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한국질량분석학회> Mass Spectrometry Letters> Serum Proteomic Analysis of Scrub Typhus Patients for Screening Antigenic Proteins Originating from Orientia tsutsugamushi

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Serum Proteomic Analysis of Scrub Typhus Patients for Screening Antigenic Proteins Originating from Orientia tsutsugamushi

Sang-yeop Lee , Sung Ho Yun , Geul Bang , Chang-seop Lee , Seung Il Kim
  • : 한국질량분석학회
  • : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 09월
  • : 76-80(5pages)
Mass Spectrometry Letters

DOI


목차

Introduction
Experimental
Results and Discussion
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

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초록 보기

Scrub typhus is an acute febrile disease caused by the pathogenic bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, belonging to the Rickettsiaceae family. The shotgun proteomic analysis was performed using the sera of scrub typhus patients to identify the proteins having their origin in O. tsutsugamushi. Three different databases approaches were used for the identification of the proteomes. We identified the RsmD, an RNA methyltransferase as the commonly detected protein from all three approaches. This protein was not detected in the sera of healthy negative controls. We believe that this protein is a potential biomarker of Orientia tsutsugamushi present in the sera of scrub typhus patients.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 자연과학분야  > 화학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 2233-4203
  • : 2093-8950
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2010-2021
  • : 249


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1Looking through the Mass-to-Charge Ratio: Past, Present and Future Perspectives

저자 : Seung Koo Shin

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 126-130 (5 pages)

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The mass spectrometry (MS) provides the mass-to-charge ratios of atoms, molecules, stable/metastable complexes, and their fragments. I have taken a long journey with MS to address outstanding issues and problems by experiments and theory and gain insights into underlying principles in chemistry. By looking through the mass-to-charge ratio, I have studied thermochemical problems in silicon chemistry, the infrared multiphoton dissociation spectroscopy of organometallic intermediates, unimolecular dissociations of halotoluene radical cations, and the kinetics of association/dissociation of alkali halide triple ions with Lewis bases. Various MS platforms have been used to characterize non-covalent interactions between porphyrins and fullerenes and those between the group IIB ions and trioctylchalcogenides, and to examine the binding of the group IA, IIA and porphyrin ions to G-quadruplex DNA. Recently, I have focused on mass-balanced H/D isotope dipeptide tags for MS-based quantitative proteomics, a simple chemical modification method for MS-based lipase assay, and the kinetics and dynamics of energy-variable collision-induced dissociation of chemically modified peptides. Now, I see an important role of MS in global issues in the post-COVID era, as the society demands high standards for indoor air quality to contain the airborne-pathogen transmission as well as in-situ monitoring and tracking of carbon emissions to reduce global warming.

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2Integrated Thermochemical Approach to Collision-Induced Dissociation Process of Peptides

저자 : Seung Koo Shin , Hye-joo Yoon

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 131-136 (6 pages)

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Collision-induced dissociation of peptides involves a series of proton-transfer reactions in the activated peptide. To describe the kinetics of energy-variable dissociation, we considered the heat capacity of the peptide and the Marcus-theory-type proton-transfer rate. The peptide ion was activated to the high internal energy states by collision with a target gas in the collision cell. The mobile proton in the activated peptide then migrated from the most stable site to the amide oxygen and subsequently to the amide nitrogen (N-protonated) of the peptide bond to be broken. The N-protonated intermediate proceeded to the product-like complex that dissociated to products. Previous studies have suggested that the proton-transfer equilibria in the activated peptide affect the dissociation kinetics. To take the extent of collisional activation into account, we assumed a soft-sphere collision model, where the relative collision energy was fully available to the internal excitation of a collision complex. In addition, we employed a Marcus-theory-type rate equation to account for the proton-transfer equilibria. Herein, we present results from the integrated thermochemical approach using a tryptic peptide of ubiquitin.

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3Ion Mobility Signatures of Glutamine-Containing Tryptic Peptides in the Gas Phase

저자 : Hyun Hee L. Lee , Soo Yeon Chae , Myung Kook Son , Hugh I. Kim

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 137-145 (9 pages)

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Herein we report multiple ion mobility (IM) peaks in electrospray ionization IM mass spectrometry (ESI-IM-MS) produced by glutamine residue in peptide. The mobility features of 147 peptides were investigated using ESI-IM-MS combined with liquid chromatography. Of these peptides, 66 presented multiple IM peaks, and analysis of their sequence using collision induced dissociation (CID) revealed that glutamine (Gln), as well as proline (Pro), plays a critical role in generating multiple IM peaks. Mutant-based investigations using Gln-containing peptides indicate that the side chain of Gln promotes intermolecular interactions, inducing multiple structures of the peptide ions in the gas phase. Consequently, the present study demonstrates that the distinct ion mobility signatures identified herein can potentially be used to characterize glutamine-containing peptide ions.

