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한국정보처리학회> JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems)> Joint Detection Method for Non-orthogonal Multiple Access System Based on Linear Precoding and Serial Interference Cancellation

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Joint Detection Method for Non-orthogonal Multiple Access System Based on Linear Precoding and Serial Interference Cancellation

Jianpo Li , Qiwei Wang
  • : 한국정보처리학회
  • : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권5호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 10월
  • : 933-946(14pages)
JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems)

DOI


목차

1. Introduction
2. Key Principles of NOMA Downlink System
3. Research on Joint Detection Method based on RZF Precoding and MMSE-SIC NOMA Technology
4. Simulation Results and Analysis
5. Conclusion
Acknowledgement
References

키워드 보기


초록 보기

In the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system, multiple user signals on the single carrier are superimposed in a non-orthogonal manner, which results in the interference between non-orthogonal users and noise interference in the channel. To solve this problem, an improved algorithm combining regularized zero-forcing (RZF) precoding with minimum mean square error-serial interference cancellation (MMSE-SIC) detection is proposed. The algorithm uses RZF precoding combined with successive over-relaxation (SOR) method at the base station to preprocess the source signal, which can balance the effects of non-orthogonal inter-user interference and noise interference, and generate a precoded signal suitable for transmission in the channel. At the receiver, the MMSE-SIC detection algorithm is used to further eliminate the interference in the signal for the received superimposed signal, and reduce the calculation complexity through the QR decomposition of the matrix. The simulation results show that the proposed joint detection algorithm has good applicability to eliminate the interference of non-orthogonal users, and it has low complexity and fast convergence speed. Compared with other traditional method, the improved method has lower error rate under different signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR).

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-500-000907954

간행물정보

  • : 공학분야  > 전자공학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 1976-913x
  • : 2092-805X
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2005-2022
  • : 989


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1Implementation of Quality Management System for Wild-Simulated Ginseng Using Blockchain

저자 : Youngjun Sung , Yoojae Won

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 173-187 (15 pages)

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A special government agency has been charged with implementing quality management to guarantee the quality of wild-simulated ginseng. However, these processes are carried out by use of documents, and this has resulted in information omission and high document management costs. To solve this problem, this study analyzed the existing quality management process by using a smart contract for the existing offline form and proposed a new quality management system for storing and managing all log data in the blockchain. This system reduced documentation management costs about quality management and recorded information in the previous step through the quality management steps, thus forming a step-by-step record chain. Experiments were conducted by implementing this system, which improved data integrity and reliability. Additionally, sensitive information, such as personal information, was included in the system by use of the off-chain technology.

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2Path-Based Computation Encoder for Neural Architecture Search

저자 : Ying Yang , Xu Zhang , Hu Pan

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 188-196 (9 pages)

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Recently, neural architecture search (NAS) has received increasing attention as it can replace human experts in designing the architecture of neural networks for different tasks and has achieved remarkable results in many challenging tasks. In this study, a path-based computation neural architecture encoder (PCE) was proposed. Our PCE first encodes the computation of information on each path in a neural network, and then aggregates the encodings on all paths together through an attention mechanism, simulating the process of information computation along paths in a neural network and encoding the computation on the neural network instead of the structure of the graph, which is more consistent with the computational properties of neural networks. We performed an extensive comparison with eight encoding methods on two commonly used NAS search spaces (NAS-Bench-101 and NAS-Bench-201), which included a comparison of the predictive capabilities of performance predictors and search capabilities based on two search strategies (reinforcement learning-based and Bayesian optimization-based) when equipped with different encoders. Experimental evaluation shows that PCE is an efficient encoding method that effectively ranks and predicts neural architecture performance, thereby improving the search efficiency of neural architectures.

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3A Manually Captured and Modified Phone Screen Image Dataset for Widget Classification on CNNs

저자 : Sungchul Byun , Seong-soo Han , Chang-sung Jeong

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 197-207 (11 pages)

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The applications and user interfaces (UIs) of smart mobile devices are constantly diversifying. For example, deep learning can be an innovative solution to classify widgets in screen images for increasing convenience. To this end, the present research leverages captured images and the ReDraw dataset to write deep learning datasets for image classification purposes. First, as the validation for datasets using ResNet50 and EfficientNet, the experiments show that the dataset composed in this study is helpful for classification according to a widget's functionality. An implementation for widget detection and classification on RetinaNet and EfficientNet is then executed. Finally, the research suggests the Widg-C and Widg-D datasets―a deep learning dataset for identifying the widgets of smart devices―and implementing them for use with representative convolutional neural network models.

