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한국미생물생명공학회> Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology> Interplay between the Gut Microbiome and Metabolism in Ulcerative Colitis Mice Treated with the Dietary Ingredient Phloretin

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Interplay between the Gut Microbiome and Metabolism in Ulcerative Colitis Mice Treated with the Dietary Ingredient Phloretin

Jie Ren , Puze Li , Dong Yan , Min Li , Jinsong Qi , Mingyong Wang , Genshen Zhong , Minna Wu
  • : 한국미생물생명공학회
  • : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권10호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 10월
  • : 1409-1419(11pages)
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

DOI


목차

Introduction
Materials and Methods
Results
Discussion
Acknowledgments
Conflict of Interest
References

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A growing number of healthy dietary ingredients in fruits and vegetables have been shown to exhibit diverse biological activities. Phloretin, a dihydrochalcone flavonoid that is abundant in apples and pears, has anti-inflammatory effects on ulcerative colitis (UC) mice. The gut microbiota and metabolism are closely related to each other due to the existence of the food-gut axis in the human colon. To investigate the interplay of faecal metabolites and the microbiota in UC mice after phloretin treatment, phloretin (60 mg/kg) was administered by gavage to ameliorate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC in mice. Gut microbes and faecal metabolite profiles were detected by high-throughput sequencing and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, respectively. The correlations between gut microbes and their metabolites were evaluated by Spearman correlation coefficients. The results indicated that phloretin reshaped the disturbed faecal metabolite profile in UC mice and improved the metabolic pathways by balancing the composition of faecal metabolites such as norepinephrine, mesalazine, tyrosine, 5-acetyl-2,4- dimethyloxazole, and 6-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4(1H)-pyridinone. Correlation analysis identified the relations between the gut microbes and their metabolites. Proteus was negatively related to many faecal metabolites, such as norepinephrine, L-tyrosine, laccarin, dopamine glucuronide, and 5-acetyl-2,4-dimethyloxazole. The abundance of unidentified Bacteriodales_S24-7_group was positively related to ecgonine, 15-KETE and 6-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-2- (hydroxymethyl)-4(1H)-pyridinone. The abundance of Christensenellaceae_R-7_group was negatively related to the levels of 15-KETE and netilmicin. Stenotrophomonas and 15-KETE were negatively related, while Intestinimonas and alanyl-serine were positively related. In conclusion, phloretin treatment had positive impacts on faecal metabolites in UC mice, and the changes in faecal metabolites were closely related to the gut microbiota.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-400-000907113

간행물정보

  • : 자연과학분야  > 생물
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 월간
  • : 1017-7825
  • : 1738-8872
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1991-2022
  • : 5834


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1A Review on Bioactive Compounds from Marine-Derived Chaetomium Species

저자 : Yuan Tian , Yanling Li

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 541-550 (10 pages)

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Filamentous marine fungi have proven to be a plentiful source of new natural products. Chaetomium, a widely distributed fungal genus in the marine environment, has gained much interest within the scientific community. In the last 20 years, many potential secondary metabolites have been detected from marine-derived Chaetomium. In this review, we attempt to provide a comprehensive summary of the natural products produced by marine-derived Chaetomium species. A total of 122 secondary metabolites that were described from 2001 to 2021 are covered. The structural diversity of the compounds, along with details of the sources and relevant biological properties are also provided, while the relationships between structures and their bioactivities are discussed. It is our expectation that this review will be of benefit to drug development and innovation.

