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한국균학회> Mycobiology> High-Temperature-Tolerant Fungus and Oomycetes in Korea, Including Saksenaea longicolla sp. nov.

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High-Temperature-Tolerant Fungus and Oomycetes in Korea, Including Saksenaea longicolla sp. nov.

Bora Nam , Dong-jae Lee , Young-joon Choi
  • : 한국균학회
  • : Mycobiology 49권5호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 10월
  • : 476-490(15pages)
Mycobiology

DOI


목차

1. Introduction
2. Materials and methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
Author contributions
Disclosure statement
Funding
ORCID
Data availability statement
References

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Global temperatures are steadily increasing, leading to significant changes in microbial diversity and ecology. In the present study, we isolated high-temperature-growing fungi and fungi-like group (Oomycota) strains from freshwater environments of Korea and identified them based on cultural, morphological, and multilocus phylogenetic analyses. As a result, we introduce Saksenaea (Fungi) isolates as a new species, Saksenaea longicolla sp. nov. and record Phytophthora chlamydospora and P. lagoariana (Oomycota) new to Korea. In the growth experiments, they exhibited high-temperature tolerance, which can grow at 35-40 ℃ but become inactive at 4 ℃ and below. This study confirms the presence of high-temperature- tolerant fungi and oomycetes in Korea and suggests that the Korean climate conditions are changing in favor of these species. This indicates that climate warming is altering microbial distributions in freshwater environments.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-400-000897252

간행물정보

  • : 자연과학분야  > 생물
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 격월
  • : 1229-8093
  • : 2092-9323
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2000-2022
  • : 1202


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1Comprehensive Transcriptomic Analysis of Cordyceps militaris Cultivated on Germinated Soybeans

저자 : Chang-hyuk Yoo , Md. Abu Sadat , Wonjae Kim , Tae-sik Park , Dong Ki Park , Jaehyuk Choi

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 50권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-11 (11 pages)

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The ascomycete fungus Cordyceps militaris infects lepidopteran larvae and pupae and forms characteristic fruiting bodies. Owing to its immune-enhancing effects, the fungus has been used as a medicine. For industrial application, this fungus can be grown on geminated soybeans as an alternative protein source. In our study, we performed a comprehensive transcriptomic analysis to identify core gene sets during C. militaris cultivation on germinated soybeans. RNA-Seq technology was applied to the fungal cultures at seven-time points (2, 4, and 7-day and 2, 3, 5, 7-week old cultures) to investigate the global transcriptomic change. We conducted a time-series analysis using a two-step regression strategy and chose 1460 significant genes and assigned them into five clusters. Characterization of each cluster based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases revealed that transcription profiles changed after two weeks of incubation. Gene mapping of cordycepin biosynthesis and isoflavone modification pathways also confirmed that gene expression in the early stage of GSC cultivation is important for these metabolic pathways. Our transcriptomic analysis and selected genes provided a comprehensive molecular basis for the cultivation of C. militaris on germinated soybeans.

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2Paramyrothecium eichhorniae sp. nov., Causing Leaf Blight Disease of Water Hyacinth from Thailand

저자 : Umpawa Pinruan , Jintana Unartngam , Arm Unartngam , Orawan Piyaboon , Sujinda Sommai , Phongsawat Khamsuntorn

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 50권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 12-19 (8 pages)

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Paramyrothecium eichhorniae sp. nov. was observed and collected from Chiang Mai and Phetchaburi Provinces, Thailand. This new species is introduced based on morphological and molecular evidence. This fungus is characterized by its production of sporodochium conidiomata with a white setose fringe surrounding an olivaceous green to dark green slimy mass of conidia, penicillately branched conidiophores, and aseptate and cylindrical to ellipsoid conidia. Phylogenetic analyses of combined LSU rDNA, ITS rDNA, tef1, rpb2, tub2 and cmdA sequence data using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches placed the fungus in a strongly supported clade with other Paramyrothecium species in Stachybotryaceae (Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes). The descriptions of the species are accompanied by illustrations of morphological features, and a discussion of the related taxa is presented.

