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한국미생물생명공학회> Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology> Addition of Various Cellulosic Components to Bacterial Nanocellulose: A Comparison of Surface Qualities and Crystalline Properties

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Addition of Various Cellulosic Components to Bacterial Nanocellulose: A Comparison of Surface Qualities and Crystalline Properties

Won Yeong Bang , Dong Hyun Kim , Mi Dan Kang , Jungwoo Yang , Taelin Huh , Young Woon Lim , Young Hoon Jung
  • : 한국미생물생명공학회
  • : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권10호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 10월
  • : 1366-1372(7pages)
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

DOI


목차

Introduction
Materials and Methods
Results and Discussion
Acknowledgments
Conflict of Interest
References

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Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a biocompatible material with a lot of potential. To make BNC commercially feasible, improvements in its production and surface qualities must be made. Here, we investigated the in situ fermentation and generation of BNC by addition of different cellulosic substrates such as Avicel and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and using Komagataeibacter sp. SFCB22-18. The addition of cellulosic substrates improved BNC production by a maximum of about 5 times and slightly modified its structural properties. The morphological and structural properties of BNC were investigated by using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, a type-A cellulose-binding protein derived from Clostridium thermocellum, CtCBD3, was used in a novel biological analytic approach to measure the surface crystallinity of the BNC. Because Avicel and CMC may adhere to microfibrils during BNC synthesis or crystallization, cellulose-binding protein could be a useful tool for identifying the crystalline properties of BNC with high sensitivity.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 자연과학분야  > 생물
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 월간
  • : 1017-7825
  • : 1738-8872
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1991-2021
  • : 5744


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1Recent Advances in Synthetic, Industrial and Biological Applications of Violacein and Its Heterologous Production

저자 : Aqsa Ahmed , Abdullah Ahmad , Renhan Li , Waleed Al-ansi , Momal Fatima , Bilal Sajid Mushtaq , Samra Basharat , Ye Li , Zhonghu Bai

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1465-1480 (16 pages)

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Violacein, a purple pigment first isolated from a gram-negative coccobacillus Chromobacterium violaceum, has gained extensive research interest in recent years due to its huge potential in the pharmaceutic area and industry. In this review, we summarize the latest research advances concerning this pigment, which include (1) fundamental studies of its biosynthetic pathway, (2) production of violacein by native producers, apart from C. violaceum, (3) metabolic engineering for improved production in heterologous hosts such as Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Yarrowia lipolytica, (4) biological/pharmaceutical and industrial properties, (5) and applications in synthetic biology. Due to the intrinsic properties of violacein and the intermediates during its biosynthesis, the prospective research has huge potential to move this pigment into real clinical and industrial applications.

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2Duplex dPCR System for Rapid Identification of Gram-Negative Pathogens in the Blood of Patients with Bloodstream Infection: A Culture-Independent Approach

저자 : Juyoun Shin , Sun Shin , Seung-hyun Jung , Chulmin Park , Sung-yeon Cho , Dong-gun Lee , Yeun-jun Chung

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1481-1489 (9 pages)

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Early and accurate detection of pathogens is important to improve clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections (BSI), especially in the case of drug-resistant pathogens. In this study, we aimed to develop a culture-independent digital PCR (dPCR) system for multiplex detection of major sepsis-causing gram-negative pathogens and antimicrobial resistance genes using plasma DNA from BSI patients. Our duplex dPCR system successfully detected nine targets (five bacteria-specific targets and four antimicrobial resistance genes) through five reactions within 3 hours. The minimum detection limit was 50 ag of bacterial DNA, suggesting that 1 CFU/ml of bacteria in the blood can be detected. To validate the clinical applicability, cell-free DNA samples from febrile patients were tested with our system and confirmed high consistency with conventional blood culture. This system can support early identification of some drug-resistant gram-negative pathogens, which can help improving treatment outcomes of BSI.