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2Anticancer Activity of Extremely Effective Recombinant L-Asparaginase from Burkholderia pseudomallei

저자 : Doaa B. Darwesh , Yahya S. Al-awthan , Imadeldin Elfaki , Salem A. Habib , Tarig M. Alnour , Ahmed B. Darwish , Magdy M. Youssef

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 551-563 (13 pages)

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L-asparaginase (E.C. 3.5.1.1) purified from bacterial cells is widely used in the food industry, as well as in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In the present study, the Burkholderia pseudomallei L-asparaginase gene was cloned into the pGEX-2T DNA plasmid, expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS, and purified to homogeneity using Glutathione Sepharose chromatography with 7.26 purification fold and 16.01% recovery. The purified enzyme exhibited a molecular weight of ~33.6 kDa with SDS-PAGE and showed maximal activity at 50℃ and pH 8.0. It retained 95.1, 89.6%, and 70.2% initial activity after 60 min at 30℃, 40℃, and 50°C, respectively. The enzyme reserved its activity at 30℃ and 37℃ up to 24 h. The enzyme had optimum pH of 8 and reserved 50% activity up to 24 h. The recombinant enzyme showed the highest substrate specificity towards L-asparaginase substrate, while no detectable specificity was observed for L-glutamine, urea, and acrylamide at 10 mM concentration. THP-1, a human leukemia cell line, displayed significant morphological alterations after being treated with recombinant L-asparaginase and the IC50 of the purified enzyme was recorded as 0.8 IU. Furthermore, the purified recombinant Lasparaginase improved cytotoxicity in liver cancer HepG2 and breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines, with IC50 values of 1.53 and 18 IU, respectively.

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3Responses of Soil Rare and Abundant Sub- Communities and Physicochemical Properties after Application of Different Chinese Herb Residue Soil Amendments

저자 : Fan Chang , Fengan Jia , Min Guan , Qingan Jia , Yan Sun , Zhi Li

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 564-574 (11 pages)

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Microbial diversity in the soil is responsive to changes in soil composition. However, the impact of soil amendments on the diversity and structure of rare and abundant sub-communities in agricultural systems is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of different Chinese herb residue (CHR) soil amendments and cropping systems on bacterial rare and abundant subcommunities. Our results showed that the bacterial diversity and structure of these subcommunities in soil had a specific distribution under the application of different soil amendments. The CHR soil amendments with high nitrogen and organic matter additives significantly increased the relative abundance and stability of rare taxa, which increased the structural and functional redundancy of soil bacterial communities. Rare and abundant sub-communities also showed different preferences in terms of bacterial community composition, as the former was enriched with Bacteroidetes while the latter had more Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. All applications of soil amendments significantly improved soil quality of newly created farmlands in whole maize cropping system. Rare sub-communitiy genera Niastella and Ohtaekwangia were enriched during the maize cropping process, and Nitrososphaera was enriched under the application of simple amendment group soil. Thus, Chinese medicine residue soil amendments with appropriate additives could affect soil rare and abundant sub-communities and enhance physicochemical properties. These findings suggest that applying soil composite amendments based on CHR in the field could improve soil microbial diversity, microbial redundancy, and soil fertility for sustainable agriculture on the Loess Plateau.

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4Caenimonas aquaedulcis sp. nov., Isolated from Freshwater of Daechung Reservoir during Microcystis Bloom

저자 : Ve Van Le , So-ra Ko , Sang-ah Lee , Mingyeong Kang , Hee-mock Oh , Chi-yong Ahn

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 575-581 (7 pages)

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A Gram-stain-negative, white-coloured, and rod-shaped bacterium, strain DR4-4T, was isolated from Daechung Reservoir, Republic of Korea, during Microcystis bloom. Strain DR4-4T was most closely related to Caenimonas terrae SGM1-15T and Caenimonas koreensis EMB320T with 98.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values between strain DR4-4T and closely related type strains were below 79.46% and 22.30%, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 67.5%. The major cellular fatty acids (≥10% of the total) were identified as C16:0, cyclo C17:0, summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c), and summed feature 8 (C18:1ω7c and/or C18:1ω6c). Strain DR4-4T possessed phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylglycerol as the main polar lipids and Q-8 as the respiratory quinone. The polyamine profile was composed of putrescine, cadaverine, and spermidine. The results of polyphasic characterization indicated that the isolated strain DR4-4T represents a novel species within the genus Caenimonas, for which the name Caenimonas aquaedulcis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DR4-4T (=KCTC 82470T =JCM 34453T).

