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한국폐기물자원순환학회> 한국폐기물자원순환학회지> 폐기물의 시멘트 소성로 대체 연료 활용 확대를 위한 분석 표준운영절차(안) 도출

KCI등재

폐기물의 시멘트 소성로 대체 연료 활용 확대를 위한 분석 표준운영절차(안) 도출

Developing Analytical Standard Operating Procedure to Expand the Use of Combustible Waste as an Alternative Fuel for Cement Kilns

한건호 ( Gun Ho Han ) , 기동원 ( Dongwon Ki ) , 강신영 ( Shin Young Kang ) , 오대성 ( Dae Sung Oh ) , 김명기 ( Myoung Kee Kim ) , 박세원 ( Se Won Park )
  • : 한국폐기물자원순환학회
  • : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권5호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 10월
  • : 412-425(14pages)
한국폐기물자원순환학회지

DOI

10.9786/kswm.2021.38.5.412


목차

I. 서 론
II. 표준운영절차(안) 분석 방법 후보군
III. 표준운영절차(안) 제안
IV. 결 론
사 사
References

키워드 보기


초록 보기

Since the 1970s, waste tires have been used as auxiliary fuel in Korea, and the Korean cement industry has employed various wastes as auxiliary fuels and alternative materials. The main fuels used in cement kiln are bituminous coal and coke, and as of 2018, the rate of waste tires used as auxiliary fuel in Korea was only 23% (based on the heating value by the fossil fuel). This value was almost half of that of Europe (46%) and one-third of that of Germany (68%). Owing to the high temperature conditions of the gas and solid (materials) in cement kilns (2,000 and 1,450°C, respectively), most harmful pollutants, such as heavy metals, are volatilized; thus, eliminating the environmental impact of waste fuel. However, the use of waste fuel and materials in cement production process has garnered the negative perceptions of people. To address this problem, the Korean government and cement industry established the “Waste Use and Management Standard for Cement Kilns” in 2009; however, this had no significant effect on the negative perceptions of the people. The effective disposal of waste in Korea has remained a challenge owing to lack of additional landfill areas and incinerators; particularly, China’s ban on waste imports in April 2018 has compounded this problem. To actively utilize combustible waste as alternative fuels for cement production process, this study proposed thermal/environmental and quality/environmental analysis candidates and standards, and suggested a standard operating procedure for cement kilns. The standard operating procedure of waste proposed in this study included heating value, elementary, and heavy metals content analyses, and that of cement included physical and chemical composition, heavy metals content and leaching, and radioactivity analyses. We believe that the proposed standard operating procedure can be employed in the future to ensure the reliability and enhancement of the utilization of waste as alternative fuels for cement production. Additionally, the standard proposed in this study may solve problems related to domestic waste disposal.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-500-000907787

간행물정보

  • : 공학분야  > 환경공학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 격월
  • : 2093-2332
  • : 2287-5638
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1984-2022
  • : 2963


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1메조세공 ZSM-5 촉매를 이용한 폐바이오매스 유래 퓨란 화합물과 바이오에탄올의 그린 파라자일렌 전환

저자 : 김한별 ( Hanbyeol Kim ) , 제정호 ( Jungho Jae )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 297-307 (11 pages)

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Growing interest has been shown in the production of petrochemical feedstocks and bio-plastic from lignocellulosic biomass. This study reports a novel method in which ZSM-5 catalysts with a hierarchical micro-mesoporous structure were applied to produce green p-xylene via the tandem reaction of Diels-Alder cycloaddition of biomass-derived 2,5- dimethylfuran and ethanol and subsequent dehydration. Specifically, this study investigated the effects of the catalyst synthesis method and Si/Al ratio on the catalytic performance for p-xylene production. Commercial ZSM-5 catalysts with various SiO2/Al2O3 ratios (e.g., 23, 30, 80) were used as parent materials and were subjected to NaOH treatment for forming mesopores by desilication. XRD, BET, and ammonia-TPD analyses were performed to observe the change in the degree of mesopore formation and the distribution of acid sites. A soft-templating method using an amphiphilic surfactant was also applied to synthesize an ordered mesoporous ZSM-5 for comparison with the desilicated ones. The ZSM-5 catalyst with the highest SiO2/Al2O3 ratio (80) and a number of hierarchical mesopores formed through alkali treatment exhibited the highest 2,5-dimethylfuran conversion (> 90%) and p-xylene selectivity (~55%) along with the production of useful alkyl aromatics (~20%). This high activity can be attributed to high hydrophobicity and high mesopore volume combined.

