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한국폐기물자원순환학회> 한국폐기물자원순환학회지> 수소 생산을 위한 알케인 수증기 개질 반응의 열역학적 분석

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수소 생산을 위한 알케인 수증기 개질 반응의 열역학적 분석

Thermodynamic Analysis of Alkane Steam Reforming for Hydrogen Production

이년호 ( Yeon-Ho Lee ) , 김지은 ( Jee-eun Kim ) , 공지현 ( Ji-hyeon Gong ) , 전경원 ( Kyung-won Jeon ) , 윤조희 ( Cho-hee Yoon ) , 장원준 ( Won-jun Jang )
  • : 한국폐기물자원순환학회
  • : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권5호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 10월
  • : 395-404(10pages)
한국폐기물자원순환학회지

DOI

10.9786/kswm.2021.38.5.395


목차

I. 서 론
II. 연구방법
III. 결과 및 고찰
IV. 결 론
사 사
References

키워드 보기


초록 보기

This study investigated the optimal reaction condition for the production of hydrogen from the steam reforming of mixed alkane hydrocarbons using thermodynamic analysis. C1-C4 alkane hydrocarbons (CH4, C2H6, C3H8, and C4H10) were utilized as the reactants in the thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using Gibbs free energy minimization. The equilibrium composition, CH4 moles, CH4 conversion, selectivity (CO, CO2, C, and CH4), and H2 moles were estimated at various temperatures (200-1,000℃) and H2O/C ratios (0.5-3.0). The steam reforming of mixed alkane hydrocarbons is a complex reaction that proceeds simultaneously with the cracking of C2-C4, carbon formation, steam reforming, and water gas shift reactions. In addition, the results revealed that the reaction temperature and H2O/C ratio are important factors for these reactions. Furthermore, the reaction temperature and H2O/C ratio had no significant effect on the decomposition of C2-C4 alkanes (i.e., C2H6, C3H8, and C4H10), as they were totally converted into CH4 at temperatures below 650℃. In contrast, the H2O/C ratio had a significant effect on the carbon formation, as carbon formation did not proceed at H2O ratios of 2.0 and above. In addition, carbon was primarily produced in the temperature range from 350-550℃. Furthermore, the steam reforming reaction of CH4 dominantly occurred at a high temperature (>650℃) and H2O/C ratio (>1.5). In addition, high H2O/C ratios favored the water gas shift reaction, which could be attributed to the presence of excess H2O. The inhibition of cracking and coke formation and the maximization of the steam reforming and water gas shift reactions were considered for the stable operation of the process and production of hydrogen. The results revealed that the optimum temperature and H2O/C ratio for achieving a high CH4 conversion (>80%) and H2 moles (>25 mol) were ≥700℃ and >2.0, respectively.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-500-000907767

간행물정보

  • : 공학분야  > 환경공학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 격월
  • : 2093-2332
  • : 2287-5638
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1984-2022
  • : 2953


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39권3호(2022년 06월) 수록논문
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1해양 플라스틱 폐기물의 소수성 유기오염물질 흡착 특성과 운반 매체로써의 역할

저자 : 김용진 ( Yong-jin Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 185-193 (9 pages)

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This study analyses, the characteristics of plastics as adsorbents and the mechanisms of adsorption between plastics and hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs). As the characteristics of the adsorption material, the degree of crystallinity, glass transition temperature, and contact angle with water of the plastics were investigated, and influence factors on the adsorption of various HOPs and the role of plastics as a carrier of HOPs were suggested. As factors affecting the adsorption of organic pollutants onto plastics, the physical and chemical properties of the plastic as adsorption material (i.e. size, polarity, crystallinity, glass transition temperature, presence and type of functional groups, etc.), characteristics of organic pollutants (i.e. concentration, hydrophobicity, surface charge, functional groups, etc.) and water quality (i.e. pH, temperature, ionic strength, coexisting organic pollutants, etc.) are presented. As a result, it was confirmed that organic pollutants are transferred/diffused not only in the organisms but also throughout the world due to plastic wastes in marine.