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5Exogenous Bio-Based 2,3-Butanediols Enhanced Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Tomato and Turfgrass under Drought or Chilling Stress

저자 : Ae Ran Park , Jongmun Kim , Bora Kim , Areum Ha , Ji-yeon Son , Chan Woo Song , Hyohak Song , Jin-cheol Kim

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 582-593 (12 pages)

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Among abiotic stresses in plants, drought and chilling stresses reduce the supply of moisture to plant tissues, inhibit photosynthesis, and severely reduce plant growth and yield. Thus, the application of water stress-tolerant agents can be a useful strategy to maintain plant growth under abiotic stresses. This study assessed the effect of exogenous bio-based 2,3-butanediol (BDO) application on drought and chilling response in tomato and turfgrass, and expression levels of several plant signaling pathway-related gene transcripts. Bio-based 2,3-BDOs were formulated to levo-2,3-BDO 0.9% soluble concentrate (levo 0.9% SL) and meso-2,3-BDO 9% SL (meso 9% SL). Under drought and chilling stress conditions, the application of levo 0.9% SL in creeping bentgrass and meso 9% SL in tomato plants significantly reduced the deleterious effects of abiotic stresses. Interestingly, pretreatment with levo-2,3-BDO in creeping bentgrass and meso-2,3-BDO in tomato plants enhanced JA and SA signaling pathway-related gene transcript expression levels in different ways. In addition, all tomato plants treated with acibenzolar-S-methyl (as a positive control) withered completely under chilling stress, whereas 2,3-BDO-treated tomato plants exhibited excellent cold tolerance. According to our findings, bio-based 2,3-BDO isomers as sustainable water stress-tolerant agents, levo- and meso-2,3-BDOs, could enhance tolerance to drought and/or chilling stresses in various plants through somewhat different molecular activities without any side effects.

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6Evaluation of the EtOAc Extract of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) as a Potential Skincare Cosmetic Material for Acne Vulgaris

저자 : Chowon Kim , Jumin Park , Hyeyoung Lee , Dae-youn Hwang , So Hae Park , Heeseob Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 594-601 (8 pages)

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This study evaluated the biological properties of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) extracts. The EtOAc extract of lemongrass had DPPH, TEAC, and nitric oxide-scavenging activity assay results of 58.06, 44.14, and 41.08% at the concentration of 50, 10, and 50 μg/ml, respectively. The EtOAc extract had higher elastase and collagenase inhibitory activities than the 80% MeOH, n-hexane, BuOH, and water extracts and comparable whitening activity toward monophenolase or diphenolase. Also, the EtOAc fraction had higher lipase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities against Cutibacterium acnes among extracts which is known to an important contributor to the progression of inflammatory acne vulgaris, and an opportunistic pathogen present in human skin. Total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations in the EtOAc extract were 132.31 mg CAE/g extract and 104.50 mg NE/g extract, respectively. Biologically active compounds in lemongrass extracts were analyzed by LC-MS. This study confirms that lemongrass extracts have potential use as cosmetic skincare ingredients. Thus, lemongrass can be considered a promising natural source of readily available, low-cost extracts rich in antioxidant, skincare, and antimicrobial compounds that might be suitable for replacing synthetic compounds in the cosmeceutical industry.

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7Cooperative Interaction between Acid and Copper Resistance in Escherichia coli

저자 : Yeeun Kim , Seohyeon Lee , Kyungah Park , Hyunjin Yoon

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 602-611 (10 pages)

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The persistence of pathogenic Escherichia coli under acidic conditions poses a serious risk to food safety, especially in acidic foods such as kimchi. To identify the bacterial factors required for acid resistance, transcriptomic analysis was conducted on an acid-resistant enterotoxigenic E. coli strain and the genes with significant changes in their expression under acidic pH were selected as putative resistance factors against acid stress. These genes included those associated with a glutamatedependent acid resistance (GDAR) system and copper resistance. E. coli strains lacking GadA, GadB, or YbaST, the components of the GDAR system, exhibited significantly attenuated growth and survival under acidic stress conditions. Accordantly, the inhibition of the GDAR system by 3- mercaptopropionic acid and aminooxyacetic acid abolished bacterial adaptation and survival under acidic conditions, indicating the indispensable role of a GDAR system in acid resistance. Intriguingly, the lack of cueR encoding a transcriptional regulator for copper resistance genes markedly impaired bacterial resistance to acid stress as well as copper. Conversely, the absence of YbaST severely compromised bacterial resistance against copper, suggesting an interplay between acid and copper resistance. These results suggest that a GDAR system can be a promising target for developing control measures to prevent E. coli resistance to acid and copper treatments.