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2플라스틱 폐기물 재활용 : PS-SO3H 섬유 제조 및 Cu2+ 흡착능 평가

저자 : 박가연 ( Gayeon Park ) , 나춘기 ( Choonki Na )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 308-314 (7 pages)

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Sulfonated polystyrene (PS-SO3H) fibers were prepared using plastic waste. The sulfonation of the PS-SO3H fibers was evaluated based on the adsorption of Cu2+ ions. The maximum adsorption capacity was 142.9 mg/g, based on the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 20 min. The adsorption system followed the secondorder kinetic model, indicating that the system was dominated by chemical adsorption. The adsorption elution cyclic results demonstrated that the adsorbent PS-SO3H fibers were effectively regenerated using a 0.2 M HCl solution. Therefore, adsorbent PS-SO3H fibers may be used repeatedly without a significant reduction in adsorption performance.

KCI등재

3유기물부하 증대방식이 음식물류 폐기물을 이용한 혐기성 소화공정에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김연수 ( Younsu Kim ) , 이채영 ( Chaeyoung Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 315-323 (9 pages)

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The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect on the operation of the continuous anaerobic digester according to the organic loading rate (OLR) increase method at the beginning of the operation in the anaerobic digestion process. To evaluate the effect of the OLR on the anaerobic digestion process, the method (R1) of reducing the dilution factor of the substrate and the method (R2) of reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) were applied on a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Methane production in the R2 reactor was the highest at 0.45 m3 CH4/kg VS at OLR 2.10 kg VS/m3·d, and the methane generation rate in the R1 reactor was the highest at 0.41 m3 CH4/kg VS at OLR 3.10 kg VS/m3·d. Additionally, at OLR of 1.7 kg VS/m3·d, VS and COD removal efficiencies were 88% and 69% for R1, respectively, and 95% and 96% for R2, respectively. This can be seen as the effect of an increase in the residence time of the anaerobic microorganisms in the R2 reactor, maintaining a relatively long HRT, and as the experiment progressed, it was confirmed that it showed a more stable behavior even with an increase in the organic matter load and fluctuations in the injection substrate. Therefore, an HRT reduction method can be suggested to increase the stability and efficiency of the initial operation during the anaerobic digestion of food waste. Since the inhibitory effect of methanogenic microorganisms occurs, it can be concluded that it is essential to maintain the ammonia nitrogen concentration below 3,000 mg/L for stable long-term operations.

KCI등재

4수도권매립지 침출수 처리장 통합 수온 관리 시스템 효과 분석: 생물학적 공정의 수온 저감효과를 중심으로

저자 : 서덕만 ( Deockman Seo ) , 박현 ( Hyeon Park ) , 서승범 ( Seung Beom Seo ) , 이상경 ( Sangkyung Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 324-332 (9 pages)

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This study aims to analyze the effects of water temperature reduction at SUDOKWON Landfill Site via the Integrated Water Temperature Management System (“the System” hereafter) on biological leachate treatment. The effect of reduced water temperature of the leachate treatment with the System is compared with the effect of the unaltered temperature without the System. The analysis shows that the System lowered the temperature by 3.4℃ on average, ranging from 1.6 ~ 5.7℃, resulting in the leachate treatment plant operating at the optimum temperature for biological process, which ranges from 33 ~ 38℃. By lowering the water temperature, the System was able to retain the performance of the biological process to treat the increased COD and T-N loads and maintain the same leachate treatment efficiency ratio. In addition, the System prevented foam overflow in the operation of the biological process basin, which contributed to the increase in the quantity of leachate treatment, as it allowed the biological process to be stably operated from April to September. The results of this research show that the System can be a good alternative solution to other treatment plants suffering from reduced efficiency due to high temperatures in the biological process of leachate treatment.