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4Models and Methods for the Evaluation of Automobile Manufacturing Supply Chain Coordination Degree Based on Collaborative Entropy

저자 : Qiang Xiao , Hongshuang Wang

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 208-222 (15 pages)

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Through the analysis of the coordination mechanism of the supply chain system of China's automobile manufacturing industry, the factors affecting the supply subsystem, the manufacturing subsystem, the sales subsystem, and the consumption subsystem are sorted out, the supply chain coordination index system based on the influence factor of four subsystems is established. The evaluation models of the coordination degree in the subsystem of the supply chain, the coordination degree among the subsystems, and the comprehensive coordination degree are established by using the efficiency coefficient method and the collaborative entropy method. Experimental results verify the accuracy of the evaluation model using the empirical analysis of the collaborative evaluation index data of China's automobile manufacturing industry from 2000 to 2019. The supply chain synergy of automobile manufacturing industry was low from 2001 to 2005, and it increased to a certain extent from 2006 to 2008 with a small growth rate from 0.10 to 0.15. From 2009 to 2013, the supply chain synergy of automobile manufacturing industry increased rapidly from 0.24 to 0.49, and it also increased rapidly but fluctuated from 2014 to 2019, first rising from 0.68 to 0.84 then dropping to 0.71. These results provide reference for the development of China's automobile manufacturing supply chain system and scientific decision-making basis for the formulation of relevant policies of the automobile manufacturing industry.

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5Automated Print Quality Assessment Method for 3D Printing AI Data Construction

저자 : Hyun-ju Yoo , Nammee Moon

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 223-234 (12 pages)

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The evaluation of the print quality of 3D printing has traditionally relied on manual work using dimensional measurements. However, the dimensional measurement method has an error value that depends on the person who measures it. Therefore, we propose the design of a new print quality measurement method that can be automatically measured using the field-of-view (FOV) model and the intersection over union (IoU) technique. First, the height information of the modeling is acquired from a camera; the output is measured by a sensor; and the images of the top and isometric views are acquired from the FOV model. The height information calculates the height ratio by calculating the percentage of modeling and output, and compares the 2D contour of the object on the image using the FOV model. The contour of the object is obtained from the image for 2D contour comparison and the IoU is calculated by comparing the areas of the contour regions. The accuracy of the automated measurement technique for determining, which derives the print quality value was calculated by averaging the IoU value corrected by the measurement error and the height ratio value.

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6A Fast Inter-prediction Mode Decision Algorithm for HEVC Based on Spatial-Temporal Correlation

저자 : Weixin Yao , Dan Yang

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 235-244 (10 pages)

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Many new techniques have been adopted in HEVC (High efficiency video coding) standard, such as quadtree-structured coding unit (CU), prediction unit (PU) partition, 35 intra-mode, and so on. To reduce computational complexity, the paper proposes two optimization algorithms which include fast CU depth range decision and fast PU partition mode decision. Firstly, depth range of CU is predicted according to spatial-temporal correlation. Secondly, we utilize the depth difference between the current CU and CU corresponding to the same position of adjacent frame for PU mode range selection. The number of traversal candidate modes is reduced. The experiment result shows the proposed algorithm obtains a lot of time reducing, and the loss of coding efficiency is inappreciable.

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7A Deep Learning Approach for Identifying User Interest from Targeted Advertising

저자 : Wonkyung Kim , Kukheon Lee , Sangjin Lee , Doowon Jeong

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 245-257 (13 pages)

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In the Internet of Things (IoT) era, the types of devices used by one user are becoming more diverse and the number of devices is also increasing. However, a forensic investigator is restricted to exploit or collect all the user's devices; there are legal issues (e.g., privacy, jurisdiction) and technical issues (e.g., computing resources, the increase in storage capacity). Therefore, in the digital forensics field, it has been a challenge to acquire information that remains on the devices that could not be collected, by analyzing the seized devices. In this study, we focus on the fact that multiple devices share data through account synchronization of the online platform. We propose a novel way of identifying the user's interest through analyzing the remnants of targeted advertising which is provided based on the visited websites or search terms of logged-in users. We introduce a detailed methodology to pick out the targeted advertising from cache data and infer the user's interest using deep learning. In this process, an improved learning model considering the unique characteristics of advertisement is implemented. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed method can effectively identify the user interest even though only one device is examined.