KCI등재

2한국의 2017-2019년 플라스틱 물질흐름분석

저자 : 장용철 ( Yongchul Jang ) , 손민희 ( Minhee Son ) , 박주영 ( Jooyoung Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 194-206 (13 pages)

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As one of the world's top producers and top consumers of plastics, Korea has been experiencing problems with regard to the management of waste plastics since 2018, such as collection service disruptions, illegal abandonment and exports of waste, and marine pollution. To gain a complete understanding of Korea's contemporary management of plastics, this study quantified national plastic flows across production, use, and end-of-life management between 2017 and 2019. In 2017, Korea produced 17.5 million metric tons of plastic resins, more than half of which was exported, and consumed 7 million metric tons of plastic products including 3.2 million metric tons of packaging. On a per-capita basis, Korea's plastic consumption and waste generation were higher than that of other major economies, such as Japan, China, the United States, and Europe, which implies considerable potential for plastic consumption reduction. Despite the high level of waste generation, Korea has increased the level of material recycling while minimizing the landfill rate by implementing various policies, such as waste levies, voluntary agreements, and extended producer responsibility. For more sustainable plastic management, Korea must make additional efforts to reduce plastic consumption and promote high-quality recycling, for example through circular design, business models with less packaging, and advanced technologies.

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3시멘트 제조업과 비철금속 잉곳 및 합금 제조업에서 발생되는 분진 폐기물의 폭발성 특성 평가

저자 : 이준규 ( Jun-kyu Lee ) , 김민정 ( Min-jung Kim ) , 박윤수 ( Yoon-soo Park ) , 김태성 ( Tae-sung Kim ) , 전태완 ( Tae-wan Jeon ) , 최효현 ( Hyo-hyun Choi )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 207-216 (10 pages)

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This study evaluated the explosive hazardous properties and the likelihood of dust explosion in four types of waste dust collected from industrial sites. Waste dust samples were collected from the cement manufacturing industry, aluminum, and aluminum alloy ingot manufacturing industry, and copper alloy and non-ferrous product manufacturing industry. We evaluated whether the dust waste contained explosive substances using a standard method. Additionally, the factors that may affect the dust explosion, the presence of combustible substances, average particle size, particle size distribution, particle shape, moisture content, and calorific value were also evaluated. It was confirmed that the likelihood of dust explosion of dust waste generated in the aluminum and aluminum alloy manufacturing industry is higher than that of dust waste generated in other industries.

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4해양에 유입된 플라스틱이 해수면 온도 변화에 미치는 영향 - Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) 펠릿을 이용한 모델 실험 -

저자 : 이혜성 ( Hye-sung Lee ) , 김용진 ( Yong-jin Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 217-224 (8 pages)

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An increase in plastic on the sea surface may affect the absorption depth of solar radiation energy, resulting in changes in the sea surface temperature (SST), stratification, and mixed layer depth. This study evaluated the relationship between the rise of SST according to the concentration of plastic on the sea surface, as well as the effects of these temperature increases on phytoplankton concentrations and climate change. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has lower specific heat than water. Therefore, adding LPDE to distilled water increased the heating rate of the water, and significant differences were observed between the temperatures of LPDE-treated and untreated distilled water. Furthermore, our findings suggested that the water temperature was affected by the total amount of added LDPE regardless of the size of the LDPE. The concentration of Chl-a in seawater tended to increase as the amount of added LDPE increased. Therefore, ocean plastic will increase the SST, which, in turn, increases phytoplankton, and, again, the increased phytoplankton densities are likely to increase SST. This chain effect could exacerbate climate change.