KCI등재

5의료폐기물 소각 여열의 에너지 회수와 활용 방안 연구

저자 : 조문환 ( Mun-hwan Cho ) , 장용철 ( Yong-chul Jang )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 333-341 (9 pages)

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This study examines the energy utilization methods of waste heat from medical waste incineration facilities. The economic feasibility of converting energy from incineration surplus heat and its effect on reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) are also analyzed. The medical waste in 2019 was approximately 235,754 tons with an increase of 56% compared with 2013 (151,438 tons), while the treatment capacity of incineration facilities only slightly increased by 9.5% (equivalent to 20,000 tons/year). This study found that the ultimate analysis of the waste from five medical waste incinerators indicated ash 5.00%, moisture 20.07%, and combustibles 72.58%. The elemental composition was C 56.58%, H 8.46%, O 13.61%, N 0.81%, S 0.16%, and Cl 1.86%, in addition to a lower heating value of 6,353 kcal/kg (dry weight basis). The amount of combustible air required for incineration was 65,421.9 Sm3/kg·hr, resulting in the combustion gas of 71,271.2 Sm3/kg·hr. The calorific value of mixed gas was found to be 6,458.7 kcal/kg, and the recoverable calorie was 19.55 Gcal/hr or 157,182 Gcal/yr. Based on the heat recovery of the incineration facilities, the electricity sales, and heat sales are estimated to be 32,800 MW/year and 126,000 Gcal/year, respectively, equivalent to a total of KRW 6,876 million in revenue. The annual steam production is estimated to be 260,000 tons, equivalent to 17.55 million liters of heavy oil and 13.02 million LNG. GHGs by steam utilization can be approximately 48,000 tCO2-eq on a heavy-oil basis or 30,000 tCO2-eq on an LNG basis. When expanded to 190,000 tons of medical waste incineration in 2020, approximately 1.5 million tons of steam can be produced annually, replacing the energy of approximately 100 million liters based on heavy oil.

KCI등재

6콘크리트용 순환 잔골재 품질인증에 대한 운영실태조사 품질시험 부적합 사례 고찰

저자 : 전수민 ( Soomin Jeon )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 342-348 (7 pages)

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The quality test pass rate for fine aggregate used for concrete among quality-certified recycled aggregates is relatively low. This paper examines the failure rate and items of follow-up inspection tests conducted over the past three years for recycled fine aggregate for concrete. In addition, if two out of three tests are suitable for the certification of recycled aggregates, certification is performed. Considering that other certification systems fail one out of every two tests, it is possible to assume that tertiary test opportunities have a negative effect on quality securing recycled aggregates. Therefore, this study analyzed whether there is a statistically significant difference between the follow-up inspection test results for the twice- and thrice-tested certifications. In conclusion, this study found that the tertiary test did not negatively affect the quality of the recycled fine aggregate for concrete.

KCI등재

7점토점결 폐주물사의 Silica를 추출하여 합성된 Mesoporous silica의 표면 특성 및 안티몬(Sb) 흡착 성능 평가

저자 : 김수향 ( Su Hyang Kim ) , 오민아 ( Mina Oh ) , 조우리 ( Woori Cho ) , 임호진 ( Ho Jin Lim ) , 이정한 ( Jung Han Lee ) , 이재영 ( Jai-young Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 349-356 (8 pages)

