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중국어문연구회> 중국어문논총> 명대(明代) 일용유서(日用類書)를 통해 본 사민(士民) 여성의 일상과 교육

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명대(明代) 일용유서(日用類書)를 통해 본 사민(士民) 여성의 일상과 교육

A Study on Women’s Life and Education through Encyclopedias for Daily Use in Ming Dynasty

金芝鮮 ( Kim¸ Jiseon )
  • : 중국어문연구회
  • : 중국어문논총 107권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 10월
  • : 227-253(27pages)
중국어문논총

DOI


목차

1. 들어가며
2. 日用類書― 일상의 경험이 類書로 들어가다
3. 여성 교육의 참고서로서 日用類書
4. 여성 교육의 또 다른 영역 ― 임신 및 출산, 육아
5. 나오며

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This paper is intended to analyze the daily lives and educational situations of various women in the Ming Dynasty through Encyclopedias for Daily Use. Encyclopedias for Daily Use have explanations of food, clothing, and very trivial things. The content of Encyclopedias for Daily Use is so popular that it has a device that even people who don’t know the letters can read it. It is poetry and illustration. Poetry is short and can be memorized quickly if you follow the rhythm, and Illustrations have an educational effect that allows you to know the content just by looking at the picture.
Inside Encyclopedias for Daily Use, there are poems and illustrations, which allow female readers to understand life-related knowledge. By analyzing how Encyclopedias for Daily Use deliver food, pregnancy, childbirth, and childcare to female readers, one can understand the daily lives and cultures of various female readers in the Ming Dynasty.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-700-000913016

간행물정보

  • : 어문학분야  > 중어중문학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-4555
  • : 2765-4060
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1988-2022
  • : 1706


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109권0호(2022년 04월) 수록논문
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1王力≪同源字典≫의 章組성모 교체 유형 수정

저자 : 李貞和 ( Lee Jeonghwa ) , 權赫埈 ( Kwon Hyokjun )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 109권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-38 (38 pages)

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Cognates in two languages or in any single language are words which are both semantically and phonologically connected among themselves. There should be phonological alternations in regard to relations among them. Wang Li, in his work Dictionary of Cognate Words [≪同源字典≫], has categorised the alternations of initial consonants of various cognate sets, as well as of finals, into several types. This study pays special attention to his methodology of classifying the shift types of zhang series initials which alternate with themselves or with other initials as there is room for rectification about his phonology of this series. He reconstructed this series as palatal affricates/ fricatives, and consequently subdivided the concept of “alliteration [雙聲]”, the traditional shift type of initial consonants, into 5 types, i.e., (quasi-) alliteration, (quasi-) side button [(準)旁紐], adjacent button [鄰紐]. But some influential scholars working on Old Chinese phonology found that phonology of this series should be simply revised to alveolar stops or sonorants which accompanied the 3rd grade medial j, and their systems are claimed to be more persuasive than the Wang Li's. We take up Zheng-Zhang's Old Chinese phonology as our departing point of discussion. Under this postulation, quasi-alliteration and quasi-side button among cognate words should be integrated into alliteration and/or side button in terms of relation between zhang series and duan series [端組]. The alternations among yi initial [以母], chuan initial [船母] and shu initial [書母] should be revised to alliteration as all of them shared the identical segment *l in Old Chinese. We have reached conclusions that quasi-alliteration and quasi-side button types should be removed, and that the scope of adjacent button should be sharply narrowed in accordance with the revision of the zhang series in Wang Li's Old Chinese phonology.