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5배달 외식업 다회용기 활용을 위한 사용자 인식 분석: 서울시 소비자와 음식점을 중심으로

저자 : 강신영 ( Shin Young Kang ) , 이지애 ( Ji Ae Lee ) , 양명석 ( Myungseok Yang ) , 박세원 ( Se Won Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 225-238 (14 pages)

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The amount of synthetic resins in household waste, generated 7850.7 tons/day in South Korea, in 2020. As an effort to reduce disposable plastic waste, multi-use container related businesses are being promoted both at the domestic and international levels. In this basic study of infrastructure, a perception analysis of consumers and merchants was conducted through a survey to spread the use of multi-use containers in Korea. The survey sample included 800 consumers (300 from Seodaemun-gu; 500 from other regions) and 311 merchants (Seodaemun-gu) of Seoul. The survey was divided into three categories: “Usage/Operation status of food delivery service,” “Awareness regarding using multi-use containers,” and “Attitudes towards multi-use container infrastructure.” The results regarding “usage/operation status” of both consumers and merchants indicate that they were aware that the high proportion of delivery order frequency and sales is impacting their lives in diverse ways, and of the seriousness of the generation of disposable wastes. In terms of “Awareness of using multi-use containers,” the hygiene management of multi-use containers and partnership of infrastructure-related institutions were considered important. For important factors in standardizing containers, stainless steel was considered useful for sauces, side dishes, and stew/soups, and standardization of size needed to be prioritized. In addition, consumers' appropriate deposit level and convenience of return needed to be considered together. “Attitudes towards multi-use container infrastructure” displayed an the overall neutral attitude, although consumers had a slightly higher business affinity than merchants. In order to induce participation, it is necessary to consider providing incentives as well as granting responsibility for solving environmental problems. In the future, system improvement for standardization, such as establishing a logistics system and hygiene standards, should be carried out with pilot projects.

KCI등재

6국내 재활용 처리 시설 발생 부산물 중 미세플라스틱 분석 연구

저자 : 조수진 ( Soojin Cho ) , 최자형 ( Jahyung Choi ) , 강영렬 ( Youngryeol Kang ) , 전태완 ( Taewan Jeon ) , 엄남일 ( Namil Um )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 239-255 (17 pages)

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Microplastics (MPs) are being widely detected in various ecosystems, including aquatic and terrestrial environments, which highlights the importance of MP management. MPs are released into the marine environment in various ways. Therefore, our study sought to characterize MPs discharged from different waste treatment facilities. This study focused on by-products of recycling facilities for synthetic polymer, synthetic fiber, rubber, and tire waste. The MPs in the samples were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed using TED-GC-MS and FTIR. The TED-GC-MS analysis results were as follows: Waste of Synthetic Polymer 2.02 μg/g (PP 1.46 μg/g, PE 0.56 μg/g), Waste of Synthetic Fiber 66.75 μg/g (PET 66.75 μg/g), Waste of Rubber N.D., Waste of Tyre 18.71 μg/g (PP 17.79 μg/g, PS 0.74 μg/g). The FTIR analysis results were divided into three sections: 0.02-0.1 mm (Section 1), 0.1-0.5 mm (Section 2), and 0.5-5.0 mm (Section 3). The number of microplastics for each sample was analyzed for WSP 24.01 ea/g (Section 1: 19.11 ea/kg, Section 2: 3.92 ea/ kg, Section 3: 0.98 ea/kg), WSF 501.44 ea/g, (Section 1: 302.40 ea/kg, Section 2: 187.02 ea/kg, Section 3: 12.02 ea/kg), WRB 10,510.01 ea/g (Section 1: 6,320.58 ea/kg, Section 2: 3,661.20 ea/kg, Section 3: 528.23 ea/kg), WTY 311.52 ea/ g (Section 1: 205.53 ea/kg, Section 2: 104.61 ea/kg, Section 3: 1.38 ea/kg). Therefore, a managements plan for waste treatment facilities must be prepared to reduce microplastics in Korea. Our findings provide a basis for the creation of such a plan in the future.