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4Elucidating H/D-Exchange Mechanism of Active Hydrogen in Aniline and Benzene-1,2-dithiol

저자 : Arif Ahmed , Syful Islam , Sunghwan Kim

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 146-151 (6 pages)

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In this study, the hydrogen/deuterium (HDX) exchange mechanism of active hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dissolved in toluene and deuterated methanol by atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) is investigated. The comparison of the data obtained using APPI suggests that aniline and benzene-1,2-dithiol contain two exchanging hydrogens. The APPI HDX that best explains the experimental findings was investigated with the use of quantum mechanical calculations. The HDX mechanism is composed of a two-step reaction: in the first step, analyte radical ion gets deuterated, and in the second step, the hydrogen transfer occurs from deuterated analyte to de-deuterated methanol to complete the exchange reaction. The suggested mechanism provides fundamentals for the HDX technique that is important for structural identification with mass spectrometry. This paper is dedicated to Professor Seung Koo Shin for his outstanding contributions in chemistry and mass spectrometry.

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5Li+ and Li+I-Li+ ions Solvated by 1,4-dioxane: An ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry Study

저자 : Yunseop Choi , Inyong Ji , Jongcheol Seo

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 152-158 (7 pages)

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Electrospray ionization (ESI) and ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) were employed to investigate the solvated structures of ionic species in the lithium iodide electrolyte solution in the gas phase. The Li+I-Li+ triple ion and single standalone Li+ ions solvated by 1,4-dioxane were successfully generated and observed by ESI-MS under the influence of dioxane vapor at the inlet region. Under the present experimental condition, (1,4-dioxane)m·Li+ complex ions (m = 1, 2, and 3) and a (1,4-dioxane)·Li+I-Li+ complex ion were observed, which were further examined by IMS to investigate their structures. The presence of multiple structural isomers was confirmed, which accounts for the endothermic conformational transition of 1,4-dioxane from a chair to a boat to achieve bidentate O-donor binding to Li+ and Li+I-Li+. Further structural details critical for the ion-solvent interactions were also examined and discussed with the help of density functional theory calculations.

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6Effect of Cation Complexation of Hindered Phenol Antioxidants on their Fragmentation in Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

저자 : Yong-hyeon Yim

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 159-162 (4 pages)

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The fragmentation pattern of four hindered phenol antioxidants was investigated using ammonium and lithium ions as the additives for ionization. Due to different binding geometries and interactions, they underwent different characteristic fragmentation reactions providing useful complementary information for structural analysis of hindered phenol antioxidants. Ammonium ion adducts were fragmented successively until all t-butyl groups were lost in the form of isobutylene and allowed the estimation of the number of t-butyl groups present in the molecule. Lithium ion adducts produced fragment ions from major backbone cleavage, on the other hand, which provide more crucial information for the identification of detailed backbone structure.

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7LC-MS/MS-based Proteomic Analysis to Identify Protein Phosphorylation in Emiliania huxleyi

저자 : Van-an Duong , Onyou Nam , Eonseon Jin , Jae-min Seo , Jong-moon Park , Hookeun Lee

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 163-171 (9 pages)

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Emiliania huxleyi is a marine phytoplankton that plays a critical role in global carbon and sulfur cycling. The genome of E. huxleyi has been sequenced, and an in-depth proteomic profile of this organism has been reported. This study analyzed the phosphoproteome of E. huxleyi and identified its changes under calcium-limited conditions. A TiO2 microcolumn was used for phosphopeptide enrichment, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Overall, we identified 7,010 phosphorylated sites on 3,355 phosphopeptides associated with 2,929 phosphoproteins in E. huxleyi. Quantitative analysis revealed changes in the phosphoproteome in E. huxleyi when ambient conditions changed to calcium-limited conditions, notably the phosphorylation of some transporters was altered. This study provides an overview of protein phosphorylation in E. huxleyi and paves the way for further investigations of its biological functions.

