of ferulic acid and clinoptilolite supplementation on growth performance, carcass, meat quality, and fatty acid profile of finished lambs

저자 : Ana Tánori-lozano , Adrián Imanol Quintana-romandía , Maricela Montalvo-corral , Araceli Pinelli-saavedra , Martín Valenzuela-melendres , José Luis Dávila-ramírez , Thalia Yamileth Islava-lagarda , Humberto González-ríos

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 64권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 274-290 (17 pages)

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This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ferulic acid (FA) and clinoptilolite (CTL) supplementation on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of hair-breed lambs. Twenty-eight Kathadin male lambs (33.72 ± 3.4 kg) were randomly allocated to one of the four diets (n=7) under a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to evaluate the effect of FA (0 or 300 ppm) and CTL (0% or 1%) during the last 40 days of the finishing phase. No interaction between additives was shown for growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality, with exception of the fatty acid profile (p < 0.05). FA reduced feed intake and carcass conformation (p < 0.05). Wholesale cuts were not affected by FA or CTL (p > 0.05). The L*, a*, and C* color parameters and some intramuscular fatty acids of the longissimus thoracis muscle were positively modified by CTL supplementation (p < 0.05). While there was no FA × CTL interaction, each additive could be used individually in animal nutrition to improve the feedlot performance and meat quality of the lambs.

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8Effects of different Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis ratios on nutrient digestibility, fecal microflora, and gas emissions of growing pigs

저자 : Yong Ju Kim , Sung Bo Cho , Min Ho Song , Sung Il Lee , Seok Man Hong , Won Yun , Ji Hwan Lee , Han Jin Oh , Se Yeon Chang , Jae Woo An , Young Bin Go , Dong Cheol Song , Hyun Ah Cho , Hyeun Bum Kim ,

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 64권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 291-301 (11 pages)

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different mixing ratios of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis in diets on nutrient digestibility, fecal microflora, and odor gas emissions of growing pigs. A total of four crossbred ([Landrace × Yorkshire] × Duroc) barrows with average body weight (BW) of 41.2 ± 0.7 kg were randomly allotted four diets over four periods in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: Control (CON, basal diet), CON + 0.2% probiotic complex (L4S6, B. licheniformis and B. subtilis at a 4:6 ratio), CON + 0.2% probiotic complex (L5S5, B. licheniformis and B. subtilis at a 5:5 ratio), CON + 0.2% probiotic complex (L6S4, B. licheniformis and B. subtilis at a 6:4 ratio). Dietary probiotic supplementation showed higher crude protein (CP) digestibility values and lower Escherichia coli counts in fecal samples than the CON group (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in NH3 or H2S emission until day 3. The positive effect of H2S and NH3 emissions was detected earlier with the L4S6 and L5S5 compared to the L6S4, which had a lower ratio of B. subtilis. Both the L4S6 and L5S5 probiotic complexes significantly decreased the fecal H2S and NH3 emission in days 4 and 6 (p < 0.05). On day 7, all probiotic complexes decreased (p < 0.05) H2S and NH3 emissions than the CON group. Our results agreed that the dietary supplementation of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis complexes in growing pigs can significantly improve CP digestibility and reduce fecal E. coli counts, NH3 and H2S emissions. Notably, the higher mixing ratio of Bacillus subtilis in probiotic supplementation is more effective in reducing the odor of manure.

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9Sows fed with synergistic blend of short- and medium chain organic acid has a carryover effect on post-weaning growth rate

저자 : Vetriselvi Sampath , Jae Hong Park , Lane Pineda , Yanming Han , Sungbo Cho , In Ho Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 64권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 302-311 (10 pages)