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3Changes in the Microbiome of Vaginal Fluid after Menopause in Korean Women

저자 : Sukyung Kim , Hoonhee Seo , Md Abdur Rahim , Saebim Lee , Yun-sook Kim , Ho-yeon Song

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1490-1500 (11 pages)

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Various microorganisms reside in the human vagina; the vaginal microbiome is closely linked to both vaginal and general health, and for this reason, microbiome studies of the vagina are an area of research. In this study, we analyzed the vaginal microbiome of women before and after menopause to further increase our understanding of the vaginal microbiome and its contribution to general health. We did a 16s rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis on the vaginal fluids of 11 premenopausal and 19 postmenopausal women in Korea. We confirmed that the taxonomic composition was significantly different between the two groups. In postmenopausal women, species richness was significantly decreased, but species diversity was significantly increased. In particular, among the taxonomic components corresponding to all taxon ranks of the vaginal microbiome, a reduction in Lactobacillus taxa after menopause contributed the most to the difference between the two groups. In addition, we confirmed through metabolic analysis that the lactic-acid concentration was also decreased in the vaginal fluid of women after menopause. Our findings on the correlation between menopause and the microbiome could help diagnose menopause and enhance the prevention and treatment diseases related to menopause.

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4Lagerstroemia ovalifolia Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Mice of LPS-Induced ALI via Downregulating of MAPK and NF-κB Activation

저자 : Jae-hong Min , Seong-man Kim , Ji-won Park , Nam Hoon Kwon , Soo Hyeon Goo , Ngatinem , Sri Ningsih , Jin-hyub Paik , Sangho Choi , Sei-ryang Oh , Sang-bae Han , Kyung-seop Ahn , Jae-won Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1501-1507 (7 pages)

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Lagerstroemia ovalifolia Teijsm. & Binn. (LO) (crape myrtle) has reportedly been used as traditional herbal medicine (THM) in Java, Indonesia. Our previous study revealed that the LO leaf extract (LOLE) exerted anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Based on this finding, the current study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of LOLE in a mouse model of LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI). The results showed that treatment with LPS enhanced the inflammatory cell influx into the lungs and increased the number of macrophages and the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice. However, these effects were notably abrogated with LOLE pretreatment. Furthermore, the increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in the lung tissues of mice with ALI was also reversed by LOLE. In addition, LOLE significantly suppressed the LPS-induced activation of the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway and led to heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction in the lungs. Additionally, in vitro experiments showed that LOLE enhanced the expression of HO-1 in RAW264.7 macrophages. The aforementioned findings collectively indicate that LOLE exerts an ameliorative effect on inflammatory response in the airway of ALI mice.

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5Hsa_Circ_0001947/MiR-661/DOK7 Axis Restrains Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Development

저자 : Yuyan Bao , Yanjie Yu , Bing Hong , Zhenjian Lin , Guoli Qi , Jie Zhou , Kaiping Liu , Xiaomin Zhang

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1508-1518 (11 pages)

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Hsa_circ_0001947 is associated with multiple cancers, but its function in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is ambiguous and needs further research. The targeting relationship among circ_0001947, miR-661, and downstream of tyrosine kinase 7 (DOK7) was predicted by database and further verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay, while their expressions in cancer tissues and cells were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). After transfection, cell biological behaviors and expressions of miRNAs, miR-661 and DOK7 were determined by cell function experiments and qRT-PCR, respectively. Circ_0001947 was low-expressed in NSCLC tissues and cells. Circ_0001947 knockdown intensified cell viability and proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest at S phase, suppressed apoptosis and evidently enhanced miR-510, miR-587, miR-661 and miR-942 levels, while circ_0001947 overexpression did the opposite. MiR-661 was a target gene of circ_0001947 that participated in the regulation of circ_0001947 on cell biological behaviors. Furthermore, DOK7, the target gene of miR-661, partly participated in the regulation of miR-661 on cell viability. Hsa_circ_0001947 acts as a sponge of miR-661 to repress NSCLC development by elevating the expression of DOK7.