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3A New Lichen-Forming Fungus, Aspicilia humida, from a Forested Wetland in South Korea, with a Taxonomic Key for Aspicilioid Species of Korea

저자 : Beeyoung Gun Lee , Hyun Tak Shin , Jae-seoun Hur

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 50권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 20-29 (10 pages)

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Aspicilia humida Lee is described as a new lichen-forming fungus from a wetland forest, South Korea. The new species is distinguishable from Aspicilia aquatica (Fr.) K€orb., the most similar species, by the absence of prothallus, black disk without green color in water, olivebrown epihymenium, shorter hymenium, hymenium Iþyellowish blue-green, wider paraphysial tips without a vivid pigment, smaller asci, smaller ascospores, and the presence of stictic acid. Molecular analyses employing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) sequences strongly support A. humida as a distinct species in the A. cinerea group. A surrogate key is provided to assist in the identification of all 28 aspicilioid species of Korea.

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4Two New Species and Three New Records of Ascomycetes in Korea

저자 : Thuong T. T. Nguyen , Hyo Jin Lim , So Jeong Chu , Hyang Burm Lee

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 50권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 30-45 (16 pages)

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During a survey of plant-inhabiting fungi and water niches from Korea, noteworthy fungi were collected; among them, two new species, Paracamarosporium noviaquum sp. nov. and Phyllosticta gwangjuensis sp. nov., are described based on morphology and multi-gene phylogenies. Paracamarosporium noviaquum was characterized by its production of 1-celled and 2-celled conidia, forming conidiomata on only potato dextrose agar medium. Phyllosticta gwangjuensis was characterized by conidia hyaline, ovoid to ellipsoid shape, rounded at both ends, containing numerous guttulae or with a single large central guttule. Additional species were identified as Cosmospora lavitskiae, Monochaetia cameliae, and Roussoella doimaesalongensis, which are reported as new record species from Korea. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of these taxa are provided herein.

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5Two Unrecorded Apiospora Species Isolated from Marine Substrates in Korea with Eight New Combinations (A. piptatheri and A. rasikravindrae)

저자 : Sun Lul Kwon , Minseo Cho , Young Min Lee , Changmu Kim , Soo Min Lee , Byoung Jun Ahn , Hanbyul Lee , Jae-jin Kim

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 50권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 46-54 (9 pages)

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Although Apiospora Sacc. has previously been considered a sexual morph of Arthrinium species on the basis of phylogenetic, morphological, and ecological diagnoses, a recent study delimited these as different species. Recently, 14 species, including eight new species, of marine Arthrinium have been reported from Korea. Six known species have previously been renamed as species in the genus Apiospora (A. arundinis, A. marii, A. piptatheri, A. rasikravindrae, A. sacchari, and A. saccharicola). However, the eight new species of marine Arthrinium (Ar. agari, Ar. arctoscopi, Ar. fermenti, Ar. koreanum, Ar. marinum, Ar. pusillispermum, Ar. sargassi, and Ar. taeanense) are yet to be studied, and thus the taxonomic status of these species remains to be clarified. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic analyses using the internal transcribed spacer, 28S large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, translation elongation factor 1-alpha, and beta-tubulin regions to confirm the phylogenetic position of these eight species. Based on these analyses, we re-identified the eight Arthrinium species as new combinations in Apiospora. Additionally, among the six known Apiospora species, two (A. piptatheri and A. rasikravindrae) have not previously been recorded in Korea. On the basis of morphological and molecular analyses, we report these as new species in Korea. Herein, we present scanning electron micrographs detailing the morphologies of these species, along with phylogenetic trees and detailed descriptions.

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6Endolichenic Fungal Community Analysis by Pure Culture Isolation and Metabarcoding: A Case Study of Parmotrema tinctorum

저자 : Ji Ho Yang , Seung-yoon Oh , Wonyong Kim , Jae-seoun Hur

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 50권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 55-65 (11 pages)

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Lichen is a symbiotic mutualism of mycobiont and photobiont that harbors diverse organisms including endolichenic fungi (ELF). Despite the taxonomic and ecological significance of ELF, no comparative investigation of an ELF community involving isolation of a pure culture and high-throughput sequencing has been conducted. Thus, we analyzed the ELF community in Parmotrema tinctorum by culture and metabarcoding. Alpha diversity of the ELF community was notably greater in metabarcoding than in culture-based analysis. Taxonomic proportions of the ELF community estimated by metabarcoding and by culture analyses showed remarkable differences: Sordariomycetes was the most dominant fungal class in culture- based analysis, while Dothideomycetes was the most abundant in metabarcoding analysis. Thirty-seven operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were commonly observed by culture-and metabarcoding-based analyses but relative abundances differed: most of common OTUs were underrepresented in metabarcoding. The ELF community differed in lichen segments and thalli in metabarcoding analysis. Dissimilarity of ELF community intra lichen thallus increased with thallus segment distance; inter-thallus ELF community dissimilarity was significantly greater than intra-thallus ELF community dissimilarity. Finally, we tested how many fungal sequence reads would be needed to ELF diversity with relationship assays between numbers of lichen segments and saturation patterns of OTU richness and sample coverage. At least 6000 sequence reads per lichen thallus were sufficient for prediction of overall ELF community diversity and 50,000 reads per thallus were enough to observe rare taxa of ELF.