KCI등재

2미래를 나타내는 조동사 '회(會)'와 '요(要)'의 비교 연구

저자 : 李恩洙 ( Lee Eunsoo )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 109권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 39-62 (24 pages)

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The auxiliary verbs 'HUI'(會) and 'YAO'(要) play a key role in representing future in Chinese. However, when these two auxiliary verbs represent future, in some cases they are replaceable and in others they are irreplaceable.
We believe that these phenomena are due to the basic difference in meaning between the two auxiliary verbs. 'HUI'(會) represents only the prediction of future 'after reference time'. On the other hand, 'YAO'(要) may represent the state of 'volition' or the 'situation being imminent' state in 'reference time' in addition to the future meaning 'after reference time'. Therefore, '~SHI'(時) representing a specific time point can only be used with 'YAO'(要), which can represent the situation in 'reference time'. In addition, adverbs indicating that a certain state have already begun or persist in 'reference time' such as 'GANG' (剛) and 'ZHENG'(正) can only be used with 'YAO'(要), which can represent the situation in 'reference time'. In addition, 'YAO'(要) represents the state of 'volition' or the 'situation being imminent' state in 'reference time', therefore, the predicates that follows 'YAO'(要) are limited to those with dynamic meaning.
On the other hand, 'HUI'(會) represents only the situation 'after reference time', but cannot represent the situation in 'reference time'. Therefore, it cannot be used with 'SHI'(時) to indicate a specific time point, and it cannot be used with 'GANG'(剛) or 'ZHENG'(正) to indicate a situation that has already begun or persist in reference time. In addition, since 'HUI'(會) represents only the situation 'after reference time', the predicates used with 'HUI'(會) are not limited to those with dynamic meaning.

KCI등재

3≪勸善金科≫ ― 중화와 내륙 아시아 불교문화의 조화

저자 : 申智瑛 ( Shin Jeeyoung )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 109권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 63-89 (27 pages)

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Operas in China have not been just a simple cultural entertainment but a factor deeply involved in shaping the structure of Chinese mentality and consciousness as well as spreading the notion of Zhonghua. The Qing Dynasty engaged in a variety of cultural projects statewide to secure the stability of its multiethnic society. Publishing play scripts and sponsoring staged plays were one of its key theater activities. Palace operas of the Qing Dynasty went beyond just being an entertainment but a part of the court protocol, a state-governed culture and more than just performing arts on stage. The “Short Opera” was a performing art for formality that aimed at affirming inner solidarity while the “Grand Opera” served more to strengthen relations with neighboring states and reinforcing grip and control. This thesis studies on Quanshanjinke, one of the long palace operas that represent the highlight of the court culture, focusing on how it was received and spread socially and figure out what influence those operas had on the royal culture and subsequently draw their common cultural features and characteristics. Chinese operas - a key part of Chinese culture that had taken roots in places all over the world - have played a crucial role in forming consciousness in Chinese people regardless of their social class or status. Therefore, it is a meaningful work in terms of cultural history to find out in detail the content and roles of the court operas that were pursued as state projects. The era of the Qing Dynasty has often been referred to together as the Ming-Qing Dynasties which may have diluted its own unique features. But since the 21st century, the perspective focusing on the Great Qing Empire is gaining traction instead of the aggressive efforts for Huaxia conventionally thought as the empire's success factor. To better understand the Quanshanjinke, we need to look into the historical backdrop in the early Qing days when the continued efforts were made to put the inland Asian Buddhism at the center of the world. The Qing Dynasty was still not stable in the Buddhist world during the early days of the Emperor Kangxi. Efforts to invite the Fifth Dalai Lama continued even into the Emperor Shunzhi reign and finally paid off by the Great Fifth's visit to Beijing. Through the visit, the Dynasty could earn the chance to join the inter-Asian network including Mongolia and Tibet. There are relics and artifacts that illustrate the fusion of cultural harmony between Zhonghua and the inland Asia strongly connected around the Tibetan Buddhism. One major example is the Eight Outer Temples in Chengde built during the Kangxi reign to escape the summer heat. That is a case in point where a world order was being established based on both the Tibetan Buddhism and the tradition of the nomad including from Manchuria, Mongolian and Tibet. The grand palace operas must have played a certain role in firming and demonstrating such world order to the outside world. The staging of the Quanshanjinke at Chengde to welcome foreign delegations (and avoid summer heat) may be considered a proactive ruling measure to promote Buddhism. Unlike other preceding Xiwens, the court opera covers the story of the revolt of the military governor (Fanzhen) and how it was contained. Its staging seems related to the fact that the Emperor Kangxi contained the Revolt of the Three Feudatories and set up a powerful central government at that time. It can also be seen as embracing the narrative of loyalty and filial piety to clearly show that he is the legitimate Confucian successor of Zhonghua. As a result, the Quanshanjinke became the opera that both covers the Buddhist narrative from the Mulian Saves Mother and the narrative of loyalty and filial piety to confirm the legitimacy as Confucian successor of Zhonghua.