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In this study, an environmentally friendly solution was devised by replacing the tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) used in the manufacture of mesoporous silica (SBA-15) with SiO2 from clay defective molding sand waste to produce a novel adsorbent (W-SBA-15). The prepared W-SBA-15 was used to remove antimony (Sb) from groundwater. The content of SiO2 in W-SBA-15 and its recyclability were evaluated. The surface properties of W-SBA-15 and SBA-15 were compared. The performance of the novel adsorbent (W-SBA-15) was compared with that of traditional SBA-15 made with TEOS and an adsorbent made of pure Jumunjin sand (J-SBA-15). The content of SiO2 in W-SBA-15 was 89%, and the concentration of harmful substances did not exceed the legal standard. Thus, the molding sand waste was considered to be suitable for synthesizing mesoporous silica. The surface properties of the W-SBA-15 prepared here were similar to those of the traditional mesoporous material according to SEM, TEM, BET, and FT-IR measurements. To evaluate the adsorption performance, a batch test evaluating Sb adsorption was performed under various concentration, time, pH, temperature, and isothermal adsorption equilibrium conditions. As a result, the Sb removal efficiency was in the order of SBA-15 > W-SBA-15 > J-SBA-15. The Sb removal efficiency of SBA-15 and W-SBA-15 was over 90%. Therefore, the W-SBA-15 prepared in this study can be used as an adsorbent.

KCI등재

8정읍 소화조 내부 프로펠러 배열 및 가동시간이 유동 및 슬러지 침전 양상에 미치는 영향에 대한 수치적 연구

저자 : 최성은 ( Seongeun Choi ) , 황진환 ( Jin Hwan Hwang ) , 김재영 ( Jae Young Kim ) , 김승환 ( Seunghwan Kim ) , 이상명 ( Sang Myung Lee ) , 이승철 ( Seung Chul Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 357-367 (11 pages)

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Mechanical stirring is one of the representative methods to mix and agitate the sludge inside a digester. It significantly affects the amount of biogas production by changing the number of propellers, the distance between the bottom and the propellers, and the distance between propellers and the operating cycle. Since the various factors affect the digester's efficiency, the optimal configuration of the mechanical agitators needs to be investigated in terms of the internal flow and turbulence structures inside the digester. We conducted a laboratory-scale digester experiment and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, which both have the 40:1 scale, to find the optimal configuration of the digester located in Jeongeup, South Korea. The validity of the CFD model was verified by the comparison between the observation data taken from the laboratory experiment and the CFD results. Then, the flow velocity and the amount of sludge over time inside the digester, which has the actual scale, were numerically quantified by the verified CFD model. In addition, the position of the dead zone inside the digester depending on the different positions of the propellers was estimated. We confirmed that the array of the propellers significantly affects the flow structure and sludge sedimentation inside the digester.

KCI등재

9석탄회를 이용한 일일복토재 물성에 대한 현장 적용 평가

저자 : 이웅걸 ( Woong-geol Lee ) , 김석규 ( Suk-kyu Kim ) , 김태형 ( Tae-hyeong Kim ) , 이병철 ( Byeongcheol Lee ) , 송현진 ( Hyeon-jin Song ) , 송명신 ( Myong-shin Song )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 368-375 (8 pages)

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In this study, coal ash buried in a landfill was recycled to manufacture an artificial daily covering material, and a field experiment was conducted to evaluate its usability. The coal ash used was fluidized-bed boiler coal ash and pulverized boiler coal ash. The artificial daily covering material produced was able to immobilize heavy metal ions. The unconfined compression strength was improved by the formation of C-S-H hydrate through the reaction of SiO2 in soil with calcium hydroxide. The permeability coefficient of each type of coal based covering was similar to that of the standard. Re-slurring was not performed, and the odor emission standard was satisfied. the wind tunnel tes showed a weight reduction of 2.9% to 8.7% at a wind speed of 25 m/s depending on the type of covering. This study found that artificial daily covering materials made using fluidizedbed boiler coal ash are not harmful to the environment, so they can be used to replace traditional daily covering materials.

KCI등재

10한국과 일본의 일회용 플라스틱 관리 정책 비교 분석

저자 : 전인서 ( In-seo Jeon ) , 황수정 ( Su-jeong Hwang ) , 박정현 ( Jeong-hyeon Park ) , 장용철 ( Yong-chul Jang ) , 권영선 ( Youngsun Kwon ) , 김병환 ( Byeonghwan Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 4호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 376-388 (13 pages)