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7Draft Genome Assembly and Annotation for Cutaneotrichosporon dermatis NICC30027, an Oleaginous Yeast Capable of Simultaneous Glucose and Xylose Assimilation

저자 : Laiyou Wang , Shuxian Guo , Bo Zeng , Shanshan Wang , Yan Chen , Shuang Cheng , Bingbing Liu , Chunyan Wang , Yu Wang , Qingshan Meng

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 50권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 66-78 (13 pages)

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The identification of oleaginous yeast species capable of simultaneously utilizing xylose and glucose as substrates to generate value-added biological products is an area of key economic interest. We have previously demonstrated that the Cutaneotrichosporon dermatis NICC30027 yeast strain is capable of simultaneously assimilating both xylose and glucose, resulting in considerable lipid accumulation. However, as no high-quality genome sequencing data or associated annotations for this strain are available at present, it remains challenging to study the metabolic mechanisms underlying this phenotype. Herein, we report a 39,305,439 bp draft genome assembly for C. dermatis NICC30027 comprised of 37 scaffolds, with 60.15% GC content. Within this genome, we identified 524 tRNAs, 142 sRNAs, 53 miRNAs, 28 snRNAs, and eight rRNA clusters. Moreover, repeat sequences totaling 1,032,129 bp in length were identified (2.63% of the genome), as were 14,238 unigenes that were 1,789.35 bp in length on average (64.82% of the genome). The NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (NR) database was employed to successfully annotate 11,795 of these unigenes, while 3,621 and 11,902 were annotated with the Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL databases, respectively. Unigenes were additionally subjected to pathway enrichment analyses using the Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG), Clusters of orthologous groups for eukaryotic complete genomes (KOG), and Non-supervised Orthologous Groups (eggNOG) databases. Together, these results provide a foundation for future studies aimed at clarifying the mechanistic basis for the ability of C. dermatis NICC30027 to simultaneously utilize glucose and xylose to synthesize lipids.

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8Genetic Variation of Strawberry Fusarium Wilt Pathogen Population in Korea

저자 : Gyeongjun Cho , Youn-sig Kwak

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 50권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 79-85 (7 pages)

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Strawberries are a popular economic crop, and one of the major plantations and exporting countries is Korea in the world. The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) is a soil-borne pathogen with genetic diversity, resulting in wilt disease in various crops. In Korea, strawberries wilt disease was first reported in the 1980s due to the infection of FOSC, causing significant economic damage every year. The causal agent, F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae, is a soil-borne pathogen with a characteristic of FOSC that is difficult to control chemically and mutates easily. This study obtained genetic polymorphism information that was based on AFLP, of F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae 91 strains, which were isolated from strawberry cultivation sites in Gyeongsangnam-do and Chungcheongnam-do, and compared strains information, which was the isolated location, host variety, response to chemical fungicide, and antagonistic bacteria, and mycelium phenotype. As a result, AFLP phylogeny found that two groups were mainly present, and group B was present at a high frequency in Gyeongsangnam-do. Group B proved less sensitive to tebuconazole than group A through Student's t-test. In addition, the fractions pattern of AFLP was calculated by comparing the strain information using PCA and PERMANOVA, and the main criteria were separated localization and strawberry varieties (PERMANOVA; p<0.05). And tebuconazole was different with weak confidence (PERMANOVA; p<0.10). This study suggests that the F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae should be continuously monitored and managed, including group B, which is less chemically effective.