KCI등재

4中韩古典长篇家门小说对比研究 ― 以≪雪月梅≫和≪玉树记≫为中心

저자 : 赵治成 ( Zhao Zhicheng )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 109권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 91-116 (26 pages)

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Chen Lang's Xueyuemei and Sim Nung-Sook's Oksugi are family novels that appeared in the late feudal society of China and South Korea. This article examines the background, creative mode and writer consciousness of the two works.
In the part of written background, Xueyuemei and Oksugi embodies the development characteristics of family novels in the later feudal societies of China and South Korea. On the basis of genius and beauty novels, Chen Lang broke through its creative mode of simply depicting love between men and women. By adding other elements such as wars and heroes, he realized the innovation of creative mode, and at the same time achieved the purpose of showing his personal talents and ideals. Under the atmosphere of improved acceptance of novels in the late Joseon dynasty, Sim Nung-Sook also used the method of combining original works, depicting the love between men and women and the story of meritorious deeds in the works, and at the same time made personal desires replaced and satisfied.
In the part of creative mode, both Xueyuemei and Oksugi completed the creation of works through the structure of “family debut, family unity and joint contribution”. The difference is that Oksugi adds the marriage between the Wang family and the Ren family, the connection between Jia Youxian and Lvye, and the conflicts between the wives and concubines caused by Mrs. Sheng in the last part of the work. In the content part, the two works are based on a large number of original novels, through combination, transformation and other methods to complete the creation of the “love + hero” model. It's just that unlike Xueyuemei which all borrowed from Chinese works, Oksugi used Chinese and Korean classical novels while shaping the image of love and heroes, and finally made the works show a more complex fusion characteristic.
In the part of writer's consciousness, both Chen Lang and Sim Nung-Sook achieved the purpose of showing their talents and the substitute and satisfaction of life's desires through the creation of novels. At the same time, Chen Lang, as a figure who has not obtained a formal official position, expressed the hope that the country should select talents based on talent rather than a single imperial examination by depicting the process of protagonists of various identities making contributions through recommendation and other methods. As a descendant of scholar-officials, Sim Nung-Sook projected his own family into the works, and realized his desire for life through the process of marriage between various scholar-officials, fighting against enemies together, and sharing prosperity and wealth.

KCI등재

5전후 타이완에서 자유의 의미 ― 천잉전의 <탕첸의 희극>을 중심으로

저자 : 李賢馥 ( Lee Hyunbok )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 109권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 117-150 (34 pages)

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After the war, Taiwan opened up a space to construct its own modernity, including discussions on freedom. Chen Yingzhen(陳映真) showed that not only the incompetent and ideological freedom of Mainlander(外省人) liberals but also the American-style freedom that failed to overcome problems under material development and fell into decadence could not solve the problems which Taiwan faced at the time. On the other hand, he suggested building the subject who awakened national consciousness and tried to realize the ideal of historical development as the solution of problems.
In postwar era, Mainlander Taiwanese liberals' claim of individual freedom showed incompetence in historical reality, but it brought back individual independence and freedom, which had been erased by grand narrative, to the modern stage. But they were still elitist and isolated themselves from their mental wounds in the mainland China. But American-style freedom also couldn't be a solution because of decadence and corruption of its subjects. Furthermore, China and the Chinese could be second-class citizens in the world built by the United States and finally be vanished. He also criticized lack of idealism in Taiwan at that time. In this situation Chen Yingzhen thought the people needed indentify themselves as Chinese, that is, awaken national consciousness of Chinese, and set an ideal for a nation to advance and strive for it. Overcoming the national crisis that still existed in the Cold War world by setting and pursuing ideals, it was the point for him to meet the Mainland China