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8Implementation of Image Transmission Based on Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

저자 : Changhao Piao , Xiaoyue Ding , Jia He , Soohyun Jang , Mingjie Liu

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 258-267 (10 pages)

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Weak over-the-horizon perception and blind spot are the main problems in intelligent connected vehicles (ICVs). In this paper, a V2V image transmission-based road condition warning method is proposed to solve them. The encoded road emergency images which are collected by the ICV are transmitted to the on-board unit (OBU) through Ethernet. The OBU broadcasts the fragmented image information including location and clock of the vehicle to other OBUs. To satisfy the channel quality of the V2X communication in different times, the optimal fragment length is selected by the OBU to process the image information. Then, according to the position and clock information of the remote vehicles, OBU of the receiver selects valid messages to decode the image information which will help the receiver to extend the perceptual field. The experimental results show that our method has an average packet loss rate of 0.5%. The transmission delay is about 51.59 ms in low-speed driving scenarios, which can provide drivers with timely and reliable warnings of the road conditions.

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9An Approach to Applying Multiple Linear Regression Models by Interlacing Data in Classifying Similar Software

저자 : Hyun-il Lim

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 268-281 (14 pages)

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The development of information technology is bringing many changes to everyday life, and machine learning can be used as a technique to solve a wide range of real-world problems. Analysis and utilization of data are essential processes in applying machine learning to real-world problems. As a method of processing data in machine learning, we propose an approach based on applying multiple linear regression models by interlacing data to the task of classifying similar software. Linear regression is widely used in estimation problems to model the relationship between input and output data. In our approach, multiple linear regression models are generated by training on interlaced feature data. A combination of these multiple models is then used as the prediction model for classifying similar software. Experiments are performed to evaluate the proposed approach as compared to conventional linear regression, and the experimental results show that the proposed method classifies similar software more accurately than the conventional model. We anticipate the proposed approach to be applied to various kinds of classification problems to improve the accuracy of conventional linear regression.

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10A BERT-Based Automatic Scoring Model of Korean Language Learners' Essay

저자 : Jung Hee Lee , Ji Su Park , Jin Gon Shon

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 18권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 282-291 (10 pages)

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This research applies a pre-trained bidirectional encoder representations from transformers (BERT) handwriting recognition model to predict foreign Korean-language learners' writing scores. A corpus of 586 answers to midterm and final exams written by foreign learners at the Intermediate 1 level was acquired and used for pre-training, resulting in consistent performance, even with small datasets. The test data were pre-processed and fine-tuned, and the results were calculated in the form of a score prediction. The difference between the prediction and actual score was then calculated. An accuracy of 95.8% was demonstrated, indicating that the prediction results were strong overall; hence, the tool is suitable for the automatic scoring of Korean written test answers, including grammatical errors, written by foreigners. These results are particularly meaningful in that the data included written language text produced by foreign learners, not native speakers.

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1Multi-channel Long Short-Term Memory with Domain Knowledge for Context Awareness and User Intention

저자 : Dan-Bi Cho , Hyun-young Lee , Seung-Shik Kang

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 867-878 (12 pages)

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In context awareness and user intention tasks, dataset construction is expensive because specific domain data are required. Although pretraining with a large corpus can effectively resolve the issue of lack of data, it ignores domain knowledge. Herein, we concentrate on data domain knowledge while addressing data scarcity and accordingly propose a multi-channel long short-term memory (LSTM). Because multi-channel LSTM integrates pretrained vectors such as task and general knowledge, it effectively prevents catastrophic forgetting between vectors of task and general knowledge to represent the context as a set of features. To evaluate the proposed model with reference to the baseline model, which is a single-channel LSTM, we performed two tasks: voice phishing with context awareness and movie review sentiment classification. The results verified that multichannel LSTM outperforms single-channel LSTM in both tasks. We further experimented on different multichannel LSTMs depending on the domain and data size of general knowledge in the model and confirmed that the effect of multi-channel LSTM integrating the two types of knowledge from downstream task data and raw data to overcome the lack of data.

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2Route Optimization Algorithm Based on Game Theory for Tourism Routes at Pseudo-Imperial Palace

저자 : Guangjie Liu , Jinlong Zhu , Qiucheng Sun , Jiaze Hu , Hao Yu

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 879-891 (13 pages)

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With improvements in living conditions, an increasing number of people are choosing to spend their time traveling. Comfortable tour routes are affected by the season, time, and other local factors. In this paper, the influencing factors and principles of scenic spots are analyzed, a model used to find the available routes is built, and a multi-route choice model based on a game theory utilizing a path recommendation weight is developed. A Monte Carlo analysis of a tourist route subjected to fixed access point conditions is applied to account for uncertainties such as the season, start time, end time, stay time, number of scenic spots, destination, and start point. We use the Dijkstra method to obtain multiple path plans and calculate the path evaluation score using the Monte Carlo method. Finally, according to the user preference in the input path, game theory generates path ordering for user choice. The proposed approach achieves a state-of-the-art performance at the pseudo-imperial palace. Compared with other methods, the proposed method can avoid congestion and reduce the time cost.