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9Cordycepin from Medicinal Fungi Cordyceps militaris Mitigates Inflammaging-Associated Testicular Damage via Regulating NF-jB/MAPKs Signaling in Naturally Aged Rats

저자 : Spandana Rajendra Kopalli , Kyu-min Cha , Jae Youl Cho , Si-kwan Kim , Sushruta Koppula

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 50권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 86-95 (10 pages)

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Inflammaging in male reproductive organs covers a wide variety of problems, including sexual dysfunction and infertility. In this study, the beneficial effects of cordycepin (COR), isolated from potential medicinal fungi Cordyceps militaris, in aging-associated testicular inflammation and serum biochemical changes in naturally aged rats were investigated. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into young control (YC), aged control (AC), and COR (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) treated aged rat groups. Aging-associated serum biochemical changes and inflammatory parameters were analyzed by biochemical assay kits, Western blotting, and real-time RT-PCR. Results showed a significant (p<0.05) alteration in the total blood cell count, lipid metabolism, and liver functional parameters in AC group when compared with YC group. However, COR-treated aged rats ameliorated the altered biochemical parameters significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.01 at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively). Furthermore, the increase in the expression of inflammatory mediators (COX-2, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1b, and tissue necrosis factor-alpha) in aged rat testis was significant (p<0.05) when compared with YC group. Treatment with COR at 20 mg/kg to aged rats attenuated the increased expression of inflammatory mediators significantly (p<0.05). Mechanistic studies revealed that the potential attenuating effects exhibited by COR in aged rats was mediated by regulation of NF-jB activation and MAPKs (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and p38) signaling. In conclusion, COR restored the altered serum biochemical parameters in aged rats and ameliorated the aging-associated testicular inflammation proving the therapeutic benefits of COR targeting inflammaging-associated male sexual dysfunctions.

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10Draft Genome Sequences of Three Airborne Aspergilli Series Versicolores

저자 : Antoine Géry , Virginie Séguin , Julie Bonhomme , David Garon

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 50권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 96-98 (3 pages)

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The Aspergilli of the section Nidulantes series Versicolores are among the most recurrent molds in indoor environments. These species cause damage to the quality of air. Indeed, they are responsible for allergies, aggravation of asthma and can even cause infections in immunocompromised patients. Molds belonging to the Versicolores series also produce sterigmatocystin, a mycotoxin classified as potential human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (group 2B). Here, we provide for the first time the genome of three species of the series Versicolores: Aspergillus creber, Aspergillus jensenii and Aspergillus protuberus which are the most abundant species of this series in bioaerosols. The genomes of these three species could be assembled with a percentage of completeness of 97.02%, 96.21% and 95.35% for Aspergillus creber, A. jensenii and A. protuberus respectively. These data will allow to study the genes and gene clusters responsible for the expression of virulence factors, the biosynthesis of mycotoxins and the proliferation of these ubiquitous and recurrent molds.

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1Phallus chiangmaiensis sp. nov. and a Record of P. merulinus in Thailand

저자 : Sujinda Sommai , Phongsawat Khamsuntorn , Sayanh Somrithipol , Janet Jennifer Luangsa-ard , Umpawa Pinruan

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 439-453 (15 pages)

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During the rainy season in Thailand, specimens of Phallus chiangmaiensis sp. nov. and P. merulinus were collected from Chiang Mai and Samut Sakhon Provinces, respectively. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU), nuclear ribosomal 5.8S gene including the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 (ITS), and the protein-coding gene atp6 (mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate [ATP] synthase subunit 6) support the placement of the new species within Phallus. Phallus chiangmaiensis has a well-developed white indusium and campanulated caps with reticulate surfaces. It differs morphologically from the related species, as supported by the phylogenetic data. Phallus merulinus is reported here as a species that was re-encountered in Thailand. The descriptions of the species are accompanied by illustrations of macro- and micro- morphological features, and a discussion of the related taxa is presented.

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2First Report of Six Macrofungi from Daecheongdo and Socheongdo Islands, Korea

저자 : Minkyeong Kim , Jin Sung Lee , Jae Young Park , Changmu Kim

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 454-460 (7 pages)

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Daecheongdo and Socheongdo Islands are located in the West Sea of Korea, 210km away from land, and are military border areas very close to North Korea, making them difficult to access. Although the ecosystem of the islands is relatively well preserved due to the lack of accessibility, research on fungi of the regions is insufficient. Therefore, we aimed to investigate indigenous fungi in these geographically and geopolitically constrained regions. A survey of the indigenous fungal diversity of the islands was conducted in 2018. All specimens were identified at the species level based on morphological and molecular analyses. Among them, six macrofungi―namely, Agaricus menieri, Crepidotus praecipuus, Dichomitus squalens, Hortiboletus amygdalinus, Melanoleuca friesii, and Trametes lactinea―were not previously reported in Korea. Considering that the proportion of unrecorded species is high in the survey area and period as well as the number of samples collected, similar research on adjacent islands may be necessary.