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6Direct and Indirect Reduction of Cr(VI) by Fermentative Fe(III)-Reducing Cellulomonas sp. Strain Cellu-2a

저자 : Anamika Khanal , Hor-gil Hur , James K. Fredrickson , Ji-hoon Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1519-1525 (7 pages)

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Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is recognized to be carcinogenic and toxic and registered as a contaminant in many drinking water regulations. It occurs naturally and is also produced by industrial processes. The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) has been a central topic for chromium remediation since Cr(III) is less toxic and less mobile. In this study, fermentative Fe(III)-reducing bacterial strains (Cellu-2a, Cellu-5a, and Cellu-5b) were isolated from a groundwater sample and were phylogenetically related to species of Cellulomonas by 16S rRNA gene analysis. One selected strain, Cellu-2a showed its capacity of reduction of both soluble iron (ferric citrate) and solid iron (hydrous ferric oxide, HFO), as well as aqueous Cr(VI). The strain Cellu-2a was able to reduce 15 μM Cr(VI) directly with glucose or sucrose as a sole carbon source under the anaerobic condition and indirectly with one of the substrates and HFO in the same incubations. The heterogeneous reduction of Cr(VI) by the surface-associated reduced iron from HFO by Cellu-2a likely assisted the Cr(VI) reduction. Fermentative features such as large-scale cell growth may impose advantages on the application of bacterial Cr(VI) reduction over anaerobic respiratory reduction.

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7Endophytic Fungi of Salt-Tolerant Plants: Diversity and Ability to Promote Plant Growth

저자 : Irina Khalmuratova , Doo-ho Choi , Jong-guk Kim , In-seon Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1526-1532 (7 pages)

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Suaeda australis, Phragmites australis, Suaeda maritima, Suaeda glauca Bunge, and Limonium tetragonum in the Seocheon salt marsh on the west coast of the Korean Penincula were sampled in order to identify the endophytes inhabiting the roots. A total of 128 endophytic fungal isolates belonging to 31 different genera were identified using the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene. Fusarium, Paraconiothyrium and Alternaria were the most commonly isolated genera in the plant root samples. Various diversity indicators were used to assess the diversity of the isolated fungi. Pure cultures containing each of the 128 endophytic fungi, respectively, were tested for the plant growth-promoting abilities of the fungus on Waito-C rice germinals. The culture filtrate of the isolate Lt-1-3-3 significantly increased the growth of shoots compared to the shoots treated with the control. Lt-1-3-3 culture filtrate was analyzed and showed the presence of gibberellins (GA1 2.487 ng/ml, GA3 2.592 ng/ml, GA9 3.998, and GA24 6.191 ng/ml). The culture filtrate from the Lt-1-3-3 fungal isolate produced greater amounts of GA9 and GA24 than the wild-type Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus known to produce large amounts of gibberellins. By the molecular analysis, fungal isolate Lt-1-3-3 was identified as Gibberella intermedia, with 100% similarity.

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8Genome-Wide Transcriptomic Analysis of n-Caproic Acid Production in Ruminococcaceae Bacterium CPB6 with Lactate Supplementation

저자 : Shaowen Lu , Hong Jin , Yi Wang , Yong Tao

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1533-1544 (12 pages)

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n-Caproic acid (CA) is gaining increased attention due to its high value as a chemical feedstock. Ruminococcaceae bacterium strain CPB6 is an anaerobic mesophilic bacterium that is highly prolific in its ability to perform chain elongation of lactate to CA. However, little is known about the genome-wide transcriptional analysis of strain CPB6 for CA production triggered by the supplementation of exogenous lactate. In this study, cultivation of strain CPB6 was carried out in the absence and presence of lactate. Transcriptional profiles were analyzed using RNA-seq, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the lactate-supplemented cells and control cells without lactate were analyzed. The results showed that lactate supplementation led to earlier CA p,roduction, and higher final CA titer and productivity. 295 genes were substrate and/or growth dependent, and these genes cover crucial functional categories. Specifically, 5 genes responsible for the reverse β-oxidation pathway, 11 genes encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, 6 genes encoding substrate-binding protein (SBP), and 4 genes encoding phosphotransferase system (PTS) transporters were strikingly upregulated in response to the addition of lactate. These genes would be candidates for future studies aiming at understanding the regulatory mechanism of lactate conversion into CA, as well as for the improvement of CA production in strain CPB6. The findings presented herein reveal unique insights into the biomolecular effect of lactate on CA production at the transcriptional level.