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3Image Semantic Segmentation Using Improved ENet Network

저자 : Chaoxian Dong

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 892-904 (13 pages)

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An image semantic segmentation model is proposed based on improved ENet network in order to achieve the low accuracy of image semantic segmentation in complex environment. Firstly, this paper performs pruning and convolution optimization operations on the ENet network. That is, the network structure is reasonably adjusted for better results in image segmentation by reducing the convolution operation in the decoder and proposing the bottleneck convolution structure. Squeeze-and-excitation (SE) module is then integrated into the optimized ENet network. Small-scale targets see improvement in segmentation accuracy via automatic learning of the importance of each feature channel. Finally, the experiment was verified on the public dataset. This method outperforms the existing comparison methods in mean pixel accuracy (MPA) and mean intersection over union (MIOU) values. And in a short running time, the accuracy of the segmentation and the efficiency of the operation are guaranteed.

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4Range Segmentation of Dynamic Offloading (RSDO) Algorithm by Correlation for Edge Computing

저자 : Jieun Kang , Svetlana Kim , Jae-ho Kim , Nak-myoung Sung , Yong-Ik Yoon

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 905-917 (13 pages)

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In recent years, edge computing technology consists of several Internet of Things (IoT) devices with embedded sensors that have improved significantly for monitoring, detection, and management in an environment where big data is commercialized. The main focus of edge computing is data optimization or task offloading due to data and task-intensive application development. However, existing offloading approaches do not consider correlations and associations between data and tasks involving edge computing. The extent of collaborative offloading segmented without considering the interaction between data and task can lead to data loss and delays when moving from edge to edge. This article proposes a range segmentation of dynamic offloading (RSDO) algorithm that isolates the offload range and collaborative edge node around the edge node function to address the offloading issue.The RSDO algorithm groups highly correlated data and tasks according to the cause of the overload and dynamically distributes offloading ranges according to the state of cooperating nodes. The segmentation improves the overall performance of edge nodes, balances edge computing, and solves data loss and average latency.

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5Supply Chain Collaboration Degree of Manufacturing Enterprises Using Matter-Element Method

저자 : Qiang Xiao , Shuangshuang Yao , Mengjun Qiang

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 918-932 (15 pages)

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Evaluation of the collaboration of the upstream and downstream enterprises in the manufacturing supply chain is important to improve their synergistic effect. From the supply chain perspective, this study establishes the evaluation model of the manufacturing enterprise collaboration on the basis of fuzzy entropy according to synergistic theory. Downstream enterprises carry out coordinated capital, business, and information flows as subsystems and research enterprises as composite systems. From the three subsystems, the collaboration evaluation index is selected as the order parameter. The compound fuzzy matter-element matrix is established by using its improved algorithm. Subordinate membership and standard deviation fuzzy matter-element matrixes are constructed. Index weight is determined using the entropy weight method. The closeness of each matter element is then calculated. Through a representative of the home appliance industry, namely, Gree Electric Appliances Inc. of Zhuhai, empirical analysis of data in 2011-2017 from the company and its upstream and downstream enterprise collaboration shows a good trend, but the coordinated development has not reached stability. Gree Electric Appliances Inc. of Zhuhai need to strengthen the synergy with upstream and downstream enterprises in terms of cash, business, and information flows to enhance competitiveness. Experimental results show that this method can provide precise suggestions for enterprises, improve the degree of collaboration, and accelerate the development and upgrading of the manufacturing industry.

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6Joint Detection Method for Non-orthogonal Multiple Access System Based on Linear Precoding and Serial Interference Cancellation

저자 : Jianpo Li , Qiwei Wang

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 933-946 (14 pages)

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In the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system, multiple user signals on the single carrier are superimposed in a non-orthogonal manner, which results in the interference between non-orthogonal users and noise interference in the channel. To solve this problem, an improved algorithm combining regularized zero-forcing (RZF) precoding with minimum mean square error-serial interference cancellation (MMSE-SIC) detection is proposed. The algorithm uses RZF precoding combined with successive over-relaxation (SOR) method at the base station to preprocess the source signal, which can balance the effects of non-orthogonal inter-user interference and noise interference, and generate a precoded signal suitable for transmission in the channel. At the receiver, the MMSE-SIC detection algorithm is used to further eliminate the interference in the signal for the received superimposed signal, and reduce the calculation complexity through the QR decomposition of the matrix. The simulation results show that the proposed joint detection algorithm has good applicability to eliminate the interference of non-orthogonal users, and it has low complexity and fast convergence speed. Compared with other traditional method, the improved method has lower error rate under different signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR).