KCI등재

6黃庭堅 交遊詩 譯解(1)

저자 : 朴玟貞 ( Park Minjung )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 109권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 151-171 (21 pages)

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Huang Tingjian's poetry is difficult to read because of tits academic tradition, exercise poetic language&verse, and the characteristics of using a lot of literary quotation. Therefore, even though numerous studies have been conducted on Huang Tingjian's poem at home and abroad, the complete translation of Huang Tingjian's poems has not been published so far. There is no doubt that in order to consider the characteristics, a close analysis of Huang Tingjian, the completion of the formation in the characteristics of Song Dynasty, is necessary to convert to 'Songshi' at that time, understand Song Dynasty scholar-officials and the characteristics of Songshi itself. In addition, 'Jiangxi Poetry School', which focuses on Huang Tingjian, has been of constant interest in the literary world of the Chosun Dynasty. Under the influence of the 'Jiangxi Poetry School', numerous outstanding poets were produced.
Considering these values and needs, complete translation of Huang Tingjian is underway, among them, I tried to present detailed translation and annotation of five poems―Two form of pre-Tang Poems to Sushi (古詩二首上蘇子瞻), Recall Tao Yuanming during stay in Old Pengze (宿舊彭澤懷陶令), Harmony to Li Chang Uncle in use the rhyme sequence of a poem(次韻公擇舅), In autumn, think comes to mind, give it to Suzhe (秋思寄子由), Respond to my father-in-law, Sun Xinlao (和答外舅孫莘老) sent to major figures who influenced his life, political position, poetics, and the formation of poetry. It is hoped that continuous reverse work on Huang Tingjian's poems can be the cornerstone of research in related fields.

KCI등재

7조선 고종 <북묘묘정비(北廟廟庭碑)> 주석과 번역(3)

저자 : 洪潤基 ( Hong Younki )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 109권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 173-193 (21 pages)

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The Northern Shrine Memorial Stone for GuanYu (<北廟廟庭碑>) is the one that recorded the purpose and process of building the Northern Shrine (北廟). It was written and built in 1887 by King Gojong (高宗), the 26th king of the Joseon (朝鮮) Dynasty.
The significance of this paper is as follows. First, for the first time, annotation was added to the Northern Shrine Memorial Stone for GuanYu and this paper is the first complete translation. Second, through the translation of this paper, it was found that King Gojong believed that the spirit of GuanYu helped him and his wife, Minbi (閔妃) to revive when the Imo Military Revolution (壬午軍亂) (in 1882) and the Gapsin Coup (甲申政變) (in 1884) broke out. Third, through the translation of this paper, it can be seen that King Gojong's cultural perception of GuanYu is not based on History of the Three Kingdoms (三國志) but mainly based on the fictional story created by Mao Zong-gang (毛宗崗)'s novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms (三國演義).
The contents of the part translated in this paper are as follows. First, when GuanYu (關羽) was alive, he made achievements in drowning seven legions of CaoCao (曹操) and defeating them. Second, it is the will of heaven that a Northern Shrine in honor of GuanYu was built under a rock wall engraved with the word “The spirit of Zengzi (曾子) and Zhuzi (朱子) stands tall like a wall (曾朱壁立)”. Third, King Gojong built the Northern Shrine Memorial Stone for GuanYu (<北廟廟庭碑>) to commemorate the spirit of GuanYu appearing during the Imo Military Revolution (壬午軍亂) and the Gapsin Coup (甲申政變) and helping him and his wife, Minbi (閔妃). Fourth, this inscription was written in 1887 by Min Young-hwan (閔泳煥) under King Gojong's order.
This paper is a follow-up to the Annotation and translation of Northern Shrine Memorial Stone for GuanYu (<北廟廟庭碑>) written by Joseon (朝鮮) Dynasty's King Gojong (高宗) No2, published in the Volume 106 of the Journal of Chinese Language and Literature in August 2021.