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This study investigated the effect of a synergistic blend of free and buffered organic acid (FMP) on the performance of piglets born to sows supplemented with a blend of short- and medium-chain organic acids (SGG) during the late gestation and lactation period. A total of 150 multiparous sows (n = 50/treatment, Landrace × Yorkshire) were blocked (2.4 parity) and assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: CON - corn-soybean meal-based basal diet, SGG-Low - CON+ 1.5 kg/ton SGG, and SGG-High - CON + 3kg/ton SGG. During weaning, 600 piglets (6.72 ± 0.5kg) which weaned from sows supplemented with 3 levels of SGG were allocated to 2 weaner diets (Control and FMP - 3kg/ton) following 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Supplemental effects on performance were measured at d0-d21 and d 21-42, and the entire period. Pigs fed with FMP and born to sows supplemented with SGG-High gained more weight and ate more (p < 0.05) compared with those in the CON group in both phases, and with SGG-Low in the second phase. Over the entire post-weaning period, piglets born to sows supplemented with SGG-Low and SGG-High had a higher average daily gain (ADG) and body weight (BW) (p < 0.05). Regardless of sow treatment, pigs fed with an FMP diet had higher ADG (p < 0.001), BW (p = 0.045), and a lower feed conversion ratio (p = 0.033). Also, feeding FMP diets reduced the fecal Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens counts at d42. The current study indicates that sows fed SGG supplement had a positive carry-over effect on the post-weaning growth rate, and FMP supplement enhances the growth performance and reduced the number of C. perfringens and E. coli. Thus, the application of 3 kg/ton of SGG in sows' diet and subsequent feeding of piglets with FMP would be an effective strategy to improve growth rate and reduce pathogenic bacteria in post-weaned piglets.

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10Differences in liver microRNA profiling in pigs with low and high feed efficiency

저자 : Yuanxin Miao , Chuanke Fu , Mingxing Liao , Fang Fang

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 64권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 312-329 (18 pages)

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Feed cost is the main factor affecting the economic benefits of pig industry. Improving the feed efficiency (FE) can reduce the feed cost and improve the economic benefits of pig breeding enterprises. Liver is a complex metabolic organ which affects the distribution of nutrients and regulates the efficiency of energy conversion from nutrients to muscle or fat, thereby affecting feed efficiency. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can regulate feed efficiency through the modulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In this study, we analyzed miRNA profiling of liver tissues in High-FE and Low-FE pigs for the purpose of identifying key miRNAs related to feed efficiency. A total 212~221 annotated porcine miRNAs and 136~281 novel miRNAs were identified in the pig liver. Among them, 188 annotated miRNAs were co-expressed in High-FE and Low-FE pigs. The 14 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed (DE) in the livers of high-FE pigs and low-FE pigs, of which 5 were downregulated and 9 were upregulated. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis of liver DE miRNAs in high-FE pigs and low-FE pigs indicated that the target genes of DE miRNAs were significantly enriched in insulin signaling pathway, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway, and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. To verify the reliability of sequencing results, 5 DE miRNAs were randomly selected for quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results of miRNAs were confirmed to be consistent with sequencing data. DE miRNA data indicated that liver-specific miRNAs synergistically acted with mRNAs to improve feed efficiency. The liver miRNAs expression analysis revealed the metabolic pathways by which the liver miRNAs regulate pig feed efficiency.

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1Phenotypic and genetic parameters of productive traits in Rahmani and Romanov sheep and crossbreds

저자 : Adel S. Khattab , Sunday O. Peters , Adeyemi S. Adenaike , Abdel Aziz M. Sallam , Mahasan M. Atya , Heba A Ahmed

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1211-1222 (12 pages)

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Data of 651 lambs (68 Romanov, 49 Rahmani, 151 [♀1/2 Rahmani X ♂1/2 Romanov) and 383 (♀3/4 Rahmani and 1/4♂ Romanov]) were collected from Mehalet Mousa Farm, belonging to Animal Production Research Institute from the period of 2009 to 2016 to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters. The traits studied were birth weight (BW), body weight at four week (BW4), body weight at eight weeks (BW8) and body weight at twelve weeks (BW12) or weaning weight. Least squares analysis of variance shows significance of the effects of breed groups, gender of lambs, birth type; month of birth and year of birth on all traits studied. Rahmani lambs had heavier BW, BW4, BW8 and BW12 while Romanov lambs had the lowest ones. The first generation (♀1/2 Rhamani X ♂1/2 Romanov) had heavier body weights than Romanov and the second generation (♀3/4 Rahmani X ♂1/4 Roamnov). Gender of lambs had highly significant effect on body weights. Males were significantly (p < 0.01) heavier than females for all traits studied. Least square means of BW, BW4, BW8 and BW12 for single lambs were 2.69, 10.43, 13.53 and 16.10 kg, respectively. Least square means of BW, BW4, BW8 and BW12 for twin lambs were 2.50, 9.37, 12.5 and 15.16 kg, respectively, while least square means of BW, BW4, BW8 and BW12 for triple lambs were 2.09, 7.86, 10.83 and 13.67 kg, respectively. Estimates of direct heritability measured by single trait animal model were 0.14, 0.23, 0.25 and 0.26 for BW, BW4, BW8 and BW12, respectively, and the corresponding measured by multi trait animal model were 0.17, 0.24, 0.32 and 0.36 for the same traits, respectively. All genetic and phenotypic correlations among different traits studied are positive and significant.