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8Postbiotics Enhance NK Cell Activation in Stress-Induced Mice through Gut Microbiome Regulation

저자 : Ye-jin Jung , Hyun-seok Kim , Gunn Jaygal , Hye-rin Cho , Kyung Bae Lee , In-bong Song , Jong-hoon Kim , Mi-sun Kwak , Kyung-ho Han , Min-jung Bae , Moon-hee Sung

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 612-620 (9 pages)

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Recent studies have revealed that probiotics and their metabolites are present under various conditions; however, the role of probiotic metabolites (i.e., postbiotics in pathological states) is controversial. Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we examined NK cell activation influenced by a postbiotics mixture in response to gut microbiome modulation in stress-induced mice. In vivo activation of NK cells increased in the postbiotics mixture treatment group in accordance with Th1/Th2 expression level. Meanwhile, the Red Ginseng treatment group, a reference group, showed very little expression of NK cell activation. Moreover, the postbiotics mixture treatment group in particular changed the gut microbiome composition. Although the exact role of the postbiotics mixture in regulating the immune system of stressinduced mice remains unclear, the postbiotics mixture-induced NK cell activation might have affected gut microbiome modulation.

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9Effective Platform for the Production of Recombinant Outer Membrane Vesicles in Gram-Negative Bacteria

저자 : Anthicha Kunjantarachot , Teva Phanaksri

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 621-629 (9 pages)

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Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) typically contain multiple immunogenic molecules that include antigenic proteins, making them good candidates for vaccine development. In animal models, vaccination with OMVs has been shown to confer protective immune responses against many bacterial diseases. It is possible to genetically introduce heterologous protein antigens to the bacterial host that can then be produced and relocated to reside within the OMVs by means of the host secretion mechanisms. Accordingly, in this study we sought to develop a novel platform for recombinant OMV (rOMV) production in the widely used bacterial expression host species, Escherichia coli. Three different lipoprotein signal peptides including their Lol signals and tether sequences―from Neisseria meningitidis fHbp, Leptospira interrogans LipL32, and Campylobactor jejuni JlpA―were combined upstream to the GFPmut2 model protein, resulting in three recombinant plasmids. Pilot expression studies showed that the fusion between fHbp and GFPmut2 was the only promising construct; therefore, we used this construct for large-scale expression. After inducing recombinant protein expression, the nanovesicles were harvested from cell-free culture media by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the obtained rOMVs were closed, circular single-membrane particles, 20-200 nm in size. Western blotting confirmed the presence of GFPmut2 in the isolated vesicles. Collectively, although this is a non-optimized, proof-of-concept study, it demonstrates the feasibility of this platform in directing target proteins into the vesicles for OMV-based vaccine development.

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10Optimization of an Industrial Medium and Culture Conditions for Probiotic Weissella cibaria JW15 Biomass Using the Plackett- Burman Design and Response Surface Methodology

저자 : Hyung-seok Yu , Na-kyoung Lee , Won-ju Kim , Do-un Lee , Jong-ha Kim , Hyun-dong Paik

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 32권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 630-637 (8 pages)