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8Identification of HYIpro-3-1 Metabolites, a Novel Anti-Inflammatory Compound, in Human Liver Microsomes by Quadrupole-Orbitrap High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

저자 : Honghao Bai , Younah Kim , Sanjita Paudel , Eung-seok Lee , Sangkyu Lee

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 172-178 (7 pages)

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HYIpro-3-1 is an adjuvant for preventing or treating inflammatory growth diseases. In this study, we identified the metabolic pathway of HYIpro-3-1 in human liver microsomes (HLMs) by quadrupole-orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) and characterized the major human cytochrome P450 (CYP). Ten metabolites were identified, including one O-demethylation (M1), two O-demethylation and monohydroxylation (M2 and M3), and seven monohydroxylation metabolites (M4-M10). Based on the HR-MS2 spectra, the metabolites are divided into two groups of monohydroxylated metabolites according to the hydroxylation position. We verified that HYIpro-3-1 is metabolized by CYP in HLMs, CYP2B6 is mainly involved in O-demethylation, and various CYPs are involved in the monohydroxylation of HYIpro-3-1.

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9Fragmentation Analysis of rIAPP Monomer, Dimer, and [MrIAPP + MhIAPP]5+ Using Collision-Induced Dissociation with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

저자 : Jeongmo Kim , Ho-tae Kim

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 179-185 (7 pages)

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Collision-induced dissociation (CID) combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to obtain structural information on rat islet amyloid polypeptide (rIAPP) monomers (M) and dimers (D) observed in the multiply charged state in the MS spectrum. MS/MS analysis indicated that the rIAPP monomers adopt distinct structures depending on the molecular ion charge state. Peptide bond dissociation between L27 and P28 was observed in the MS/MS spectra of rIAPP monomers, regardless of the monomer molecular ion charge state. MS/MS analysis of the dimers indicated that D5+ comprised M2+ and M3+ subunits, and that the peptide bond dissociation process between the L27 and P28 residues of the monomer subunit was also maintained. The observation of (M+ b27)4+ and (M+ y10)3+ fragment ions were deduced to originate from the two different D5+ complex geometries, the N-terminal and C-terminal interaction geometries, respectively. The fragmentation pattern of the [MrIAPP + MhIAPP]5+ MS/MS spectrum showed that the interaction occurred between the two N-terminal regions of MrIAPP and MhIAPP in the heterogeneous dimer (hetero-dimer) D5+ structure.

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10Separation of Light Rare-Earth Elements Using Gas-Pressurized Extraction Chromatography

저자 : Namuk Kim , Jaiil Park , Wooyong Um , Jihye Kim

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 186-191 (6 pages)

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A new method for chemical separation of light rare-earth elements (LREEs) using gas-pressurized extraction chromatography (GPEC) is described. GPEC is a microscale column chromatography system that features a constant flow of solvents, which is created by pressurized nitrogen gas. The separation column with a Teflon tubing was packed with LN resin. The proposed GPEC method facilitates production of lesser chemical wastes and faster separation owing to the use of low solvent volume compared to traditional column chromatography. We evaluated the separation of Ba, La, Ce, and Nd using various elution solvents. The column reproducibility of the proposed GPEC system ranged from 2.4% to 4.9% with RSDs of recoveries, and the column-to-column reproducibility ranged from 3.1% to 6.3% with RSDs of recoveries. The proposed technique is robust, and it can be useful for the fast separation of LREEs.

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1Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Study of Chromosome 11 Team

저자 : Heeyoun Hwang , Jin Young Kim , Jong Shin Yoo

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 60-65 (6 pages)

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As a part of the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP), we have developed a few algorithms for accurate identification of missing proteins, alternative splicing variants, single amino acid variants, and characterization of function unannotated proteins. We have found missing proteins, novel and known ASVs, and SAAVs using LC-MS/MS data from human brain and olfactory epithelial tissue, where we validated their existence using synthetic peptides. According to the neXtProt database, the number of missing proteins in chromosome 11 shows a decreasing pattern. The development of genomic and transcriptomic sequencing techniques make the number of protein variants in chromosome 11 tremendously increase. We developed a web solution named as SAAvpedia for identification and function annotation of SAAVs, and the SAAV information is automatically transformed into the neXtProt web page using REST API service. For the 73 uPE1 in chromosome 11, we have studied the function annotaion of CCDC90B (NX_Q9GZT6), SMAP (NX_O00193), and C11orf52 (NX_Q96A22).