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The consumption and disposal of single-use plastics (SUP) has become a critical issue of environmental concern in international solid waste communities. Many countries have begun adopting regulatory measures to reduce consumption and disposal of SUPs, including banning their production, restricting their uses, imposing plastic taxes, implementing ecofriendly designs, and encouraging proper recycling methods. In this study, we analyzed policy measures and recent efforts in SUP management between Korea and Japan by life-cycle stage. In Korea, the regulatory measures have focused on single-use plastic bags and cups, over-packaging, strengthened extended producer responsibility, and the introduction of bioplastics. However, there is still a lack of definition, scope, and detailed strategy for banning SUPs, restricting their use, and resource circulation. Japan recently legislated the Plastic Resource Circulation Promotion Act and bioplastic roadmap to properly manage SUPs. Based on comparative analysis, more policy countermeasures and efforts to reduce SUPs are still needed for mitigating environmental burdens. Such countermeasures may include legally defining SUPs and highlighting their scope of use, banning the production of extended SUP items with industry cooperation and consultation, reducing consumption of SUPs by implementing multi-use cups and containers supported by civil society and local governments, using recycled content in products, and introducing bioplastics. The results of this study will be beneficial for policy-makers, the plastic industry, and the scientific community by providing a comparative analysis and showing recent trends of SUP policy measures in Korea and Japan toward a circular economy society.

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KCI등재

1해양 (미세)플라스틱이 기후인자에 미치는 영향에 관한 고찰

저자 : 김용진 ( Yong-jin Kim ) , 이혜성 ( Hye-sung Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 377-386 (10 pages)

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Although the effects of marine microplastics on living organisms and their roles as carriers of organic pollutants to living organisms and the marine environment have already been studied, this paper focuses on the effects of marine microplastics on climate that haven't been studied yet. Microplastics in the oceans absorb more solar radiation and alter the biophysical properties of the surface microlayer, resulting in an increase in the sea surface temperature (SST). An increase in the SST and the concentration of microplastics that cover the surface layer, interrupts the physical interaction between seawater and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Consequently, the solubility of carbon dioxide in seawater is lowered, and thereby increases the retention time of CO2 in the atmosphere. Furthermore, plastics that are in the ocean can be decomposed by solar radiation, such as UV-B rays and directly release greenhouse gases such as methane, ethylene, ethane, and propylene, and thereby accelerates the greenhouse effect. Therefore, considering the marine microplastics as a new factor in the ocean- atmosphere coupled model, the extent of the impact of microplastics on weather should be quantitatively reviewed.

KCI등재

2피혁 폐기물 업사이클링 기술에 기반한 친환경 건축용 텍스 소재 개발 연구

저자 : 이상철 ( Sang-chul Lee ) , 김관용 ( Gwan-yong Kim ) , 정득준 ( Deuk-jun Jung )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 387-394 (8 pages)

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This study investigated the use of leather shaving scraps, which is inevitably produced during leather processing, in an upcycling technology. Particularly, this study investigated the development of eco-friendly ceiling panels material as alternatives to currently used built-in gypsum ceiling panels for building construction. Existing gypsum ceiling panels exhibit very poor moisture absorption characteristics, which increase the cost of raw materials during the manufacturing process. In addition, exposure to radon, which is present in the raw materials used for the manufacturing of phosphoric acid gypsum, poses hazardous risks to the human body, such as lung cancer and stomach cancer. Moreover, the release these raw materials into the environment results in secondary pollution in high-moisture environment, as these materials facilitate the growth of fungi. Furthermore, gypsum ceiling panels exhibit a poor durability owing to their weak impact strength. In addition, the high production cost of gypsum has restricted its continuous mass production for building construction materials. To address these problems, this study employed a pulverization process to mix, cross-link, and vulcanize leather waste and rubber to fabricate ceiling panels materials for building construction using a dry method. The fabricated panel materials exhibited good strength, flame retardancy, waterproofness, and radon-free properties. The upcycling technology proposed in this study is an eco-friendly, halogen-free method that utilizes leather waste as the main raw material and aluminum hydroxide as a flame retardant. The cross-linking characteristics of the material with a change in the filler and cross-linking system were analyzed. In addition, the manufacturing characteristics and physical properties of the ceiling panels with a change in the flame retardants were investigated. The results revealed that the manufactured ceiling panels with the optimal formulation satisfied the UL-94 standard, and exhibited a hardness of 55 D and density of 1.339.