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2Genetic association of polymorphisms in porcine RGS16 with porcine circovirus viral load in naturally infected Yorkshire pigs

저자 : Seung-hoon Lee , Kyu-sang Lim , Ki-chang Hong , Jun-mo Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1223-1231 (9 pages)

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Regulator of G protein signaling 16 (RGS16) is known to be associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). PCV2 associated disease (PCVAD) is a serious problem in the swine industry. The representative symptoms of PCVAD are high viral titer proliferation and decreased average daily gain. In this study, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RGS16 region, including the upstream region. Of the 22 identified SNPs, rs332913874, rs326071195, and rs318298586 were genotyped in 142 Yorkshire pigs. These SNPs were significantly associated with the PCV2 viral load. Moreover, the haplotype combination was also related to the PCV2 viral load. The haplotype and diplotype analysis also had a significant difference with the PCV2 viral load. Taken together, our results suggest that RGS16 SNPs considerably affect the PCV2 viral load.

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3Accuracy of genotype imputation based on reference population size and marker density in Hanwoo cattle

저자 : Dooho Lee , Yeongkuk Kim , Yoonji Chung , Dongjae Lee , Dongwon Seo , Tae Jeong Choi , Dajeong Lim , Duhak Yoon , Seung Hwan Lee

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1232-1246 (15 pages)

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Recently, the cattle genome sequence has been completed, followed by developing a commercial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip panel in the animal genome industry. In order to increase statistical power for detecting quantitative trait locus (QTL), a number of animals should be genotyped. However, a high-density chip for many animals would be increasing the genotyping cost. Therefore, statistical inference of genotype imputation (low-density chip to high-density) will be useful in the animal industry. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the reference population size and marker density on the imputation accuracy and to suggest the appropriate number of reference population sets for the imputation in Hanwoo cattle. A total of 3,821 Hanwoo cattle were divided into reference and validation populations. The reference sets consisted of 50k (38,916) marker data and different population sizes (500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, and 3,600). The validation sets consisted of four validation sets (Total 889) and the different marker density (5k [5,000], 10k [10,000], and 15k [15,000]). The accuracy of imputation was calculated by direct comparison of the true genotype and the imputed genotype. In conclusion, when the lowest marker density (5k) was used in the validation set, according to the reference population size, the imputation accuracy was 0.793 to 0.929. On the other hand, when the highest marker density (15k), according to the reference population size, the imputation accuracy was 0.904 to 0.967. Moreover, the reference population size should be more than 1,000 to obtain at least 88% imputation accuracy in Hanwoo cattle.

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4Assessment of testicular steroidogenic enzymes expression in experimental animal model following withdrawal of nandrolone decanoate

저자 : Taesun Min , Adhimoolam Karthikeyan , Ki-ho Lee

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1247-1264 (18 pages)