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The objective of this study was to optimize industrial-grade media for improving the biomass production of Weissella cibaria JW15 (JW15) using a statistical approach. Eleven variables comprising three carbon sources (glucose, fructose, and sucrose), three nitrogen sources (protease peptone, yeast extract, and soy peptone), and five mineral sources (K2HPO4, potassium citrate, Lcysteine phosphate, MgSO4, and MnSO4) were screened by using the Plackett-Burman design. Consequently, glucose, sucrose, and soy peptone were used as significant variables in response surface methodology (RSM). The composition of the optimal medium (OM) was 22.35 g/l glucose, 15.57 g/l sucrose, and 10.05 g/l soy peptone, 2.0 g/l K2HPO4, 5.0 g/l sodium acetate, 0.1 g/l MgSO4·7H2O, 0.05 g/l MnSO4·H2O, and 1.0 g/l Tween 80. The OM significantly improved the biomass production of JW15 over an established commercial medium (MRS). After fermenting OM, the dry cell weight of JW15 was 4.89 g/l, which was comparable to the predicted value (4.77 g/l), and 1.67 times higher than that of the MRS medium (3.02 g/l). Correspondingly, JW15 showed a rapid and increased production of lactic and acetic acid in the OM. To perform a scale-up validation, batch fermentation was executed in a 5-l bioreactor at 37℃ with or without a pH control at 6.0 ± 0.1. The biomass production of JW15 significantly improved (1.98 times higher) under the pH control, and the cost of OM was reduced by two-thirds compared to that in the MRS medium. In conclusion, OM may be utilized for mass producing JW15 for industrial use.

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1Overexpression of Long Non-Coding RNA MIR22HG Represses Proliferation and Enhances Apoptosis via miR-629-5p/TET3 Axis in Osteosarcoma Cells

저자 : Haoliang Zhao , Ming Zhang , Xuejing Yang , Dong Song

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1331-1342 (12 pages)

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In this study, we evaluated the mechanism of long non-coding RNA MIR22 host gene (LncRNA MIR22HG) in osteosarcoma cells. Forty-eight paired osteosarcoma and adjacent tissues samples were collected and the bioinformatic analyses were performed. Target genes and potential binding sites of MIR22HG, microRNA (miR)-629-5p and tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 3 (TET3) were predicted by Starbase and TargetScan V7.2 and confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Cell Counting Kit-8, colony formation and flow cytometry assays were utilized to determine the viability, proliferation and apoptosis of transfected osteosarcoma cells. Pearson's analysis was introduced for the correlation analysis between MIR22HG and miR-629-5p in osteosarcoma tissue. Relative expressions of MIR22HG, miR-629-5p and TET3 were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or Western blot. MiR-629-5p could competitively bind with and was negatively correlated with MIR22HG, the latter of which was evidenced by the high expression of miR-629-5p and low expression of MIR22HG in osteosarcoma tissues. Overexpressed MIR22HG repressed the viability and proliferation but enhanced apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells, which was reversed by miR-629-5p upregulation. TET3 was the target gene of miR-629-5p, and the promotive effects of upregulated miR-629-5p on the viability and proliferation as well as its repressive effect on apoptosis were abrogated via overexpressed TET3. To sum up, overexpressed MIR22HG inhibits the viability and proliferation of osteosarcoma cells, which was achieved via regulation of the miR-629- 5p/TET3 axis.

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2Anticancer Activity of Periplanetasin-5, an Antimicrobial Peptide from the Cockroach Periplaneta americana

저자 : In-woo Kim , Ra-yeong Choi , Joon Ha Lee , Minchul Seo , Hwa Jeong Lee , Mi-ae Kim , Seong Hyun Kim , Iksoo Kim , Jae Sam Hwang

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1343-1349 (7 pages)

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Cockroaches live in places where various pathogens exist and thus are more likely to use antimicrobial compounds to defend against pathogen intrusions. We previously performed an in silico analysis of the Periplaneta americana transcriptome and detected periplanetasin-5 using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method. In this study, we investigated whether periplanetasin-5 has anticancer activity against the human leukemia cell line K562. Cell growth and survival of K562 cells treated with periplanetasin-5 were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. By using flow cytometric analysis, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and DNA fragmentation, we found that periplanetasin-5 induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in leukemia cells. In addition, these events were associated with increased levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins Fas and cytochrome c and reduced levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Periplanetasin-5 induces the cleavage of pro-caspase-9, pro-caspase-8, pro-caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The above data suggest that periplanetasin-5 induces apoptosis via both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Moreover, caspase-related apoptosis was further confirmed by using the caspase inhibitor carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]- fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK), which reversed the periplanetasin-5-induced reduction in cell viability. In conclusion, periplanetasin-5 caused apoptosis in leukemia cells, suggesting its potential utility as an anticancer therapeutic agent.