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9Overexpression of Capsular Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Protein in Lactobacillus plantarum P1 to Enhance Capsular Polysaccharide Production for Di-n-butyl Phthalate Adsorption

저자 : Wei-bing Liu , Zhi-wei Lin , Ying Zhou , Bang-ce Ye

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1545-1551 (7 pages)

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Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) such as capsular polysaccharide (CPS) are important bioactive carbohydrate compounds and are often used as bioenrichment agents and bioabsorbers to remove environmental pollutants like di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). Among the EPS-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have gained the most attention. As generally recognized as safe (GRAS) microorganisms, LAB can produce EPSs having many different structures and no health risks. However, EPS production by LAB does not meet the needs of large-scale application on an industrial scale. Here, the capA gene (encoding CPS biosynthesis protein) was overexpressed in Lactobacillus plantarum P1 to improve the production of EPSs and further enhance the DBP adsorption capability. Compared with P1, the CPS production in capA overexpressed strain was increased by 11.3 mg/l, and the EPS thickness was increased from 0.0786 ± 0.0224 μm in P1 to 0.1160 ± 0.0480 μm in P1-capA. These increases caused the DBP adsorption ratio of P1-capA to be doubled. Overall, the findings in this study provide a safe method for the adsorption and removal of DBP.

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10Effect of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli on Microbial Communities during Kimchi Fermentation

저자 : Woojung Lee , Hyo Ju Choi , Hyunwoo Zin , Eiseul Kim , Seung-Min Yang , Jinhee Hwang , Hyo-sun Kwak , Soon Han Kim , Hae-yeong Kim

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1552-1558 (7 pages)

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The diverse microbial communities in kimchi are dependent on fermentation period and temperature. Here, we investigated the effect of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) during the fermentation of kimchi at two temperatures using high-throughput sequencing. There were no differences in pH between the control group, samples not inoculated with ETEC, and the ETEC group, samples inoculated with ETEC MFDS 1009477. The pH of the two groups, which were fermented at 10 and 25℃, decreased rapidly at the beginning of fermentation and then reached pH 3.96 and pH 3.62. In both groups, the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, and Weissella were predominant. Our result suggests that microbial communities during kimchi fermentation may be affected by the fermentation parameters, such as temperature and period, and not enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC).

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1Overexpression of Long Non-Coding RNA MIR22HG Represses Proliferation and Enhances Apoptosis via miR-629-5p/TET3 Axis in Osteosarcoma Cells

저자 : Haoliang Zhao , Ming Zhang , Xuejing Yang , Dong Song

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1331-1342 (12 pages)

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In this study, we evaluated the mechanism of long non-coding RNA MIR22 host gene (LncRNA MIR22HG) in osteosarcoma cells. Forty-eight paired osteosarcoma and adjacent tissues samples were collected and the bioinformatic analyses were performed. Target genes and potential binding sites of MIR22HG, microRNA (miR)-629-5p and tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 3 (TET3) were predicted by Starbase and TargetScan V7.2 and confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Cell Counting Kit-8, colony formation and flow cytometry assays were utilized to determine the viability, proliferation and apoptosis of transfected osteosarcoma cells. Pearson's analysis was introduced for the correlation analysis between MIR22HG and miR-629-5p in osteosarcoma tissue. Relative expressions of MIR22HG, miR-629-5p and TET3 were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or Western blot. MiR-629-5p could competitively bind with and was negatively correlated with MIR22HG, the latter of which was evidenced by the high expression of miR-629-5p and low expression of MIR22HG in osteosarcoma tissues. Overexpressed MIR22HG repressed the viability and proliferation but enhanced apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells, which was reversed by miR-629-5p upregulation. TET3 was the target gene of miR-629-5p, and the promotive effects of upregulated miR-629-5p on the viability and proliferation as well as its repressive effect on apoptosis were abrogated via overexpressed TET3. To sum up, overexpressed MIR22HG inhibits the viability and proliferation of osteosarcoma cells, which was achieved via regulation of the miR-629- 5p/TET3 axis.