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7Research on Water Edge Extraction in Islands from GF-2 Remote Sensing Image Based on GA Method

저자 : Yan Bian , Yusheng Gong , Guopeng Ma , Ting Duan

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 947-959 (13 pages)

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Aiming at the problem of low accuracy in the water boundary automatic extraction of islands from GF-2 remote sensing image with high resolution in three bands, new water edges automatic extraction method in island based on GF-2 remote sensing images, genetic algorithm (GA) method, is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the GA-OTSU threshold segmentation algorithm based on the combination of GA and the maximal inter-class variance method (OTSU) was used to segment the island in GF-2 remote sensing image after pre-processing. Then, the morphological closed operation was used to fill in the holes in the segmented binary image, and the boundary was extracted by the Sobel edge detection operator to obtain the water edge. The experimental results showed that the proposed method was better than the contrast methods in both the segmentation performance and the accuracy of water boundary extraction in island from GF-2 remote sensing images.

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8The Needs Analysis of Software Safety Education Program for Common Competency Area

저자 : Ji-Woon Kang , Sung-Ryong Do

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 960-971 (12 pages)

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As the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution enters, the importance of software safety is increasing, but related systematic educational curriculum and trained professional engineers are insufficient. The purpose of this research is to propose the high priority elements for the software safety education program through needs analysis. For this purpose, 74 candidate elements of software safety education program were derived through contents analysis of literature and nominal group technique (NGT) process with five software safety professionals from various industries in South Korea. Targeting potential education participants including industrial workers and students, an on-line survey was conducted to measure the current and required level of each element. Using descriptive statistics, t-test, Borich needs assessment and Locus for focus model, 16 high priority elements were derived for software safety education program. Based on the results, suggestions were made to develop a more effective education program for software safety education.

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9SAT-Analyser Traceability Management Tool Support for DevOps

저자 : Iresha Rubasinghe , Dulani Meedeniya , Indika Perera

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 972-988 (17 pages)

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At present, DevOps environments are getting popular in software organizations due to better collaboration and software productivity over traditional software process models. Software artefacts in DevOps environments are vulnerable to frequent changes at any phase of the software development life cycle that create a continuous integration continuous delivery pipeline. Therefore, software artefact traceability management is challenging in DevOps environments due to the continual artefact changes; often it makes the artefacts to be inconsistent. The existing software traceability related research shows limitations such as being limited to few types of artefacts, lack of automation and inability to cope with continuous integrations. This paper attempts to overcome those challenges by providing traceability support for heterogeneous artefacts in DevOps environments using a prototype named SAT-Analyser. The novel contribution of this work is the proposed traceability process model consists of artefact change detection, change impact analysis, and change propagation. Moreover, this tool provides multi-user accessibility and is integrated with a prominent DevOps tool stack to enable collaborations. The case study analysis has shown high accuracy in SAT-Analyser generated results and have obtained positive feedback from industry DevOps practitioners for its efficacy.

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10Implementation of Search Engine to Minimize Traffic Using Blockchain-Based Web Usage History Management System

저자 : Sunghyun Yu , Cheolmin Yeom , Yoojae Won

발행기관 : 한국정보처리학회 간행물 : JIPS(Journal of Information Processing Systems) 17권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 989-1003 (15 pages)

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With the recent increase in the types of services provided by Internet companies, collection of various types of data has become a necessity. Data collectors corresponding to web services profit by collecting users' data indiscriminately and providing it to the associated services. However, the data provider remains unaware of the manner in which the data are collected and used. Furthermore, the data collector of a web service consumes web resources by generating a large amount of web traffic. This traffic can damage servers by causing service outages. In this study, we propose a website search engine that employs a system that controls user information using blockchains and builds its database based on the recorded information. The system is divided into three parts: a collection section that uses proxy, a management section that uses blockchains, and a search engine that uses a built-in database. This structure allows data sovereigns to manage their data more transparently. Search engines that use blockchains do not use internet bots, and instead use the data generated by user behavior. This avoids generation of traffic from internet bots and can, thereby, contribute to creating a better web ecosystem.

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