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1곽박(郭璞)의 진대(晉代) 한어(漢語) 입성운(入聲韻) 음운체계

저자 : 權赫埈 ( Kwon¸ Hyokjun )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 107권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-53 (53 pages)

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This study is designed to reconstruct phonology of Rusheng[入聲] as reflected in the Guo Pu[郭璞]'s glosses and rimes, which will be employed as main clues to set up his phonological system. Guo Pu(AD 276―324) has left a massive number of sound glosses to some exegetic and literary works, and a handful of rimes in his extant verses. His glosses include the fanqie spellings [反切法] and the direct phonetic notaions[直音法] which, along with his rimes, are claimed to signal a certain phonology of Jin Dynasty[晉代], halfway between Old Chinese[OC] and Middle Chinese[MC]. For our discussion, we take up Zheng-Zhang's OC and MC systems as reference with minor modification to his MC medials.
The conclusions are stated as follows:
MC 1st div. Wu Rime[屋₁韻] stays as it was in OC, while the other rimes from OC Wu Group[屋部] and Jiao Group[覺部] are on the way toward MC. The formation of Duo Rime[鐸韻] and Yao Rime[藥韻], both of which will belong to Dang Rime Group[宕攝] in Late Middle Chinese, has been completed. Mo Rime [陌韻] of Geng Rime Group[梗攝] does not appear to have progressed much out of OC as of the Guo's period. MC Xi Rime[昔韻] has two different OC Duo Group[鐸部] origins, one of which had a long vowel *-aa-, the other of which had a short *-a-. In Guo's phonology, the former is postulated to retain -aa-, while the latter is assumed to be in the transitional phase making its way toward -e- which is believed to be occasioned by the 3rd div. medial. Mai Rime [麥韻] and Xi Rime[錫韻] have retained their vowel as -e- without changing its sound value throughout the periods from OC to MC. It is entirely possible that MC Zhen Rime Group[臻攝] and Shan Rime Group[山攝] have been formed. Xian Rime Group[咸攝] does not seem to have been fully formed, while the formation of Qin Rime Group[侵攝] may have been almost completed in the Guo's system.

KCI등재

2再論“保障”現代義的來源

저자 : 韓銀實 ( Han¸ Yinshi )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 107권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 55-68 (14 pages)

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This article explores the source of the modern meaning of “Bao Zhang” by studying the evolution of its meaning and how it spread among the countries in Chinese character cultural circle. The original meaning of “Bao Zhang” was “a material object that plays a protective role, like a city wall or a bastion”, while its modern meaning is “an abstract thing that plays a protective role”. So the meaning of “Bao Zhang” evolved from “a concrete one” into “an abstract one”. The evolution happened because characteristics of the nouns that accompanied by “Bao Zhang” had changed from “concrete” into “abstract”. However, when “Bao Zhang” was used as a verb, its meaning didn't change throughout the years. But its object changed from “a real person or thing” into “an abstract thing”. The evolution of the meaning of “Bao Zhang” is a process of meaning expansion. During this process, what appear was just an additional meaning of “Bao Zhang”, not a new word, which shows a clear difference from the formation of a typical “original loan word”.

KCI등재

3중국어 [주어+有+NP+VP]구문과 '有'의 기능 분석

저자 : 李슬기 ( Lee¸ Seulki )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 107권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 69-87 (19 pages)

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Until now, most Chinese scholars regard the [subject + 有+ NP + VP] construction as a derivative form of an ontological sentence and regard 'VP' as a subsequent component of the ontological sentence, and mainly focus on the properties of the subsequent component and the correlation between the ontological and the subsequent component. research has been predominant. This paper examines the point that [subject + 有+ NP + VP], which is a representative form of derivation of the existential syntax in Chinese, represents both 'existence' and 'possession', and that this syntactic form, which has been classified as a subtype of a conjunctive sentence, has various semantic relationships. It started by raising doubts about having in this paper, from a diachronic perspective, we examine what kind of organic relationship between the Chinese [subject + 有+ NP + VP] syntax and the function of 'you(有)' and what kind of transition process they have undergone, and based on the theory of cross-linguistic analysis from a synchronic perspective. As a result, the function of the character 'you(有)' in Modern Chinese and the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic characteristics of the [subject + 有+ NP + VP] syntax were newly analyzed.