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2Anticancer Activity of Periplanetasin-5, an Antimicrobial Peptide from the Cockroach Periplaneta americana

저자 : In-woo Kim , Ra-yeong Choi , Joon Ha Lee , Minchul Seo , Hwa Jeong Lee , Mi-ae Kim , Seong Hyun Kim , Iksoo Kim , Jae Sam Hwang

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1343-1349 (7 pages)

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Cockroaches live in places where various pathogens exist and thus are more likely to use antimicrobial compounds to defend against pathogen intrusions. We previously performed an in silico analysis of the Periplaneta americana transcriptome and detected periplanetasin-5 using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method. In this study, we investigated whether periplanetasin-5 has anticancer activity against the human leukemia cell line K562. Cell growth and survival of K562 cells treated with periplanetasin-5 were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. By using flow cytometric analysis, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and DNA fragmentation, we found that periplanetasin-5 induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in leukemia cells. In addition, these events were associated with increased levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins Fas and cytochrome c and reduced levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Periplanetasin-5 induces the cleavage of pro-caspase-9, pro-caspase-8, pro-caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The above data suggest that periplanetasin-5 induces apoptosis via both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Moreover, caspase-related apoptosis was further confirmed by using the caspase inhibitor carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]- fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK), which reversed the periplanetasin-5-induced reduction in cell viability. In conclusion, periplanetasin-5 caused apoptosis in leukemia cells, suggesting its potential utility as an anticancer therapeutic agent.

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3Isovitexin Is a Direct Inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus Coagulase

저자 : Hua Xiang , Panpan Yang , Li Wang , Jiaxin Li , Tiedong Wang , Junze Xue , Dacheng Wang , Hongxia Ma

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1350-1357 (8 pages)

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Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major pathogen that causes human pneumonia, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. S. aureus coagulase (Coa) triggers the polymerization of fibrin by activating host prothrombin, which then converts fibrinogen to fibrin and contributes to S. aureus pathogenesis and persistent infection. In our research, we demonstrate that isovitexin, an active traditional Chinese medicine component, can inhibit the coagulase activity of Coa but does not interfere with the growth of S. aureus. Furthermore, we show through thermal shift and fluorescence quenching assays that isovitexin directly binds to Coa. Dynamic simulation and structure-activity relationship analyses suggest that V191 and P268 are key amino acid residues responsible for the binding of isovitexin to Coa. Taken together, these data indicate that isovitexin is a direct Coa inhibitor and a promising candidate for drug development against S. aureus infection.

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4LINC01232 Promotes Gastric Cancer Proliferation through Interacting with EZH2 to Inhibit the Transcription of KLF2

저자 : Jing Liu , Zhen Li , Guohua Yu , Ting Wang , Guimei Qu , Yunhui Wang

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1358-1365 (8 pages)

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To clarify the role of long intergenic nonprotein-coding RNA 1232 (LINC01232) in the progression of gastric cancer and the potential mechanism, we analyzed the expression of LINC01232 in TCGA database using the GEPIA online tool, and the LINC01232 level in gastric cancer cell lines was detected by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) as well. Cell proliferation assay, colony formation assay, transwell assay and tumor formation experiment in nude mice were conducted to observe the biological behavior changes of gastric cancer cells through the influence of LINC01232 knockdown. LncATLAS database and subcellular isolation assay were used for subcellular distribution of LINC01232 in gastric cancer cells. The interaction among LINC01232, zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) was clarified by RNA-protein interaction prediction (RPISeq), RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), qRT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Rescue experiments were further conducted to elucidate the biological function of LINC01232/KLF2 axis in the progression of gastric cancer. LINC01232 was upregulated in stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) tissues and gastric cancer lines. LINC01232 knockdown inhibited the proliferative capacities of gastric cancer cells in vitro, and impaired in vivo tumorigenicity. LINC01232 was mainly distributed in the cell nucleus where it epigenetically repressed KLF2 expression via binding to the enhancer of EZH2, which was capable of binding to promoter regions of KLF2 to induce histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). LINC01232 exerts oncogenic activities in gastric cancer via inhibition of KLF2, and therefore, the knockdown of KLF2 could reverse the regulatory effect of LINC01232 in the proliferative ability of gastric cancer cells.