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Anabolic steroids are frequently used to increase the growth rate of meat-producing animals. Exposure to an anabolic-androgenic steroid, nandrolone decanoate (ND), is associated with expressional reduction of testicular steroidogenic enzymes. However, the effect of withdrawal of ND exposure on the expression of these testicular molecules has not been thoroughly explored. The current research investigated expression changes of testicular steroidogenic enzymes in rats at several recovery periods (2, 6, and 12 weeks) after the stop of ND treatment with different doses (2 and 10 mg/kg body weight) for 12 weeks. Body and testis weights were recorded, and transcript levels of molecules were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The immunohistochemistry was used to examine the changes of immuno-intensities of molecules. At 6 and 12 weeks of the recovery period, the 10 mg/kg ND-treated rats were lighter than other experimental groups. The interstitial compartment vanished by ND treatment filled up as the recovery period became longer. The expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein was returned to the control level at 12 weeks of the recovery period. Expression levels of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage and 17a-hydroxylase were increased in 2 mg/kg ND-treated group at 6 weeks of the recovery period, and transcript levels of these molecules in 2 and 10 mg/kg ND-treated groups at 12 weeks of the recovery period were significantly lower than the control. Expression levels of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type I and 17β-HSD type 3 in 2 mg/kg ND-treated group were comparable with those of control at 12 weeks of the recovery period, but not in 10 mg/kg ND-treated group. Expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (Cyp19) was reverted to the control level at 2 weeks of the recovery period. Except for Cyp19, there was a visible increase of immuno-staining intensity of other testicular steroidogenic enzymes in the Leydig cells as the recovery period progressed. This research has demonstrated that the cease of ND administration could restore the expression of testicular steroidogenic enzymes close to the normal level. Nevertheless, a relatively long recovery period, compared to the ND-exposure period would be required to retrieve normal expression levels of testicular steroidogenic enzymes.

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5Improvement of conception rate on Hanwoo; The key hormones and novel estrus detector

저자 : Young Ho Joo , Seung Min Jeong , Dimas Hand Vidya Paradhipta , Hyuk Jun Lee , Seong Shin Lee , Jeong Seok Choi , Hyeon Tak Noh , Hong Hee Chang , Eun Joong Kim , Sam Churl Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1265-1274 (10 pages)

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Two field experiments were conducted to improve the conception rate of Hanwoo cow. The first experiment aimed to investigate the physiological condition of Hanwoo cows on estrus, including metabolic profiles and body condition score (BCS). The second experiment investigated the effect of a novel estrus detector on the artificial insemination (AI) conception rate for Hanwoo cows. For the first experiment, 80 Hanwoo cows (2.5 ± 0.10 of parity), approximately one month before estrus, were housed in 16 pens and offered the experimental diets twice daily with free water access. The BCS were recorded, and blood was collected from the jugular veins just before AI. The collected blood was used to measure physiological conditions, such as metabolite and hormone levels. For the second experiment, each cow was equipped with a neck-mounted estrus detector collar, which had a sensor connected through the internet. Approximately one month before estrus, three hundred sixty Hanwoo cows (2.4 ± 0.21 of parity) were assigned into groups with or without W-Tag collar treatments. The animals were managed the same as in the first experiment. The pregnancy rate reached 55% in the first experiment. The concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH) was higher (p < 0.012; 1.56 vs. 1.08 ng/mL) in cows that were not pregnant (NPG) than in cows that were pregnant (PG) after AI. The BCS and other concentrations of metabolites and hormones in the blood were not different in both NPG and PG cows. The ranges of estrogen, LH, and follicle-stimulating hormone for PG cows were 11.9 to 39.0 pg/mL, < 0.25 to 1.98 ng/mL, and < 0.50 to 0.82 ng/ mL, respectively. In the second experiment, cows with the estrus detector had lower days open (p < 0.001; 78.1 vs. 84.8 d), insemination frequency (p < 0.001; 1.26 vs. 2.52), and return of estrus (p < 0.001; 70.9 vs. 79.1 d) than those in cows without the estrus detector. In conclusion, the present study indicated that lower LH concentration just before AI potentially increased the pregnancy rate of Hanwoo cows. Furthermore, the application of estrus detectors to Hanwoo cows could improve the conception success rate for AI.