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4现代汉语类后缀'狂'的分析

저자 : 黄春燕 ( Huang¸ Chunyan ) , 韩容洙 ( Han¸ Yongsu )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 107권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 89-106 (18 pages)

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While language reflects the development of modern society, these changes also affect language to a certain extent. With the increase of changes, more and more modern Chinese new words follow suit. 'The quasi-affix' are one of the important ways to derive new words. In modern Chinese vocabulary, these words are used more frequently in everyday life or in various media, news and newspapers.
The research on 'the quasi-affix' began in the 1940s and was first paid attention to them by 吕叔湘. Combining the various statements, we summarize the characteristics of affixes of the same kind into three points: varying degrees of falsification in meaning; the productivity is high; and the position is fixed. 'The quasi-affix' appearing in front of the component components are 'the quasi-prefix', and those appearing after the component components are 'the quasi-suffix'. After '狂' being affixed, appears after the constituent components, so it is called the quasi-suffix '狂'.
For the quasi-suffix '狂', we must first understand the path of its affixation. Next, we need to understand the related structure of the quasi-suffix '狂', including the number of syllables and parts of speech of its constituent components, and the structure. Finally, we must understand the emotional color of the quasi-suffix '狂'. The meaning of a word will reflect the subject's emotion or attitude towards the objective object, and the newly created word the quasi-suffix '狂' family words will also reflect the subject's emotion or attitude towards this objective object.
A detailed understanding of the quasi-suffix '狂' can provide teachers with some teaching basis when teaching, and can also provide some reference rules for foreigners learning Chinese.

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5汉语法律语体省略考察 ― 以≪中华人民共和国宪法≫为例

저자 : 尹若男 ( Yin¸ Ruonan ) , 金美锦 ( Kim¸ Migeum ) , 殷树林 ( Yin¸ Shulin )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 107권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 107-125 (19 pages)

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In Constitution of the People's Republic of China, the omitted component is mainly the subject, and the syntactic function of the omitted component and the recall component are often the same. The positions of the omitted component and the recall component in the sentence are mainly symmetrical and head-tail, and the form is unified. The clauses where the omitted component and the recall component mainly have no interval, and the interval is small. There are more anaphoric ellipsis, less encyclopedia knowledge ellipsis, and no cataphoric ellipsis; more clausal ellipsis, less subordinate clausal ellipsis and simple clausal ellipsis. Accessibility and hierarchy are important factors that affect the ellipsis of Chinese legal register. The syntactic functions of the omitted component and the recall component are different in accessibility, the interval and topicality also affect it. The hierarchy mainly reflects in coordinative relation, subordinative relation and structural parallelism between clauses. The omission and recall of low-accessibility components, as well as the low-frequency forms of cross-sentence ellipsis and cross-paragraph ellipsis, tend to shorter interval, recall components are all with high topicality and can often be explained in hierarchy.

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6외발 소수자 '兀者'의 함의 고찰 ― <양생주>와 <덕충부>를 중심으로

저자 : 高志英 ( Ko¸ Jiyoung )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 107권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 127-150 (24 pages)