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3Determination of Diversity, Distribution and Host Specificity of Korean Laccaria Using Four Approaches

저자 : Hae Jin Cho , Ki Hyeong Park , Myung Soo Park , Yoonhee Cho , Ji Seon Kim , Chang Wan Seo , Seung-yoon Oh , Young Woon Lim

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 461-468 (8 pages)

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The genus Laccaria (Hydnangiaceae, Agaricales) plays an important role in forest ecosystems as an ectomycorrhizal fungus, contributing to nutrient cycles through symbiosis with many types of trees. Though understanding Laccaria diversity and distribution patterns, as well as its association with host plants, is fundamental to constructing a balanced plant diversity and conducting effective forest management, previous studies have not been effective in accurately investigating, as they relied heavily on specimen collection alone. To investigate the true diversity and distribution pattern of Laccaria species and determine their host types, we used four different approaches: specimen-based analysis, open database search (ODS), NGS analysis, and species-specific PCR (SSP). As a result, 14 Laccaria species have been confirmed in Korea. Results regarding the species distribution pattern were different between specimen-based analysis and SSP. However, when both were integrated, the exact distribution pattern of each Laccaria species was determined. In addition, the SSP revealed that many Laccaria species have a wide range of host types. This study shows that using these four different approaches is useful in determining the diversity, distribution, and host of ECM fungi. Furthermore, results obtained for Laccaria will serve as a baseline to help understand the role of ECM fungi in forest management in response to climate change.

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4Mrakia terrae sp. nov. and Mrakia soli sp. nov., Two Novel Basidiomycetous Yeast Species Isolated from Soil in Korea

저자 : Yuna Park , Soohyun Maeng , Junsang Oh , Gi-ho Sung , Sathiyaraj Srinivasan

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 469-475 (7 pages)

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Three strains, YP416T, YP421T, and Y422, were isolated from soil samples in Pocheon City, Gyeonggi province, South Korea. The strains belong to two novel yeast species in the genus Mrakia. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain YP416T was closely related to Mrakia niccombsii. Still, it differed by 9 nucleotide substitutions with no gap (1.51%) in the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene and 14 nucleotide substitutions with 7 gaps (2.36%) in the ITS region. The strain YP421T differed from the type strain of the most closely related species, Mrakia aquatica, by 5 nucleotide substitutions with no gap (0.81%) in the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene and 9 nucleotide substitutions with one gap (1.43%) in the ITS region. The names Mrakia terrae sp. nov. and Mrakia soli sp. nov. are proposed, with type strains YP416T (KCTC 27886T) and YP421T (KCTC 27890T), respectively. MycoBank numbers of the strains YP416T and YP421T are MB 836844 and MB 836847, respectively.

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5High-Temperature-Tolerant Fungus and Oomycetes in Korea, Including Saksenaea longicolla sp. nov.

저자 : Bora Nam , Dong-jae Lee , Young-joon Choi

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 476-490 (15 pages)

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Global temperatures are steadily increasing, leading to significant changes in microbial diversity and ecology. In the present study, we isolated high-temperature-growing fungi and fungi-like group (Oomycota) strains from freshwater environments of Korea and identified them based on cultural, morphological, and multilocus phylogenetic analyses. As a result, we introduce Saksenaea (Fungi) isolates as a new species, Saksenaea longicolla sp. nov. and record Phytophthora chlamydospora and P. lagoariana (Oomycota) new to Korea. In the growth experiments, they exhibited high-temperature tolerance, which can grow at 35-40 ℃ but become inactive at 4 ℃ and below. This study confirms the presence of high-temperature- tolerant fungi and oomycetes in Korea and suggests that the Korean climate conditions are changing in favor of these species. This indicates that climate warming is altering microbial distributions in freshwater environments.

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6Optimization of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of Xylaria grammica EL000614, an Endolichenic Fungus Producing Grammicin

저자 : Min-hye Jeong , Jung A. Kim , Seogchan Kang , Eu Ddeum Choi , Youngmin Kim , Yerim Lee , Mi Jin Jeon , Nan Hee Yu , Ae Ran Park , Jin-cheol Kim , Soonok Kim , Sook-young Park

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 491-497 (7 pages)

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An endolichenic fungus Xylaria grammica EL000614 produces grammicin, a potent nematicidal pyrone derivative that can serve as a new control option for root-knot nematodes. We optimized an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) protocol for X. grammica to support genetic studies. Transformants were successfully generated after co-cultivation of homogenized young mycelia of X. grammica with A. tumefaciens strain AGL-1 carrying a binary vector that contains the bacterial hygromycin B phosphotransferase (hph) gene and the eGFP gene in T-DNA. The resulting transformants were mitotically stable, and PCR analysis showed the integratin of both genes in the genome of transformants. Expression of eGFP was confirmed via fluorescence microscopy. Southern analysis showed that 131 (78.9%) out of 166 transformants contained a single T-DNA insertion. Crucial factors for producing predominantly single T-DNA transformants include 48 h of co-cultivation, pretreatment of A. tumefaciens cells with acetosyringone before co-cultivation, and using freshly prepared mycelia. The established ATMT protocol offers an efficient tool for random insertional mutagenesis and gene transfer in studying the biology and ecology of X. grammica.