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2Characterization of the N-glycosylation of Recombinant IL-4 and IL-13 Proteins Using LC-MS/MS Analysis and the I-GPA Platform

저자 : Ju Yeon Lee , Jin-woong Choi , Sanghyeon Bae , Heeyoun Hwang , Jong Shin Yoo , Joo Eon Lee , Eunji Kim , Young Ho Jeon , Jin Young Kim

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 66-75 (10 pages)

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Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 are cytokines secreted by immune cells. Cytokines induce the proliferation of macrophages or promote the differentiation of secretory cells. The initiation and progression of allergic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, are dependent on cytokines acting through related receptor complexes. IL-4 and IL-13 are N-glycoproteins. Glycan structures in glycoproteins play important roles in protein folding, protein stability, enzymatic function, inflammation, and cancer development. Therefore, the glycan structure of IL-4 and IL-13 needs to be elucidated in detail for the development of effective therapies. We report the first attempt to characterize the site-specific N-glycosylation of recombinant IL-4 and IL-13 via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The tandem mass spectra of intact N-glycopeptides were identified using the Integrated GlycoProteome Analyzer (I-GPA) platform, which can automatically and rapidly analyze multiple N-glycopeptides, including their glycan composition and amino acid sequences. The recombinant IL-4 and IL-13 were identified with amino acid sequence coverages of 84% and 96%, respectively. For IL-4, 52 glycoforms on one N-glycosylation site were identified and quantified. In IL-13, 232 N-glycopeptides from three N-glycosylation sites were characterized, with the site Asn52 being the most extensively glycosylated (~80%). The complex glycans were the most abundant glycan on IL-4 and IL-13 (~96% and 91%, respectively), and the biantennary glycans were the most abundant in both recombinant IL-4 and IL-13 proteins.

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3Serum Proteomic Analysis of Scrub Typhus Patients for Screening Antigenic Proteins Originating from Orientia tsutsugamushi

저자 : Sang-yeop Lee , Sung Ho Yun , Geul Bang , Chang-seop Lee , Seung Il Kim

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 76-80 (5 pages)

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Scrub typhus is an acute febrile disease caused by the pathogenic bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, belonging to the Rickettsiaceae family. The shotgun proteomic analysis was performed using the sera of scrub typhus patients to identify the proteins having their origin in O. tsutsugamushi. Three different databases approaches were used for the identification of the proteomes. We identified the RsmD, an RNA methyltransferase as the commonly detected protein from all three approaches. This protein was not detected in the sera of healthy negative controls. We believe that this protein is a potential biomarker of Orientia tsutsugamushi present in the sera of scrub typhus patients.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

4Analysis of Low Molecular Weight Collagen by Gel Permeation Chromatography

저자 : Hee-jin Yoo , Duck-hyun Kim , Su-jin Park , Kun Cho

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 81-84 (4 pages)

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Collagen, which accounts for one-third of human protein, is reduced due to human aging, and much attention is focused on making collagen into food to prevent such aging. Gel permeation chromatography with Reflective Index (RI) detection (GPC/RI) was chosen as the most suitable instrument to confirm molecular weight distribution, and we explored the use of this technique for analysis of collagen peptide molecular sizes and distributions. Data reliability was verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization coupled to time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometric analysis. The data were considered meaningful for comparative analysis of molecular weight distribution patterns.

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5Facile and Rapid Glycosylation Monitoring of Therapeutic Antibodies Through Intact Protein Analysis

저자 : Myung Jin Oh , Nari Seo , Junga Seo , Ga Hyeon Kim , Hyun Joo An

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 85-92 (8 pages)

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The therapeutic antibody drug market has experienced explosive growth as mAbs become the main therapeutic modality for a variety of diseases. Characterization of glycosylation that directly affects the efficacy and safety of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is critical for therapeutics development, bioprocess system optimization, lot release, and comparability evaluation. The LC/MS approach has been widely used to structurally characterize mAbs, and recently attempts have been made to obtain comprehensive information on the primary structure and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of mAbs through intact protein analysis. In this study, we performed state-of-the-art LC/MS based intact protein analysis to readily identify and characterize glycoforms of various mAbs. Different glycoforms of mAbs produced in different expression cell lines including CHO, SP2/0 and HEK cells were monitored and compared. In addition, the comparability of protein molecular weight, glycoform pattern, and relative abundances of glycoforms between the commercialized trastuzumab biosimilar and the original product was determined in detail using the given platform. Intact mAb analysis allowed us to gain insight into the overall mAb structure, including the complexity and diversity of glycosylation. Furthermore, our analytical platform with high reproducibility is expected to be widely used for biopharmaceutical characterization required at all stages of drug development and manufacturing.