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There are many disabled people in Zhuangzi. Among them, Youshi of Yangshengzhu, Wang Tai of Dechongfu, Shen Tujia and Shushan The Toeless are an acquired disabled people. Youshi was expressed as one foot and the other three people was expressed as Wuzhe(兀者). In Shuowen, the word Wu (兀) means “high and flat above”. However, Kangxi dictionary added the meaning “cutting feet”. However, in the original sense of Wu(兀), Wuzhe(兀者) was not just a punished person, but also highly educated, could have been the one who received the “Criminal Punishment Of Cutting Off The Feet”.
Those who have been punished and cut their foot are likely to have been involved in matters of national interest. It also shows that, in reverse terms, they were in positions that could affect national interests. It is not clear why the people in Zhuangzi were cut their foot, but Zhuang Zi's descriptions suggest that they were in some position and were well-educated. Therefore, the three Wuzhe(兀者) characters in Dechongfu should not be regarded as “the person with their feet cut off”, but rather as a double meaning, adding to the meaning of “Proud Loneliness”. Just like “Sun Bin(孫臏)”.
Zhuang Zi showed “life(生)” through Youshi, and “virtue(德)” through Wuzhe (兀者). This can be said to be not only a role model for the disabled to grow and nurture their remaining lives, but also a token or an example if they are full of their inner virtues.

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7석개(石介)의 서문(序文) 연구(硏究)

저자 : 李承信 ( Lee¸ Seungshin )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 107권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 151-172 (22 pages)

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Xuwen(序文) is consisted of various sanctions and composition. It clarifies the thesis and appeals to emotions through expression techniques such as contrast and gradation and so on. In the Xuwen(序文), Shijie(石介) emphasizes trust in historical facts and values his own perspective on literature, Confucian ideas, literary theories, and values. It secures persuasive power by simply and coherently speaking in accordance with the prose style of Zengxu(贈序) and Shuxu(書序), while showing off its writing ability through a mixture of opinions and writings, or rich emotions, or through cool-headed rationality. In addition, the accent and admiration are at their peak, while the sentences are consistent from beginning to end with one thesis through proper admiration and reflection, maximizing the literary effect. His Xuwen(序文) gains credibility based on historical truth, chooses to persuade him by appealing to emotions, or maintains objectivity in a consistent tone. In addition, he explicitly and clearly expresses his view of history, Jingxueguan(經學觀), literary theory, and political ideas through the introduction of a simple sentence. All of these are his thoroughly prepared valuable values and positive contributions to Guwen(古文) movement. Therefore, a re-evaluation of Shijie(石介)'s Xuwen(序文) should be carried out, and other prose styles should be continuously studied. This continuous study is expected to help understand the transitional phenomenon of early Song dynasty Guwen(古文) movement and to study the basis of the sentences of the breeder, including Ouyangxiu(歐陽修). In fact, Xuwen(序文) can be evaluated very positively in terms of composition, relief, plain language, and effective investigative techniques. Thus, there is room for reconsideration of a series of negative assessments of his prose being bizarre, obfuscated and unusual. In addition, it was considered to be a great sentence that is consistent with clarity of the thesis, effective composition and technique, compared to Ouyangxiu(歐陽修)'s Xuwen(序文), which has taken a step further in various sanctions, themes, and expression techniques. Xuwen(序文) by Shijie(石介) should be re-examined in the history of Chinese traiditional prose, and his influence on the Guwen(古文) movement should never be overlooked.

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8王夫之的六朝文學觀

저자 : 徐寶余 ( Xu¸ Baoyu )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 107권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 173-196 (24 pages)