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6Effects of dietary palm kernel meal and β-xylanase on productive performance, fatty liver incidence, and excreta characteristics in laying hens

저자 : Won Jun Choi , Jong Hyuk Kim , Hyun Woo Kim , Kwan Eung Kim , Dong Yong Kil

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1275-1285 (11 pages)

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The objective of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary palm kernel meal (PKM) and β-xylanase supplementation on productive performance, egg quality, fatty liver incidence, and excreta characteristics in laying hens. A total of 320 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (33 weeks of age) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments with 8 replicates in a feeding trial. Each replicate consisted of 10 consecutive cages with 1 hen per cage. The corn-soybean meal-based control diet was prepared. Additional diet was prepared by including 10% of PKM in the control diet with a partial replacement of corn, soybean meal, and animal fat. In addition, 0.025% β-xylanase was supplemented at the expense of celite to those 2 diets to produce 4 treatment diets in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. All hens were provided the diet and water ad libitum for 8 weeks. Results indicated no significant interactions between inclusion of dietary PKM and β-xylanase for all measurements; therefore, the main effects were mainly discussed. Hens fed diets containing 10% PKM had greater (p < 0.05) feed intake and yolk color than those fed diets containing no PKM. However, dietary PKM did not influence fatty liver incidence and excreta characteristics. Dietary β-xylanase supplementation had no effects on all measurements, regardless of inclusion of PKM. In conclusion, PKM can be a potential feed ingredient for laying hens at the inclusion of 10% in the diet. It appears that dietary β-xylanase used in the current experiment has little effect on layer productivity, regardless of inclusion of 10% PKM in the diet.

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7Feasibility of sodium long chain polyphosphate as a potential growth promoter in broilers

저자 : Seung-gyu Moon , Damini Kothari , Woong-lae Kim , Woo-do Lee , Kyung-il Kim , Jong-il Kim , Eun-jib Kim , Soo-ki Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1286-1300 (15 pages)

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The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity of sodium long chain polyphosphate (SLCPP) and effect of dietary supplementation of SLCPP on growth performance, organ characteristics, blood metabolites, and intestinal microflora of broilers. Antimicrobial activities of SLCPP were observed against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica ser. Pullorum, Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in agar well diffusion assay. In addition, SLCPP demonstrated good anti-biofilm activity against K. pneumonia and P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, to investigate the dietary effect of SLCPP, a total of 480 1-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to three dietary treatment groups (4 replicates per group, 40 birds in each replicate): an antibiotic-free corn-soybean meal basal diet (NC); basal diet + enramycin 0.01% (PC); and basal diet + 0.1% SLCPP (SPP). The experiment lasted for 35 days. Results showed that birds fed with SLCPP had higher body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG), and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the grower phase (days 7 to 21) (p < 0.05). Except for blood urea nitrogen, all other blood biochemical parameters remained unaffected by the dietary supplementation of SLCPP. Compared to the control group, lengths of the duodenum and ileum in the SPP group were significantly shorter (p < 0.05). Moreover, counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total aerobes, and Streptococcus spp. in jejunum as well as LAB in cecum were increased in the SPP group than in the PC group (p < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary supplementation of SLCPP might promote the growth of broilers in their early growth phase.

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8Effects of applying cellulase and starch on the fermentation characteristics and microbial communities of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) silage

저자 : Guoqiang Zhao , Hao Wu , Li Li , Jiajun He , Zhichao Hu , Xinjian Yang , Xiangxue Xie

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1301-1313 (13 pages)

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This study investigated the effects of applying cellulase and starch on the fermentation characteristics and microbial communities of Napier grass silage after ensiling for 30 d. Three groups were studied: No additives (control); added cellulase (Group 1); and added cellulase and starch (Group 2). The results showed that the addition of cellulase and starch decreased the crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and pH significantly (p < 0.05) and increased water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content (p < 0.05). The addition of additives in two treated groups exerted a positive effect on the lactic acid (LA) content, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population, and lactic acid / acetic acid (LA/AA) ratio, even the changes were not significant (p > 0.05). Calculation of Flieg's scores indicated that cellulase application increased silage quality to some extent, while the application of cellulase and starch together significantly improved fermentation (p < 0.05). Compared with the control, both additive groups showed increased microbial diversity after ensiling with an abundance of favorable bacteria including Firmicutes and Weissella, and the bacteria including Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acinetobacter increased as well. For alpha diversity analysis, the combined application of cellulase and starch in Group 2 gave significant increases in all indices (p < 0.05). The study demonstrated that the application of cellulase and starch can increase the quality of Napier grass preserved as silage.