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3Isovitexin Is a Direct Inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus Coagulase

저자 : Hua Xiang , Panpan Yang , Li Wang , Jiaxin Li , Tiedong Wang , Junze Xue , Dacheng Wang , Hongxia Ma

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1350-1357 (8 pages)

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Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major pathogen that causes human pneumonia, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. S. aureus coagulase (Coa) triggers the polymerization of fibrin by activating host prothrombin, which then converts fibrinogen to fibrin and contributes to S. aureus pathogenesis and persistent infection. In our research, we demonstrate that isovitexin, an active traditional Chinese medicine component, can inhibit the coagulase activity of Coa but does not interfere with the growth of S. aureus. Furthermore, we show through thermal shift and fluorescence quenching assays that isovitexin directly binds to Coa. Dynamic simulation and structure-activity relationship analyses suggest that V191 and P268 are key amino acid residues responsible for the binding of isovitexin to Coa. Taken together, these data indicate that isovitexin is a direct Coa inhibitor and a promising candidate for drug development against S. aureus infection.

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4LINC01232 Promotes Gastric Cancer Proliferation through Interacting with EZH2 to Inhibit the Transcription of KLF2

저자 : Jing Liu , Zhen Li , Guohua Yu , Ting Wang , Guimei Qu , Yunhui Wang

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1358-1365 (8 pages)

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To clarify the role of long intergenic nonprotein-coding RNA 1232 (LINC01232) in the progression of gastric cancer and the potential mechanism, we analyzed the expression of LINC01232 in TCGA database using the GEPIA online tool, and the LINC01232 level in gastric cancer cell lines was detected by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) as well. Cell proliferation assay, colony formation assay, transwell assay and tumor formation experiment in nude mice were conducted to observe the biological behavior changes of gastric cancer cells through the influence of LINC01232 knockdown. LncATLAS database and subcellular isolation assay were used for subcellular distribution of LINC01232 in gastric cancer cells. The interaction among LINC01232, zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) was clarified by RNA-protein interaction prediction (RPISeq), RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), qRT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Rescue experiments were further conducted to elucidate the biological function of LINC01232/KLF2 axis in the progression of gastric cancer. LINC01232 was upregulated in stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) tissues and gastric cancer lines. LINC01232 knockdown inhibited the proliferative capacities of gastric cancer cells in vitro, and impaired in vivo tumorigenicity. LINC01232 was mainly distributed in the cell nucleus where it epigenetically repressed KLF2 expression via binding to the enhancer of EZH2, which was capable of binding to promoter regions of KLF2 to induce histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). LINC01232 exerts oncogenic activities in gastric cancer via inhibition of KLF2, and therefore, the knockdown of KLF2 could reverse the regulatory effect of LINC01232 in the proliferative ability of gastric cancer cells.

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5Addition of Various Cellulosic Components to Bacterial Nanocellulose: A Comparison of Surface Qualities and Crystalline Properties

저자 : Won Yeong Bang , Dong Hyun Kim , Mi Dan Kang , Jungwoo Yang , Taelin Huh , Young Woon Lim , Young Hoon Jung

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1366-1372 (7 pages)

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Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a biocompatible material with a lot of potential. To make BNC commercially feasible, improvements in its production and surface qualities must be made. Here, we investigated the in situ fermentation and generation of BNC by addition of different cellulosic substrates such as Avicel and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and using Komagataeibacter sp. SFCB22-18. The addition of cellulosic substrates improved BNC production by a maximum of about 5 times and slightly modified its structural properties. The morphological and structural properties of BNC were investigated by using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, a type-A cellulose-binding protein derived from Clostridium thermocellum, CtCBD3, was used in a novel biological analytic approach to measure the surface crystallinity of the BNC. Because Avicel and CMC may adhere to microfibrils during BNC synthesis or crystallization, cellulose-binding protein could be a useful tool for identifying the crystalline properties of BNC with high sensitivity.