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7Antifungal Activity of an Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus versicolor DYSJ3 from Aphanamixis grandifolia Blume against Colletotrichum musae

저자 : Xiaoyu Li , Yateng Wu , Zhiqiang Liu

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 498-506 (9 pages)

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An endophytic fungus strain DYSJ3 was isolated from a stem of Aphanamixis grandifolia Blume, which was identified as Aspergillus versicolor based on the morphological characteristics, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and calmodulin gene sequences analyses. A. versicolor DYSJ3 exhibited strong antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum musae, C. gloeosporioides and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense with the inhibition rates of 61.9, 51.2 and 55.3% respectively. The antifungal metabolites mainly existed in the mycelium of A. versicolor DYSJ3, and its mycelial crude extract (CE) had broad-spectrum antifungal activities against plant pathogenic fungi. The CE had a good thermal stability, and the inhibition rate of 100 mg/mL CE against C. musae was above 70.0% after disposing at 120 ℃ for 1 h. Five secondary metabolites were isolated from the CE and identified as averufanin, ergosterol peroxide, versicolorin B, averythrin and sterigmatocystin. Activity evaluation showed versicolorin B exhibited inhibitory effects on the mycelial growth and conidial germination of C. musae, and sterigmatocystin had a weak inhibitory effect on the mycelial growth of C. musae.

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8Removal of Manganese and Copper from Aqueous Solution by Yeast Papiliotrema huenov

저자 : Phu Nguyen Van , Hai Thi Hong Truong , Tuan Anh Pham , Tuan Le Cong , Tien Le , Kim Cuc Thi Nguyen

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 507-520 (14 pages)

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Papiliotrema huenov was previously reported to be highly tolerant of a range of extremely toxic heavy metals. This study aimed to identify the potential of P. huenov to remove manganese and copper from aqueous solution. Physical conditions which affect removal of Mn(II) and Cu(II) were determined. Optimal temperature for adsorption of both metal ions was 30 ℃, and optimal pH for maximum uptake of Mn(II) and Cu(II) were 5 and 6, respectively. Under these conditions, living cells of P. huenov accumulated up to 75.58% of 110mg/ L Mn(II) and 70.5% of 128mg/L Cu(II) over 120 h, whereas, the removal efficiency of metal ions by dead cells over 1 h was 60.3% and 56.5%, respectively. These results indicate that living cells are more effective than dead biomass for bioremediation, but that greater time is required. The experimental data extends the potential use of P. huenov in biosorption and bioaccumulation of toxic heavy metals to copper and manganese, two of the most common industrial contaminants.

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9Zygotorulaspora cornina sp. nov. and Zygotorulaspora smilacis sp. nov., Two Novel Ascomycetous Yeast Species Isolated from Plant Flowers and Fruits

저자 : Chorong Ahn , Minkyeong Kim , Changmu Kim

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 521-526 (6 pages)

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Three isolates belonging to the ascomycetous genus Zygotorulaspora were obtained from the fruits of Cornus officinalis and Smilax china, and flowers of Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum in Gongju-si, Korea. Phylogenetic Analyses of the LSU D1/D2 domain and ITS region sequences supported the recognition of two new species: Zygotorulaspora cornina sp. nov. (type strain NIBRFGC000500475 ¼ KACC93346PPP) and Zygotorulaspora smilacis sp. nov. (type strain NIBRFGC000500476 ¼ KACC93347PPP). The two novel species revealed no growth on D-Galactose, unlike the other six species in the genus Zygotorulaspora. They are distinguished from each other by their phylogenetic differences and phenotypic characteristics such as assimilation of xylitol, 5-keto-D-gluconate, and ethanol. All species in the genus Zygotorulaspora including the two novel species have phenotypic traits of genus Zygotorulaspora: asci are persistent, sucrose and raffinose are assimilated, and m-inositol is not required for growth, and they are mainly associated with plants.

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