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6MALDI-MS: A Powerful but Underutilized Mass Spectrometric Technique for Exosome Research

저자 : Iqbal Jalaludin , David M. Lubman , Jeongkwon Kim

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 93-105 (13 pages)

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Exosomes have gained the attention of the scientific community because of their role in facilitating intercellular communication, which is critical in disease monitoring and drug delivery research. Exosome research has grown significantly in recent decades, with a focus on the development of various technologies for isolating and characterizing exosomes. Among these efforts is the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS), which offers high-throughput direct analysis while also being cost and time effective. MALDI is used less frequently in exosome research than electrospray ionization due to the diverse population of extracellular vesicles and the impurity of isolated products, both of which necessitate chromatographic separation prior to MS analysis. However, MALDI-MS is a more appropriate instrument for the analytical approach to patient therapy, given it allows for fast and label-free analysis. There is a huge drive to explore MALDI-MS in exosome research because the technology holds great potential, most notably in biomarker discovery. With methods such as fingerprint analysis, OMICs profiling, and statistical analysis, the search for biomarkers could be much more efficient. In this review, we highlight the potential of MALDI-MS as a tool for investigating exosomes and some of the possible strategies that can be implemented based on prior research.

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7A Study on the Reduction of Inorganic Arsenic in Hijiki and Rice Using the Various Pretreatments and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

저자 : Sang-ho Nam , Dong-chan Lee

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 106-111 (6 pages)

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Several pretreatment methods have been developed to reduce the inorganic arsenic, which is known to be highly harmful to humans, among various arsenic species present in hijiki and rice. The pretreatment methods were selected and developed as methods that can be non-harmful even after treatment and easily applied. Hijiki was applied by two methods. One was soaking in water at room temperature for various durations and the other was boiling of it in water for a short period of time. Rice was soaked in water with different rice-to-water ratios for various durations. The most effective method that reduced the inorganic arsenic in hijiki was to repeat parboiling for 5 minutes twice, which led to 79% reduction of the inorganic arsenic in it. In the case of rice, soaking for 24 hours at the ratio of 1:5 (rice:water) resulted in 51% reduction of inorganic arsenic in rice.

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8Simultaneous Determination of α-Amanitin and β-Amanitin in Mouse Plasma Using Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

저자 : Young Yoon Bang , Min Seo Lee , Chang Ho Lim , Hye Suk Lee

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 112-117 (6 pages)

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α-Amanitin and β-amanitin are highly toxic bicyclic octapeptides responsible for the poisoning of poisonous mushrooms such as Amanita, Galerina, and Lepiota by inhibiting RNA polymerase II, DNA transcription, and protein synthesis. A sensitive, simple, and selective liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometric method using parallel reaction monitoring mode was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of α- and β-amanitin in mouse plasma to evaluate the toxicokinetics of α- and β-amanitin in mice. Protein precipitation of 5 μL mouse plasma sample with methanol as sample clean-up procedure and use of negative electrospray ionization resulted in better sensitivity and less matrix effect. The calibration curves for α- and β-amanitin in mouse plasma were linear over the range of 0.5-500 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day coefficient of variations and accuracies for α- and β-amanitin at four quality control concentrations were 3.1-14.6% and 92.5-115.0%, respectively. The present method was successfully applied to the toxicokinetic study of α- and β-amanitin after an oral administration of α- and β-amanitin at 1.5 mg/kg dose to male ICR mice.

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9Study on Photodegradable Water-Soluble Compounds of Expanded Polystyrene

저자 : Seulgidaun Lee , Sunghwan Kim

발행기관 : 한국질량분석학회 간행물 : Mass Spectrometry Letters 12권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 118-124 (7 pages)

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Many previous studies have focused on revealing the harmfulness of microplastic particles, whereas very few studies have focused on the effects of chemicals, particularly photooxidation product. In this study, products of photodegradation from expanded polystyrene (EPS), compounds produced by photolysis by ultraviolet (UV) light, were investigated. EPS was directly irradiated and photolyzed using a UV lamp, and then the extracted sample was analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Multiple ionization techniques, including electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and atmospheric pressure photoionization, were used. In total, >300 compounds were observed, among which polystyrene monomer, dimer, and oxidized products were observed. In this work, the data presented clearly demonstrate that it is necessary to identify and monitor oxidized plastic compounds and assess their effect on the environment.

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