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Wang Fuzhi's(王夫之) comments on the literature of the Six Dynasties have extremely important value in the history of poetry. Before Wang Fuzhi, no scholar had fully affirmed and praised the literature of the Six Dynasties like him. This is mainly because his conclusion was based on the selection of poetry in the past. This is different from the generalization of those general commentators. Wang Fuzhi's affirmation of Six Dynasties literature is mainly reflected in six aspects. First, he refuted the theory of “rise from decline”(起衰論). In his opinion, the Song's theory of “rise from decline”(起衰論) was wrong. Compared with the Tang Dynasty, the literature of the Six Dynasties was not a decline. The poetry of the Six Dynasties inherited the Zhou-Han(周漢) and opened the Tang Dynasty. The Six Dynasties should not be regarded as a decline. Second, the poems of the Six Dynasties preceded the poems of the Tang Dynasty. The most mature modern-style poems in the Tang Dynasty originated in the Six Dynasties; Tang poetry often drew nourishment from the Six Dynasties poems, and most of fine verses came from the Six Dynasties. In terms of subject matter, technique, structure, rhyme, and words, they were all influenced by the Six Dynasties literature. Fourth, there are differences in the literature of the Six Dynasties. Wang Fuzhi divided it into three stages: Jin-Song(晉宋), Qi-Liang(齊梁), and Chen-Sui(陳隋). In general, it was the highest in the Jin-Song dynasties. However, even so, he did not deny Qi-Liang or Chen-Sui completely. Fifth, Wang Fuzhi also had a unique understanding of the poetic styles of the Six Dynasties. For example, he respected the Five-character poem of Jin-Song Dynasties, and believed that the Four-character poem of Shen Yue(沈約) were the best, and Xiao Yi(蕭繹) Seven-character quatrain was the vowel of the past dynasties. Sixth, it has pioneering and exemplary significance in the discussion of situational affair. The aspects of sentiment and scenery, matter and emotion, reason and poetry fully embodied his dialectical concept, which neither negated the scenery, matter, and reason in poetry, but also took care of emotion and essence.

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9보여주고 들려주는 붓다 고사 ― 돈황본 <八相變>의 공연 방식과 필사본 제작

저자 : 鄭廣薰 ( Jung¸ Kwanghun )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 107권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 197-225 (29 pages)

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Baxiang bian 八相變is a Dunhuang bianwen 敦煌變文based on the Baxiang story of Buddha. A Baxiang story consists of eight stages, from the Buddha's birth to his death. Since the 'xiang' 相of 'Baxiang' can be said to be a kind of scene, it is closely related to Buddhist paintings, similar to the 'xiang' in 'bianxiang' 變相. The relevance of this term to painting is one of the characteristics of the typical Dunhuang bianwen works, so this paper will analyze the characteristics of Baxiang bian from the perspective of pictorial storytelling.
One of the important elements in the pictorial storytelling of bianwen is the use of a verse-introductory formula. This formula is a unique phrase used when showing a picture to the audience at the beginning of verses. There are two types of verse-introductory formulas in bianwen: '~處, 若爲陳說' and '當爾之時, 道何言語?', and Baxiang bian uses the latter. Keeping the assumption that the form of the performance of bianwen may vary depending on the verse-introductory formula, this paper suggests that the storytelling of Baxiang bian did not use a picture scroll but rather used a mural scene or a large bianxiang containing several scenes
Bianwen storytelling was a multimedia performance that included stories, songs, and pictures, and it was very popular at the time. People desire stable possession of popular stories, which leads to the production of works for reading. Since Baxiang bian was also a popular story performance, in this paper, the manuscript of Baxiang bian is considered to be an early form of written work, reflecting its popularity.

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10명대(明代) 일용유서(日用類書)를 통해 본 사민(士民) 여성의 일상과 교육

저자 : 金芝鮮 ( Kim¸ Jiseon )

발행기관 : 중국어문연구회 간행물 : 중국어문논총 107권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 227-253 (27 pages)

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This paper is intended to analyze the daily lives and educational situations of various women in the Ming Dynasty through Encyclopedias for Daily Use. Encyclopedias for Daily Use have explanations of food, clothing, and very trivial things. The content of Encyclopedias for Daily Use is so popular that it has a device that even people who don't know the letters can read it. It is poetry and illustration. Poetry is short and can be memorized quickly if you follow the rhythm, and Illustrations have an educational effect that allows you to know the content just by looking at the picture.
Inside Encyclopedias for Daily Use, there are poems and illustrations, which allow female readers to understand life-related knowledge. By analyzing how Encyclopedias for Daily Use deliver food, pregnancy, childbirth, and childcare to female readers, one can understand the daily lives and cultures of various female readers in the Ming Dynasty.

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