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7음식물류폐기물 건조 공정에서 발생하는 건조응축수의 생물학적처리 운영 조건 도출 연구

저자 : 송재준 ( Jea-jun Song ) , 정진도 ( Jin-do Chung )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 256-266 (11 pages)

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This study was conducted to derive operating conditions for biological wastewater treatment targeting highconcentration dry condensate generated in the drying process of food waste. In the biological treatment of dry condensate, lab. scale (40 L/d) bioreactor was manufactured and used in the study to evaluate the water quality of the treated water according to the change in operating conditions and to derive stable operating factors. Changes in the influencing factors inside the aeration tank according to the change of BOD load, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and F/M ratio were observed during the operation of the lab. scale bioreaction process. Thereafter, the treatment efficiency was evaluated by measuring the water quality concentration of the treated water. As a result of the study, the water quality of the treated water was BOD 71.14 ± 10.19 mg/L, TOC 49.54 ± 9.64 mg/L, T-N 33.78 ± 5.00 mg/L, T-P 3.35 ± 1.24 mg/L was evaluated as the highest treatment efficiency, under the HRT 5 day, BOD Load 0.30 ± 0.02 kg BOD/d, F/M ratio 0.40 ± 0.02 kg BOD/kg MLSS/d operating condition. It is concluded that the results of this study can be used as data for ensuring stable treated water quality and complying with the emission standards at real plant.

KCI등재

8해안 산업도시 음식물류폐기물의 연간 성상 및 바이오가스 발생 특성

저자 : 박상혁 ( Sang Hyeok Park ) , Abu Hanifa Jannat , 황석환 ( Seokhwan Hwang )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 267-279 (13 pages)

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Korea recycles approximately four million tons of food waste (FW) annually. Around 80% of this waste is treated as animal feed and compost. As the demand for animal feed and compost from FW decreases, there is an increasing need to find innovative solutions for this waste. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is currently the most realistic solution, and Korea has plans to construct more AD facilities by 2030. Before these facilities can be built, it is essential to study the indicators and frequencies representative of the characteristic changes in FW. The current literature is lacking in this area, as many studies only focus on a few critical indicators over short periods of time. This study aims to overcome this lack of information by analyzing two processes. The first process analyzes the monthly and seasonal variations in FW characteristics of Pohang city for one year. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed, and their data was analyzed to provide basic information for AD design. The second process evaluates different methods of estimating methane production to determine which is the most suitable. The FW characterization study was conducted twice a month and the BMP analysis was conducted once a month. An analysis of the physicochemical parameters for one year indicated an average pH of 4.82, an average moisture content of 80.68%, an average volatile solid (VS) value of 174.48 g/L, an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 275.48 g/L, the average carbohydrate, protein, and lipid contents in VS basis were 41.87%, 33.59 %, and 14.34% respectively, and the average BMP was 259.97 ± 12.96 mL/g COD. Principal component analysis of FW characteristics resulted in two significantly different clusters - one for winter and spring and the other for summer and fall. The ANOSIM R-value for these characteristics was 0.821 (p < 0.01). Methane production levels were estimated from FW characteristics using COD, organic composition, and heat value basis. The data indicated that estimating methane production from FW using an organic composition basis rendered more accurate results than the other two methods. These results are beneficial for designing and managing food waste using AD processes as understanding the substrate characteristic change is important to maintaining stability.

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9열수가압탄화에 의해 제조한 폐목재 바이오차(Bio-char) 활성탄의 특성화에 관한 연구

저자 : 원민희 ( Minhee Won ) , 조우리 ( Woori Cho ) , 장진만 ( Jin Man Chang ) , 박지수 ( Park Ji Soo ) , 이재영 ( Jai-young Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 280-289 (10 pages)

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The market for activated carbon is growing due to environmental awareness and strengthening of environmental regulations. Biochar is a solid carbide that is produced through a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. Wood is an ideal raw material for activated carbon and biomass waste wood because it has low energy consumption rates and does not require pre-treatment to remove moisture. The activated carbon samples in this study were prepared by a chemical activation process using KOH, which is mainly used for activation. The study analyzed the specific surface area, pore volume, pore size, and pore distribution by selecting four samples with high iodine adsorption capacity among the prepared activated carbon samples. The specific surface area for all four samples was between 1192.2 and 1387.1 m2/g, all of which were over 1,000 m2/g, and the pore volume was between 0.6510 and 0.8030 cm3/g. During this process, micropores with an average pore size of 21 to 25 A were formed. SEM photography revealed that these pores were uniform and that the number of pores increased according to activation levels of the carbon samples. When the iodine adsorptivity and specific surface area of commercial activated carbon was compared with that of activated carbon prepared by waste wood biochar with KOH, the specific surface area was higher in the activated carbon samples prepared by waste wood biochar with KOH. These results indicate that the adsorption of activated carbon by waste wood biochar with KOH is successful when applied to activated carbon samples.