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6Evaluation of Bacillus velezensis for Biological Control of Rhizoctonia solani in Bean by Alginate/Gelatin Encapsulation Supplemented with Nanoparticles

저자 : Mojde Moradi-pour , Roohallah Saberi-riseh , Keyvan Esmaeilzadeh-salestani , Reza Mohammadinejad , Evelin Loit

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1373-1382 (10 pages)

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Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of bacteria that can increase plant growth; but due to unfavorable environmental conditions, PGPR are biologically unstable and their survival rates in soil are limited. Therefore, the suitable application of PGPR as a plant growth stimulation is one of the significant challenges in agriculture. This study presents an intelligent formulation based on Bacillus velezensis VRU1 encapsulation enriched with nanoparticles that was able to control Rhizoctonia solani on the bean. The spherical structure of the capsule was observed based on the Scanning Electron Microscope image. Results indicated that with increasing gelatin concentration, the swelling ratio and moisture content were increased; and since the highest encapsulation efficiency and bacterial release were observed at a gelatin concentration of 1.5%, this concentration was considered in mixture with alginate for encapsulation. The application of this formulation which is based on encapsulation and nanotechnology appears to be a promising technique to deliver PGPR in soil and is more effective for plants.

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7Efficacy of Lactobacillus fermentum Isolated from the Vagina of a Healthy Woman against Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella Infections In Vivo

저자 : Hanieh Tajdozian , Hoonhee Seo , Sukyung Kim , Md Abdur Rahim , Saebim Lee , Ho-yeon Song

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1383-1392 (10 pages)

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Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase are increasingly reported worldwide and have become more and more resistant to nearly all antibiotics during the past decade. The emergence of K. pneumoniae strains with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems, which are used as a last resort treatment option, is a significant threat to hospitalized patients worldwide as K. pneumoniae infection is responsible for a high mortality rate in the elderly and immunodeficient individuals. This study used Lactobacillus fermentum as a candidate probiotic for treating CRE-related infections and investigated its effectiveness. We treated mice with L. fermentum originating from the vaginal fluid of a healthy Korean woman and evaluated the Lactobacilli's efficacy in preventive, treatment, nonestablishment, and colonization mouse model experiments. Compared to the control, pre-treatment with L. fermentum significantly reduced body weight loss in the mouse models, and all mice survived until the end of the study. The oral administration of L. fermentum after carbapenemresistant Klebsiella (CRK) infection decreased mortality and illness severity during a 2-week observation period and showed that it affects other strains of CRK bacteria. Also, the number of Klebsiella bacteria was decreased to below 5.5 log10 CFU/ml following oral administration of L. fermentum in the colonization model. These findings demonstrate L. fermentum's antibacterial activity and its potential to treat CRE infection in the future.

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8Crystal Structure and Molecular Mechanism of Phosphotransbutyrylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum

저자 : Sangwoo Kim , Kyung-jin Kim

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1393-1400 (8 pages)

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Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum has been considered a promising process of industrial biofuel production. Phosphotransbutyrylase (phosphate butyryltransferase, PTB) plays a crucial role in butyrate metabolism by catalyzing the reversible conversion of butyryl-CoA into butyryl phosphate. Here, we report the crystal structure of PTB from the Clostridial host for ABE fermentation, C. acetobutylicum, (CaPTB) at a 2.9 A resolution. The overall structure of the CaPTB monomer is quite similar to those of other acyltransferases, with some regional structural differences. The monomeric structure of CaPTB consists of two distinct domains, the N- and C-terminal domains. The active site cleft was formed at the interface between the two domains. Interestingly, the crystal structure of CaPTB contained eight molecules per asymmetric unit, forming an octamer, and the size-exclusion chromatography experiment also suggested that the enzyme exists as an octamer in solution. The structural analysis of CaPTB identifies the substrate binding mode of the enzyme and comparisons with other acyltransferase structures lead us to speculate that the enzyme undergoes a conformational change upon binding of its substrate.