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3수소 생산을 위한 알케인 수증기 개질 반응의 열역학적 분석

저자 : 이년호 ( Yeon-Ho Lee ) , 김지은 ( Jee-eun Kim ) , 공지현 ( Ji-hyeon Gong ) , 전경원 ( Kyung-won Jeon ) , 윤조희 ( Cho-hee Yoon ) , 장원준 ( Won-jun Jang )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 395-404 (10 pages)

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This study investigated the optimal reaction condition for the production of hydrogen from the steam reforming of mixed alkane hydrocarbons using thermodynamic analysis. C1-C4 alkane hydrocarbons (CH4, C2H6, C3H8, and C4H10) were utilized as the reactants in the thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using Gibbs free energy minimization. The equilibrium composition, CH4 moles, CH4 conversion, selectivity (CO, CO2, C, and CH4), and H2 moles were estimated at various temperatures (200-1,000℃) and H2O/C ratios (0.5-3.0). The steam reforming of mixed alkane hydrocarbons is a complex reaction that proceeds simultaneously with the cracking of C2-C4, carbon formation, steam reforming, and water gas shift reactions. In addition, the results revealed that the reaction temperature and H2O/C ratio are important factors for these reactions. Furthermore, the reaction temperature and H2O/C ratio had no significant effect on the decomposition of C2-C4 alkanes (i.e., C2H6, C3H8, and C4H10), as they were totally converted into CH4 at temperatures below 650℃. In contrast, the H2O/C ratio had a significant effect on the carbon formation, as carbon formation did not proceed at H2O ratios of 2.0 and above. In addition, carbon was primarily produced in the temperature range from 350-550℃. Furthermore, the steam reforming reaction of CH4 dominantly occurred at a high temperature (>650℃) and H2O/C ratio (>1.5). In addition, high H2O/C ratios favored the water gas shift reaction, which could be attributed to the presence of excess H2O. The inhibition of cracking and coke formation and the maximization of the steam reforming and water gas shift reactions were considered for the stable operation of the process and production of hydrogen. The results revealed that the optimum temperature and H2O/C ratio for achieving a high CH4 conversion (>80%) and H2 moles (>25 mol) were ≥700℃ and >2.0, respectively.

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4수열탄화를 통한 축분의 연료특성 및 소수성 개선 연구

저자 : 장은석 ( Eun-suk Jang ) , 김대기 ( Daegi Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 405-411 (7 pages)

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In this study, livestock manure was converted into fuel using hydrothermal carbonization, and the chemical composition of the resulting fuel was investigated. The results revealed that the hydrogen and oxygen content of the resulting fuel decreased, whereas the carbon content increased. In addition, there was a reduction in nitrogen content, which could be attributed to the gradual reduction in potential NOx emission, and the decomposition of organic nitrogen under thermal reaction conditions to liquid and gas. Furthermore, the hydrothermal carbonization removed some of the volatile matter in the manure and increased the proportion of fixed carbon content; thus, resulting in an increase in fuel ratio from 0.32 to 0.68 with an increase in the reaction temperature. These results indicated that the calorific value increased after hydrothermal carbonization. However, at hydrothermal carbonization temperatures above 250℃, the formed products exhibited a high ash content of 36.07- 41.54%, which had no effect on the increase in the calorific value. The storage and stability of the biomass fuel was investigated using a moisture reabsorption experiment. There was a sharp decrease in the moisture reabsorption value of the fuel, and only 75% of the raw reabsorption value was retained. This could be attributed to the removal of hydrophilic groups, such as OH (hydroxyl group) and C=O (carboxyl group), from the manure by the hydrothermal carbonization process.