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10Cost-effective Application of Fenton Oxidation Process to the Biologically Treated Leachate Containing Refractory Organics and Nitrite

저자 : Yun-min Song , Jong-hyuk Seok

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 290-296 (7 pages)

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This paper presents an economic application of Fenton oxidation process to biological treatment effluent containing high-strength nitrite and refractory organics. To cope with two major drawbacks in applying Fenton oxidation process to the nitrite-rich effluent simultaneously, i.e. expensive reagent and excessive sludge production, we examined two pretreatment methodologies prior to the application of Fenton process in the following way. First, residual nitrite in the biologically treated leachate (BTL) was removed with iron-catalyzed air oxidation (ICAO) as a cost-effective pretreatment. The time necessary for ICAO reaction is approx. 5 hr. Secondly, to reduce organic loads iron sludge was regenerated for an alternative coagulant. With the regenerated iron sludge, the dose of Fenton's regent can be reduced by half to remove residual COD in the BTL.

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1해양 (미세)플라스틱이 기후인자에 미치는 영향에 관한 고찰

저자 : 김용진 ( Yong-jin Kim ) , 이혜성 ( Hye-sung Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 377-386 (10 pages)

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Although the effects of marine microplastics on living organisms and their roles as carriers of organic pollutants to living organisms and the marine environment have already been studied, this paper focuses on the effects of marine microplastics on climate that haven't been studied yet. Microplastics in the oceans absorb more solar radiation and alter the biophysical properties of the surface microlayer, resulting in an increase in the sea surface temperature (SST). An increase in the SST and the concentration of microplastics that cover the surface layer, interrupts the physical interaction between seawater and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Consequently, the solubility of carbon dioxide in seawater is lowered, and thereby increases the retention time of CO2 in the atmosphere. Furthermore, plastics that are in the ocean can be decomposed by solar radiation, such as UV-B rays and directly release greenhouse gases such as methane, ethylene, ethane, and propylene, and thereby accelerates the greenhouse effect. Therefore, considering the marine microplastics as a new factor in the ocean- atmosphere coupled model, the extent of the impact of microplastics on weather should be quantitatively reviewed.

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2피혁 폐기물 업사이클링 기술에 기반한 친환경 건축용 텍스 소재 개발 연구

저자 : 이상철 ( Sang-chul Lee ) , 김관용 ( Gwan-yong Kim ) , 정득준 ( Deuk-jun Jung )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 387-394 (8 pages)

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This study investigated the use of leather shaving scraps, which is inevitably produced during leather processing, in an upcycling technology. Particularly, this study investigated the development of eco-friendly ceiling panels material as alternatives to currently used built-in gypsum ceiling panels for building construction. Existing gypsum ceiling panels exhibit very poor moisture absorption characteristics, which increase the cost of raw materials during the manufacturing process. In addition, exposure to radon, which is present in the raw materials used for the manufacturing of phosphoric acid gypsum, poses hazardous risks to the human body, such as lung cancer and stomach cancer. Moreover, the release these raw materials into the environment results in secondary pollution in high-moisture environment, as these materials facilitate the growth of fungi. Furthermore, gypsum ceiling panels exhibit a poor durability owing to their weak impact strength. In addition, the high production cost of gypsum has restricted its continuous mass production for building construction materials. To address these problems, this study employed a pulverization process to mix, cross-link, and vulcanize leather waste and rubber to fabricate ceiling panels materials for building construction using a dry method. The fabricated panel materials exhibited good strength, flame retardancy, waterproofness, and radon-free properties. The upcycling technology proposed in this study is an eco-friendly, halogen-free method that utilizes leather waste as the main raw material and aluminum hydroxide as a flame retardant. The cross-linking characteristics of the material with a change in the filler and cross-linking system were analyzed. In addition, the manufacturing characteristics and physical properties of the ceiling panels with a change in the flame retardants were investigated. The results revealed that the manufactured ceiling panels with the optimal formulation satisfied the UL-94 standard, and exhibited a hardness of 55 D and density of 1.339.