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9Effects of Bacillus-based probiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal health of weaned pigs

저자 : Daye Mun , Hyunjin Kyoung , Myunghwan Kong , Sangdon Ryu , Ki Beom Jang , Jangryeol Baek , Kyeong Il Park , Minho Song , Younghoon Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1314-1327 (14 pages)

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Bacillus is characterized by the formation of spores in harsh environments, which makes it suitable for use as a probiotic for feed because of thermostability and high survival rate, even under long-term storage. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Bacillus-based probiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, immune response, and intestinal microbiota of weaned pigs. A total of 40 weaned pigs (7.01 ± 0.86 kg body weight [BW]; 28 d old) were randomly assigned to two treatments (4 pigs/ pen; 5 replicates/treatment) in a randomized complete block design (block = BW and sex). The dietary treatment was either a typical nursery diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) or CON supplemented with 0.01% probiotics containing a mixture of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis (PRO). Fecal samples were collected daily by rectal palpation for the last 3 days after a 4-day adaptation. Blood, ileal digesta, and intestinal tissue samples were collected from one pig in each pen at the respective time points. The PRO group did not affect the feed efficiency, but the average daily gain was significantly improved (p < 0.05). The PRO group showed a trend of improved crude protein digestibility (p < 0.10). The serum transforming growth factor-β1 level tended to be higher (p < 0.10) in the PRO group on days 7 and 14. There was no difference in phylum level of the intestinal microbiota, but there were differences in genus composition and proportions. However, β-diversity analysis showed no statistical differences between the CON and the PRO groups. Taken together, Bacillus-based probiotics had beneficial effects on the growth performance, immune system, and intestinal microbiota of weaned pigs, suggesting that Bacillus can be utilized as a functional probiotic for weaned pigs.

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10Multi-carbohydrase application into energy and amino acid deficient broiler diets: A strategy to enhance performance of broiler chickens

저자 : Samiru Sudharaka Wickramasuriya , Shemil Priyan Macelline , Hyun Min Cho , Jun Seon Hong , Rob Patterson , Jung Min Heo

발행기관 : 한국축산학회 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 63권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1328-1343 (16 pages)

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The effect of Multi-Carbohydrase (MC) supplementation on growth performance, visceral organ weights, blood metabolites, jejunum morphology, nutrient digestibility, and carcass parameters of broiler chickens fed nutrient-deficient corn soybean-meal based diets containing high levels of non-starch polysaccharides from wheat and wheat by-products was investigated. A total of 378 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to one of seven dietary treatments to give six replicates per treatment (nine birds per pen). Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) positive control (PC; commercial standard diet); (2) negative control 1 (NC-1; PC-120 kcal/kg metabolizable energy); (3) NC-2 (PC-3% standardized ileal digestibility [SID] amino acids). The remaining four dietary treatments were formulated with the addition of MC (MC; Superzyme-CS™) into two negative controls along with two supplementation levels of MC (i.e., 0.025% and 0.05%, respectively). Improved body weight, average daily gain, and feed conversion ratio (p < 0.05) were observed in broiler chickens fed a reduced energy diet supplemented with MC compared to birds fed NC-1 diet from days 1-35. Additionally, birds fed a reduced energy diet with 0.05% MC showed comparable (p > 0.05) growth performance with birds fed PC for 35-day post-hatch. Furthermore, the addition of MC into reduced amino acid diets improved (p < 0.05) growth performance. Broiler chickens fed MC supplemented nutrient-deficient diets showed a greater (p < 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio than birds fed diets without MC on days 21 and 35. Similarly, improved (p < 0.05) nutrient digestibility was observed in birds fed reduced energy diets supplemented with MC compared to birds fed NC-1 on days 21 and 35. Our results suggest that MC supplementation into reduced energy or reduced amino acid diets containing wheat and wheat by-products has the potential to improve growth performance and nutrient digestibility while maintaining healthier gut morphology in broiler chickens from 1 to 35 days of age.

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