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5Addition of Various Cellulosic Components to Bacterial Nanocellulose: A Comparison of Surface Qualities and Crystalline Properties

저자 : Won Yeong Bang , Dong Hyun Kim , Mi Dan Kang , Jungwoo Yang , Taelin Huh , Young Woon Lim , Young Hoon Jung

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1366-1372 (7 pages)

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Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a biocompatible material with a lot of potential. To make BNC commercially feasible, improvements in its production and surface qualities must be made. Here, we investigated the in situ fermentation and generation of BNC by addition of different cellulosic substrates such as Avicel and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and using Komagataeibacter sp. SFCB22-18. The addition of cellulosic substrates improved BNC production by a maximum of about 5 times and slightly modified its structural properties. The morphological and structural properties of BNC were investigated by using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, a type-A cellulose-binding protein derived from Clostridium thermocellum, CtCBD3, was used in a novel biological analytic approach to measure the surface crystallinity of the BNC. Because Avicel and CMC may adhere to microfibrils during BNC synthesis or crystallization, cellulose-binding protein could be a useful tool for identifying the crystalline properties of BNC with high sensitivity.

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6Evaluation of Bacillus velezensis for Biological Control of Rhizoctonia solani in Bean by Alginate/Gelatin Encapsulation Supplemented with Nanoparticles

저자 : Mojde Moradi-pour , Roohallah Saberi-riseh , Keyvan Esmaeilzadeh-salestani , Reza Mohammadinejad , Evelin Loit

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1373-1382 (10 pages)

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Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of bacteria that can increase plant growth; but due to unfavorable environmental conditions, PGPR are biologically unstable and their survival rates in soil are limited. Therefore, the suitable application of PGPR as a plant growth stimulation is one of the significant challenges in agriculture. This study presents an intelligent formulation based on Bacillus velezensis VRU1 encapsulation enriched with nanoparticles that was able to control Rhizoctonia solani on the bean. The spherical structure of the capsule was observed based on the Scanning Electron Microscope image. Results indicated that with increasing gelatin concentration, the swelling ratio and moisture content were increased; and since the highest encapsulation efficiency and bacterial release were observed at a gelatin concentration of 1.5%, this concentration was considered in mixture with alginate for encapsulation. The application of this formulation which is based on encapsulation and nanotechnology appears to be a promising technique to deliver PGPR in soil and is more effective for plants.

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7Efficacy of Lactobacillus fermentum Isolated from the Vagina of a Healthy Woman against Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella Infections In Vivo

저자 : Hanieh Tajdozian , Hoonhee Seo , Sukyung Kim , Md Abdur Rahim , Saebim Lee , Ho-yeon Song

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1383-1392 (10 pages)

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Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase are increasingly reported worldwide and have become more and more resistant to nearly all antibiotics during the past decade. The emergence of K. pneumoniae strains with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems, which are used as a last resort treatment option, is a significant threat to hospitalized patients worldwide as K. pneumoniae infection is responsible for a high mortality rate in the elderly and immunodeficient individuals. This study used Lactobacillus fermentum as a candidate probiotic for treating CRE-related infections and investigated its effectiveness. We treated mice with L. fermentum originating from the vaginal fluid of a healthy Korean woman and evaluated the Lactobacilli's efficacy in preventive, treatment, nonestablishment, and colonization mouse model experiments. Compared to the control, pre-treatment with L. fermentum significantly reduced body weight loss in the mouse models, and all mice survived until the end of the study. The oral administration of L. fermentum after carbapenemresistant Klebsiella (CRK) infection decreased mortality and illness severity during a 2-week observation period and showed that it affects other strains of CRK bacteria. Also, the number of Klebsiella bacteria was decreased to below 5.5 log10 CFU/ml following oral administration of L. fermentum in the colonization model. These findings demonstrate L. fermentum's antibacterial activity and its potential to treat CRE infection in the future.

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8Crystal Structure and Molecular Mechanism of Phosphotransbutyrylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum

저자 : Sangwoo Kim , Kyung-jin Kim

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1393-1400 (8 pages)

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Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum has been considered a promising process of industrial biofuel production. Phosphotransbutyrylase (phosphate butyryltransferase, PTB) plays a crucial role in butyrate metabolism by catalyzing the reversible conversion of butyryl-CoA into butyryl phosphate. Here, we report the crystal structure of PTB from the Clostridial host for ABE fermentation, C. acetobutylicum, (CaPTB) at a 2.9 A resolution. The overall structure of the CaPTB monomer is quite similar to those of other acyltransferases, with some regional structural differences. The monomeric structure of CaPTB consists of two distinct domains, the N- and C-terminal domains. The active site cleft was formed at the interface between the two domains. Interestingly, the crystal structure of CaPTB contained eight molecules per asymmetric unit, forming an octamer, and the size-exclusion chromatography experiment also suggested that the enzyme exists as an octamer in solution. The structural analysis of CaPTB identifies the substrate binding mode of the enzyme and comparisons with other acyltransferase structures lead us to speculate that the enzyme undergoes a conformational change upon binding of its substrate.