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3수소 생산을 위한 알케인 수증기 개질 반응의 열역학적 분석

저자 : 이년호 ( Yeon-Ho Lee ) , 김지은 ( Jee-eun Kim ) , 공지현 ( Ji-hyeon Gong ) , 전경원 ( Kyung-won Jeon ) , 윤조희 ( Cho-hee Yoon ) , 장원준 ( Won-jun Jang )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 395-404 (10 pages)

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This study investigated the optimal reaction condition for the production of hydrogen from the steam reforming of mixed alkane hydrocarbons using thermodynamic analysis. C1-C4 alkane hydrocarbons (CH4, C2H6, C3H8, and C4H10) were utilized as the reactants in the thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using Gibbs free energy minimization. The equilibrium composition, CH4 moles, CH4 conversion, selectivity (CO, CO2, C, and CH4), and H2 moles were estimated at various temperatures (200-1,000℃) and H2O/C ratios (0.5-3.0). The steam reforming of mixed alkane hydrocarbons is a complex reaction that proceeds simultaneously with the cracking of C2-C4, carbon formation, steam reforming, and water gas shift reactions. In addition, the results revealed that the reaction temperature and H2O/C ratio are important factors for these reactions. Furthermore, the reaction temperature and H2O/C ratio had no significant effect on the decomposition of C2-C4 alkanes (i.e., C2H6, C3H8, and C4H10), as they were totally converted into CH4 at temperatures below 650℃. In contrast, the H2O/C ratio had a significant effect on the carbon formation, as carbon formation did not proceed at H2O ratios of 2.0 and above. In addition, carbon was primarily produced in the temperature range from 350-550℃. Furthermore, the steam reforming reaction of CH4 dominantly occurred at a high temperature (>650℃) and H2O/C ratio (>1.5). In addition, high H2O/C ratios favored the water gas shift reaction, which could be attributed to the presence of excess H2O. The inhibition of cracking and coke formation and the maximization of the steam reforming and water gas shift reactions were considered for the stable operation of the process and production of hydrogen. The results revealed that the optimum temperature and H2O/C ratio for achieving a high CH4 conversion (>80%) and H2 moles (>25 mol) were ≥700℃ and >2.0, respectively.

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4수열탄화를 통한 축분의 연료특성 및 소수성 개선 연구

저자 : 장은석 ( Eun-suk Jang ) , 김대기 ( Daegi Kim )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 405-411 (7 pages)

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In this study, livestock manure was converted into fuel using hydrothermal carbonization, and the chemical composition of the resulting fuel was investigated. The results revealed that the hydrogen and oxygen content of the resulting fuel decreased, whereas the carbon content increased. In addition, there was a reduction in nitrogen content, which could be attributed to the gradual reduction in potential NOx emission, and the decomposition of organic nitrogen under thermal reaction conditions to liquid and gas. Furthermore, the hydrothermal carbonization removed some of the volatile matter in the manure and increased the proportion of fixed carbon content; thus, resulting in an increase in fuel ratio from 0.32 to 0.68 with an increase in the reaction temperature. These results indicated that the calorific value increased after hydrothermal carbonization. However, at hydrothermal carbonization temperatures above 250℃, the formed products exhibited a high ash content of 36.07- 41.54%, which had no effect on the increase in the calorific value. The storage and stability of the biomass fuel was investigated using a moisture reabsorption experiment. There was a sharp decrease in the moisture reabsorption value of the fuel, and only 75% of the raw reabsorption value was retained. This could be attributed to the removal of hydrophilic groups, such as OH (hydroxyl group) and C=O (carboxyl group), from the manure by the hydrothermal carbonization process.