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5폐기물의 시멘트 소성로 대체 연료 활용 확대를 위한 분석 표준운영절차(안) 도출

저자 : 한건호 ( Gun Ho Han ) , 기동원 ( Dongwon Ki ) , 강신영 ( Shin Young Kang ) , 오대성 ( Dae Sung Oh ) , 김명기 ( Myoung Kee Kim ) , 박세원 ( Se Won Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 412-425 (14 pages)

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Since the 1970s, waste tires have been used as auxiliary fuel in Korea, and the Korean cement industry has employed various wastes as auxiliary fuels and alternative materials. The main fuels used in cement kiln are bituminous coal and coke, and as of 2018, the rate of waste tires used as auxiliary fuel in Korea was only 23% (based on the heating value by the fossil fuel). This value was almost half of that of Europe (46%) and one-third of that of Germany (68%). Owing to the high temperature conditions of the gas and solid (materials) in cement kilns (2,000 and 1,450°C, respectively), most harmful pollutants, such as heavy metals, are volatilized; thus, eliminating the environmental impact of waste fuel. However, the use of waste fuel and materials in cement production process has garnered the negative perceptions of people. To address this problem, the Korean government and cement industry established the “Waste Use and Management Standard for Cement Kilns” in 2009; however, this had no significant effect on the negative perceptions of the people. The effective disposal of waste in Korea has remained a challenge owing to lack of additional landfill areas and incinerators; particularly, China's ban on waste imports in April 2018 has compounded this problem. To actively utilize combustible waste as alternative fuels for cement production process, this study proposed thermal/environmental and quality/environmental analysis candidates and standards, and suggested a standard operating procedure for cement kilns. The standard operating procedure of waste proposed in this study included heating value, elementary, and heavy metals content analyses, and that of cement included physical and chemical composition, heavy metals content and leaching, and radioactivity analyses. We believe that the proposed standard operating procedure can be employed in the future to ensure the reliability and enhancement of the utilization of waste as alternative fuels for cement production. Additionally, the standard proposed in this study may solve problems related to domestic waste disposal.

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6바이오가스 적용 캐비티 매트릭스 연소기 개발

저자 : 안준 ( June An ) , 김하진 ( Ha Jin Kim ) , 전영남 ( Young Nam Chun )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 426-433 (8 pages)

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The effects of conventional fossil fuels on the environment, such as air and carbon pollutions, have limited their use as an energy resource. To address this problem, biogas has emerged as an alternative energy source owing to its sustainable and renewable characteristics. In this study, we proposed a new type of cavity matrix combustor that can directly burn the products of small and medium-sized biogas facilities without the use of complicated facilities, such as CO2 separation or purification facilities. To identify the combustion characteristics of the cavity matrix combustor, parametric screening studies were conducted based on changes in air ratio, total gas supply, biogas composition, and exhaust recirculation, and the optimal operating conditions were suggested based on the results. The performance test of the cavity matrix combustor revealed that the combustor exhibited excellent biogas combustion characteristics. In addition, the optimal operating air ratio and total gas supply conditions at which the combustor exhibited a combustion efficiency of 79.2% for a biogas composed of 60% CH4 and 40% CO2 were 1.1 and 30 L/min, respectively. Furthermore, the content of CO and UHCs, which were unburned gases, in the combustor were 0.03 and 0.01%, respectively, and that of NOx was 1 ppm. In addition, the combustion efficiency of the combustor slightly increased to 86.59% when combustion gas recirculation was performed.

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7금-은 폐광산 광미의 수은 열적감량 특성

저자 : 조수진 ( Soo-jin Cho ) , 서용칠 ( Yong-chil Seo ) , 이은송 ( Eun-song Lee ) , 고주인 ( Ju-In Ko )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 434-441 (8 pages)

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This study conducted thermal desorption experiments for the remediation of mercury-contaminated soils with a mercury concentration of 26.39 mg-Hg/kg from gold-silver mine tailings. The thermal desorption experiments were performed in a muffle furnace at a pressure of 1 atm in the temperature range from 300 to 700℃. In addition, indirect thermal treatment experiments were conducted by adding 20 g of homogeneous samples into the crucible for 1 to 30 min. The mercury concentrations of the residual samples were analyzed using EPA method 7471a. Based on the results of the analysis of mercury concentration in the thermal treatment, the thermal desorption characteristics of mercury contaminated tailings were analyzed using reaction rate theory. The reaction rate constants (k) were calculated from 1.3 × 10-3 to 1.9 × 10-2 sec-1 with a change in the temperature conditions. The results revealed that k increased with increasing temperature. In addition, the calculated pre-exponential factor and activation energy were 0.118 sec-1 and 2.76 kcal/gmol, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal treatment conditions required to achieve the 4 mg-Hg/kg criteria for Hg content were approximately 1,451 s at 300℃ and 992 s at 400℃.