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9Low-Molecular-Weight Collagen Peptide Ameliorates Osteoarthritis Progression through Promoting Extracellular Matrix Synthesis by Chondrocytes in a Rabbit Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection Model

저자 : Mun-hoe Lee , Hyeong-min Kim , Hee-chul Chung , Do-un Kim , Jin-hee Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1401-1408 (8 pages)

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This study examined whether the oral administration of low-molecular-weight collagen peptide (LMCP) containing 3% Gly-Pro-Hyp with >15% tripeptide (Gly-X-Y) content could ameliorate osteoarthritis (OA) progression using a rabbit anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model of induced OA and chondrocytes isolated from a patient with OA. Oral LMCP administration (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks ameliorated cartilage damage and reduced the loss of proteoglycan compared to the findings in the ACLT control group, resulting in dose-dependent (p < 0.05) improvements of the OARSI score in hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and Safranin O staining. In microcomputed tomography analysis, LMCP also significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed the deterioration of the microstructure in tibial subchondral bone during OA progression. The elevation of IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations in synovial fluid following OA induction was dose-dependently (p < 0.05) reduced by LMCP treatment. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry illustrated that LMCP significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated type II collagen and downregulated matrix metalloproteinase-13 in cartilage tissue. Consistent with the in vivo results, LMCP significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mRNA expression of COL2A1 and ACAN in chondrocytes isolated from a patient with OA regardless of the conditions for IL-1β induction. These findings suggest that LMCP has potential as a therapeutic treatment for OA that stimulates cartilage regeneration.

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10Interplay between the Gut Microbiome and Metabolism in Ulcerative Colitis Mice Treated with the Dietary Ingredient Phloretin

저자 : Jie Ren , Puze Li , Dong Yan , Min Li , Jinsong Qi , Mingyong Wang , Genshen Zhong , Minna Wu

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1409-1419 (11 pages)

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A growing number of healthy dietary ingredients in fruits and vegetables have been shown to exhibit diverse biological activities. Phloretin, a dihydrochalcone flavonoid that is abundant in apples and pears, has anti-inflammatory effects on ulcerative colitis (UC) mice. The gut microbiota and metabolism are closely related to each other due to the existence of the food-gut axis in the human colon. To investigate the interplay of faecal metabolites and the microbiota in UC mice after phloretin treatment, phloretin (60 mg/kg) was administered by gavage to ameliorate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC in mice. Gut microbes and faecal metabolite profiles were detected by high-throughput sequencing and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, respectively. The correlations between gut microbes and their metabolites were evaluated by Spearman correlation coefficients. The results indicated that phloretin reshaped the disturbed faecal metabolite profile in UC mice and improved the metabolic pathways by balancing the composition of faecal metabolites such as norepinephrine, mesalazine, tyrosine, 5-acetyl-2,4- dimethyloxazole, and 6-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4(1H)-pyridinone. Correlation analysis identified the relations between the gut microbes and their metabolites. Proteus was negatively related to many faecal metabolites, such as norepinephrine, L-tyrosine, laccarin, dopamine glucuronide, and 5-acetyl-2,4-dimethyloxazole. The abundance of unidentified Bacteriodales_S24-7_group was positively related to ecgonine, 15-KETE and 6-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-2- (hydroxymethyl)-4(1H)-pyridinone. The abundance of Christensenellaceae_R-7_group was negatively related to the levels of 15-KETE and netilmicin. Stenotrophomonas and 15-KETE were negatively related, while Intestinimonas and alanyl-serine were positively related. In conclusion, phloretin treatment had positive impacts on faecal metabolites in UC mice, and the changes in faecal metabolites were closely related to the gut microbiota.

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