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5폐기물의 시멘트 소성로 대체 연료 활용 확대를 위한 분석 표준운영절차(안) 도출

저자 : 한건호 ( Gun Ho Han ) , 기동원 ( Dongwon Ki ) , 강신영 ( Shin Young Kang ) , 오대성 ( Dae Sung Oh ) , 김명기 ( Myoung Kee Kim ) , 박세원 ( Se Won Park )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 412-425 (14 pages)

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Since the 1970s, waste tires have been used as auxiliary fuel in Korea, and the Korean cement industry has employed various wastes as auxiliary fuels and alternative materials. The main fuels used in cement kiln are bituminous coal and coke, and as of 2018, the rate of waste tires used as auxiliary fuel in Korea was only 23% (based on the heating value by the fossil fuel). This value was almost half of that of Europe (46%) and one-third of that of Germany (68%). Owing to the high temperature conditions of the gas and solid (materials) in cement kilns (2,000 and 1,450°C, respectively), most harmful pollutants, such as heavy metals, are volatilized; thus, eliminating the environmental impact of waste fuel. However, the use of waste fuel and materials in cement production process has garnered the negative perceptions of people. To address this problem, the Korean government and cement industry established the “Waste Use and Management Standard for Cement Kilns” in 2009; however, this had no significant effect on the negative perceptions of the people. The effective disposal of waste in Korea has remained a challenge owing to lack of additional landfill areas and incinerators; particularly, China's ban on waste imports in April 2018 has compounded this problem. To actively utilize combustible waste as alternative fuels for cement production process, this study proposed thermal/environmental and quality/environmental analysis candidates and standards, and suggested a standard operating procedure for cement kilns. The standard operating procedure of waste proposed in this study included heating value, elementary, and heavy metals content analyses, and that of cement included physical and chemical composition, heavy metals content and leaching, and radioactivity analyses. We believe that the proposed standard operating procedure can be employed in the future to ensure the reliability and enhancement of the utilization of waste as alternative fuels for cement production. Additionally, the standard proposed in this study may solve problems related to domestic waste disposal.

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6바이오가스 적용 캐비티 매트릭스 연소기 개발

저자 : 안준 ( June An ) , 김하진 ( Ha Jin Kim ) , 전영남 ( Young Nam Chun )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 426-433 (8 pages)

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The effects of conventional fossil fuels on the environment, such as air and carbon pollutions, have limited their use as an energy resource. To address this problem, biogas has emerged as an alternative energy source owing to its sustainable and renewable characteristics. In this study, we proposed a new type of cavity matrix combustor that can directly burn the products of small and medium-sized biogas facilities without the use of complicated facilities, such as CO2 separation or purification facilities. To identify the combustion characteristics of the cavity matrix combustor, parametric screening studies were conducted based on changes in air ratio, total gas supply, biogas composition, and exhaust recirculation, and the optimal operating conditions were suggested based on the results. The performance test of the cavity matrix combustor revealed that the combustor exhibited excellent biogas combustion characteristics. In addition, the optimal operating air ratio and total gas supply conditions at which the combustor exhibited a combustion efficiency of 79.2% for a biogas composed of 60% CH4 and 40% CO2 were 1.1 and 30 L/min, respectively. Furthermore, the content of CO and UHCs, which were unburned gases, in the combustor were 0.03 and 0.01%, respectively, and that of NOx was 1 ppm. In addition, the combustion efficiency of the combustor slightly increased to 86.59% when combustion gas recirculation was performed.

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7금-은 폐광산 광미의 수은 열적감량 특성

저자 : 조수진 ( Soo-jin Cho ) , 서용칠 ( Yong-chil Seo ) , 이은송 ( Eun-song Lee ) , 고주인 ( Ju-In Ko )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 434-441 (8 pages)

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This study conducted thermal desorption experiments for the remediation of mercury-contaminated soils with a mercury concentration of 26.39 mg-Hg/kg from gold-silver mine tailings. The thermal desorption experiments were performed in a muffle furnace at a pressure of 1 atm in the temperature range from 300 to 700℃. In addition, indirect thermal treatment experiments were conducted by adding 20 g of homogeneous samples into the crucible for 1 to 30 min. The mercury concentrations of the residual samples were analyzed using EPA method 7471a. Based on the results of the analysis of mercury concentration in the thermal treatment, the thermal desorption characteristics of mercury contaminated tailings were analyzed using reaction rate theory. The reaction rate constants (k) were calculated from 1.3 × 10-3 to 1.9 × 10-2 sec-1 with a change in the temperature conditions. The results revealed that k increased with increasing temperature. In addition, the calculated pre-exponential factor and activation energy were 0.118 sec-1 and 2.76 kcal/gmol, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal treatment conditions required to achieve the 4 mg-Hg/kg criteria for Hg content were approximately 1,451 s at 300℃ and 992 s at 400℃.