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8계층화 분석을 이용한 공공건축물의 순환골재 활용 활성화 요인 분석

저자 : 이두길 ( Doo Gil Lee ) , 박성용 ( Seong Yong Park ) , 이상조 ( Sang Jo Lee ) , 정재우 ( Jae Woo Chung )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 442-451 (10 pages)

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This study employed the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to investigate the main decision-making factors involved in the selection of materials forrecycled aggregates for constructing public buildings. The factors, which consisted of five main items and 15 detailed items in the AHP model, were devised through consultations with construction experts. Based on the weights of the main and detailed items, the “Subject to mandatory use” element exhibited the highest level of importance, followed by the “supplier” and “price” elements in the procurement sector, and the “specification content” in the construction sector. Furthermore, the results revealed that it is essential to reflect the use of recycled aggregates at the initial design stage and to introduce a mandatory use of recycled aggregates. In addition, the criteria for suppliers to meet upgrading the production technology of recycled aggregates are required.

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9탈취제 성상에 따른 슬러지 내 황화수소 저감에 관한 연구

저자 : 정회석 ( Hoesuk Jung ) , 이수정 ( Sujeong Lee ) , 선제호 ( Jeaho Seon ) , 요스케카츠라 ( Yousuke Katsura ) , 한인섭 ( Ihnsup Han )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 452-457 (6 pages)

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This study compared H2S removal efficiency of two types of deodorants (NOx deodorant ACE and Fe3+ deodorant S) at high temperature versus low temperature (summer/winter). For both temperature conditions, NOx deodorant ACE removed H2S by 99% or more within 2 hours at the least dose of 2.5% (w/w), and this lasted for about 8 hours maximum. Fe3+ deodorant S removed H2S by 99% or more at the dose of 5.0% (w/w), and this lasted for about 6 hours maximum. For the sludge where H2S exists at high concentration, NOx deodorant ACE was the most appropriate. For Fe3+ deodorant S, additional alkaline chemicals are expected to be necessary.

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10Study of Bio-Waste Anaerobic Digestion and its Membrane Purification Technologies in Oversea: I. Malaysian Biogas Scale-up Case

저자 : 박영규 ( Young Gyu Park ) , 선영근 ( Young Geun Sun )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 458-472 (15 pages)

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The palm oil mill industry in Malaysian generates 100 million ton of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and EFB (empty fruit bunch) as byproducts annually. This study identified the location, capacity and technology of biogas refinery plants for the production of biogas from the byproducts of the Malaysian palm oil mill plant. This study investigated the production of biogas via the anaerobic co-digestion of EFB under mesophilic anaerobic condition. The results revealed that subjecting EFB to an alkaline pretreatment method enabled a high-concentration methane yield. The raw biogas obtained from the anaerobic co-digestion of POME and EFB at 1.013 bar contained 61% CH4, 33.5% CO2 and 180 ppm H2S and was produced at rate of 51 - 68㎥/h. The utilization of biomethane as a bio-CNG gas has been unexplored: hence, this study investigated the purification of POME biogas into bio-CNG gas. The pretreatment of raw biogas using chelate-iron (EDTA-iron solution) process, which is the most promising technique for the removal of 99% H2S, was employed in this study. A pilot-scale separation plant with a capacity of 20㎥/hr that utilize cellulosic spiral wound membrane (MTR, USA) for upgrading biogas to CNG fuel quality was constructed and operated at the biogas plant. The result contained 99.1% CH4, 1.8% CO2, 0.004% H2O and 0.9 ppm H2S. These results indicate that the energy contents of biogas can be significantly enhanced by upgrading it to CNG fuel.

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