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9Low-Molecular-Weight Collagen Peptide Ameliorates Osteoarthritis Progression through Promoting Extracellular Matrix Synthesis by Chondrocytes in a Rabbit Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection Model

저자 : Mun-hoe Lee , Hyeong-min Kim , Hee-chul Chung , Do-un Kim , Jin-hee Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1401-1408 (8 pages)

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This study examined whether the oral administration of low-molecular-weight collagen peptide (LMCP) containing 3% Gly-Pro-Hyp with >15% tripeptide (Gly-X-Y) content could ameliorate osteoarthritis (OA) progression using a rabbit anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model of induced OA and chondrocytes isolated from a patient with OA. Oral LMCP administration (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks ameliorated cartilage damage and reduced the loss of proteoglycan compared to the findings in the ACLT control group, resulting in dose-dependent (p < 0.05) improvements of the OARSI score in hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and Safranin O staining. In microcomputed tomography analysis, LMCP also significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed the deterioration of the microstructure in tibial subchondral bone during OA progression. The elevation of IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations in synovial fluid following OA induction was dose-dependently (p < 0.05) reduced by LMCP treatment. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry illustrated that LMCP significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated type II collagen and downregulated matrix metalloproteinase-13 in cartilage tissue. Consistent with the in vivo results, LMCP significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mRNA expression of COL2A1 and ACAN in chondrocytes isolated from a patient with OA regardless of the conditions for IL-1β induction. These findings suggest that LMCP has potential as a therapeutic treatment for OA that stimulates cartilage regeneration.

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10Interplay between the Gut Microbiome and Metabolism in Ulcerative Colitis Mice Treated with the Dietary Ingredient Phloretin

저자 : Jie Ren , Puze Li , Dong Yan , Min Li , Jinsong Qi , Mingyong Wang , Genshen Zhong , Minna Wu

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1409-1419 (11 pages)

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A growing number of healthy dietary ingredients in fruits and vegetables have been shown to exhibit diverse biological activities. Phloretin, a dihydrochalcone flavonoid that is abundant in apples and pears, has anti-inflammatory effects on ulcerative colitis (UC) mice. The gut microbiota and metabolism are closely related to each other due to the existence of the food-gut axis in the human colon. To investigate the interplay of faecal metabolites and the microbiota in UC mice after phloretin treatment, phloretin (60 mg/kg) was administered by gavage to ameliorate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC in mice. Gut microbes and faecal metabolite profiles were detected by high-throughput sequencing and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, respectively. The correlations between gut microbes and their metabolites were evaluated by Spearman correlation coefficients. The results indicated that phloretin reshaped the disturbed faecal metabolite profile in UC mice and improved the metabolic pathways by balancing the composition of faecal metabolites such as norepinephrine, mesalazine, tyrosine, 5-acetyl-2,4- dimethyloxazole, and 6-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4(1H)-pyridinone. Correlation analysis identified the relations between the gut microbes and their metabolites. Proteus was negatively related to many faecal metabolites, such as norepinephrine, L-tyrosine, laccarin, dopamine glucuronide, and 5-acetyl-2,4-dimethyloxazole. The abundance of unidentified Bacteriodales_S24-7_group was positively related to ecgonine, 15-KETE and 6-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-2- (hydroxymethyl)-4(1H)-pyridinone. The abundance of Christensenellaceae_R-7_group was negatively related to the levels of 15-KETE and netilmicin. Stenotrophomonas and 15-KETE were negatively related, while Intestinimonas and alanyl-serine were positively related. In conclusion, phloretin treatment had positive impacts on faecal metabolites in UC mice, and the changes in faecal metabolites were closely related to the gut microbiota.

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