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8계층화 분석을 이용한 공공건축물의 순환골재 활용 활성화 요인 분석

저자 : 이두길 ( Doo Gil Lee ) , 박성용 ( Seong Yong Park ) , 이상조 ( Sang Jo Lee ) , 정재우 ( Jae Woo Chung )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 442-451 (10 pages)

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This study employed the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to investigate the main decision-making factors involved in the selection of materials forrecycled aggregates for constructing public buildings. The factors, which consisted of five main items and 15 detailed items in the AHP model, were devised through consultations with construction experts. Based on the weights of the main and detailed items, the “Subject to mandatory use” element exhibited the highest level of importance, followed by the “supplier” and “price” elements in the procurement sector, and the “specification content” in the construction sector. Furthermore, the results revealed that it is essential to reflect the use of recycled aggregates at the initial design stage and to introduce a mandatory use of recycled aggregates. In addition, the criteria for suppliers to meet upgrading the production technology of recycled aggregates are required.

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9탈취제 성상에 따른 슬러지 내 황화수소 저감에 관한 연구

저자 : 정회석 ( Hoesuk Jung ) , 이수정 ( Sujeong Lee ) , 선제호 ( Jeaho Seon ) , 요스케카츠라 ( Yousuke Katsura ) , 한인섭 ( Ihnsup Han )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 452-457 (6 pages)

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This study compared H2S removal efficiency of two types of deodorants (NOx deodorant ACE and Fe3+ deodorant S) at high temperature versus low temperature (summer/winter). For both temperature conditions, NOx deodorant ACE removed H2S by 99% or more within 2 hours at the least dose of 2.5% (w/w), and this lasted for about 8 hours maximum. Fe3+ deodorant S removed H2S by 99% or more at the dose of 5.0% (w/w), and this lasted for about 6 hours maximum. For the sludge where H2S exists at high concentration, NOx deodorant ACE was the most appropriate. For Fe3+ deodorant S, additional alkaline chemicals are expected to be necessary.

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10Study of Bio-Waste Anaerobic Digestion and its Membrane Purification Technologies in Oversea: I. Malaysian Biogas Scale-up Case

저자 : 박영규 ( Young Gyu Park ) , 선영근 ( Young Geun Sun )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 458-472 (15 pages)

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The palm oil mill industry in Malaysian generates 100 million ton of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and EFB (empty fruit bunch) as byproducts annually. This study identified the location, capacity and technology of biogas refinery plants for the production of biogas from the byproducts of the Malaysian palm oil mill plant. This study investigated the production of biogas via the anaerobic co-digestion of EFB under mesophilic anaerobic condition. The results revealed that subjecting EFB to an alkaline pretreatment method enabled a high-concentration methane yield. The raw biogas obtained from the anaerobic co-digestion of POME and EFB at 1.013 bar contained 61% CH4, 33.5% CO2 and 180 ppm H2S and was produced at rate of 51 - 68㎥/h. The utilization of biomethane as a bio-CNG gas has been unexplored: hence, this study investigated the purification of POME biogas into bio-CNG gas. The pretreatment of raw biogas using chelate-iron (EDTA-iron solution) process, which is the most promising technique for the removal of 99% H2S, was employed in this study. A pilot-scale separation plant with a capacity of 20㎥/hr that utilize cellulosic spiral wound membrane (MTR, USA) for upgrading biogas to CNG fuel quality was constructed and operated at the biogas plant. The result contained 99.1% CH4, 1.8% CO2, 0.004% H2O and 0.9 ppm H2S. These results indicate that the energy contents of biogas can be significantly enhanced by upgrading it to CNG fuel.

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