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한국산업보건학회> 한국산업보건학회지> 근골격계 유해요인 조사 보고서 검토를 통한 조사 방법 및 제도 개선 방안

KCI등재

근골격계 유해요인 조사 보고서 검토를 통한 조사 방법 및 제도 개선 방안

The Improvement of Investigation Method and System through the Review of Musculoskeletal Risk Factor Investigation Reports

김병훈 ( Byoung Hoon Kim ) , 박지영 ( Ji Young Park ) , 백경희 ( Kyunghee Baek ) , 하권철 ( Kwonchul Ha )
  • : 한국산업보건학회
  • : 한국산업보건학회지 31권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 09월
  • : 266-273(8pages)
한국산업보건학회지

DOI


목차

I. 서 론
Ⅱ. 대상 및 방법
Ⅲ. 결 과
Ⅳ. 고 찰
Ⅴ. 결 론
감사의 글
References

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초록 보기

Objective: The objective of this study was to suggest improvement methods for investigations and systems through a review of musculoskeletal risk factor investigation reports conducted in the workplace.
Methods: A total of 34 reports on musculoskeletal risk factor investigations were reviewed. To confirm the appropriateness of the evaluation, reevaluation was conducted through a field investigation using other evaluation tools. In order to understand the effectiveness of the improvement plan, a survey was conducted with those in charge of tasks with ergonomic burdens.
Results: As a result of performing a field survey using the work sampling method recommended by the KOSHA (Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency) for ten tasks, eight tasks were determined to pose an ergonomic burden. When 30 tasks were evaluated with RULA (rapid entire body assessment), 90% of them were evaluated at a higher level than the results of the workplace survey. Among the improvement measures, only 36% of the field workers affirmed them, and in only 19% of the workplaces were actual improvements made.
Conclusions: In order to improve the ergonomic investigation system for risk factors in the ergonomic burden task, it is necessary to secure the objectivity of the evaluation performed by the institution and enable the active participation of workers in improvement activities.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 의약학분야  > 예방의학및보건학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 2384-132x
  • : 2289-0564
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1991-2021
  • : 1050


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31권3호(2021년 09월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1발암성 흡입독성 시험물질선정 신뢰도 향상방안에 관한 연구

저자 : 조중래 ( Jung-rae Cho ) , 임경택 ( Kyung-taek Rim ) , 이종호 ( Jong-ho Lee )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 185-193 (9 pages)

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Objectives: Inhalation toxicity testing of chemical substances to identify carcinogenicity requires a long time and considerable cost, so the selection of test candidates is a very important aspect. This study was performed to determine optimal procedures for selecting carcinogenic inhalation toxicity test substances as conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI).
Methods: At the beginning, a database was constructed containing complex information such as usage amount, hazard, carcinogenicity prediction, and testability in order to select chemicals requiring carcinogenicity testing. Selection of test substances was carried out with priority given to usage, carcinogenicity, and testability.
Results: Chemicals used in large quantities in industrial fields and strongly suspected of carcinogenicity were winnowed down to 12 substances, and these substances were scheduled for future testing by OSHRI.
Conclusions: For the stable and reliable operation of carcinogenicity tests as conducted by OSHRI, this study standardized the procedures for selecting carcinogenicity test substances and suggested the introduction of various carcinogenicity prediction techniques.

KCI등재

2어깨 부위 근골격계 상병 신청자들의 특성

저자 : 조우인 ( Woo-in Jo ) , 이사우 ( Sa-woo Lee ) , 피영규 ( Young Gyu Phee )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 194-201 (8 pages)

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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the distribution of diagnostic disease among applicants for shoulder musculoskeletal disease.
Methods: In 2020, 47 diagnostic disease applicants were investigated for sociodemographic, health, work, job, and diagnostic disease characteristics. The data were corrected through on-site visits and analyzed using descriptive statistics with SPSS WIN23.0.
Results: Most of the applicants were male and elderly. They had high blood pressure(38.3%) and diabetes (21.3%), and the drinking rate and smoking rate were also high. The most common type of employment was daily workers, and it was confirmed that the working condition was poor due to excessive working hours and short rest times. Most of the applicants for shoulder diagnostic diseases were in the construction industry, and the most common diagnostic disease was a rotator cuff tear.
Conclusions: It is necessary to develop a musculoskeletal disease prevention program suitable for construction workers to reduce their work-related disease. When establishing a program, business type, task, and diagnostic disease must be considered.

KCI등재

3남성 근로자의 생식보건 역학연구

저자 : 최병주 ( Byeong Ju Choi ) , 이상길 ( Sanggil Lee ) , 김성규 ( Seonggyu Kim ) , 성정민 ( Jungmin Sung ) , 예신희 ( Shinhee Ye )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 202-212 (11 pages)

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Objectives: The reproductive health of female workers has been extensively investigated in South Korea and other countries worldwide. However, few studies have discussed the reproductive health of male workers. In this study, we reviewed the recent literature that reports on the effects of occupational exposure on the reproductive health of male workers and the health of their children.
Methods: In May 2020 we used the PubMed search engine to search the literature over the last 10 years and chose case-control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies and reviews. We selected epidemiological studies that investigated the association between pre-pregnant occupational exposure and the reproductive health of male workers and the health of their children. We excluded case reports, non-epidemiological studies (animal experiments, cellular-level experiments, and similar articles), and studies that described postnatal occupational exposure.
Results: We eventually selected 23 studies. The studies that included exclusively male workers reported that those employed in the agricultural sector or those exposed to pesticides showed lower blood levels of reproductive hormones and a high risk of lympho-hematopoietic system cancer in their children. Male workers exposed to complex organic solvents and organic compounds showed a high risk of poor semen quality, increased time to pregnancy, decreased blood levels of reproductive hormones, and a high risk of lympho-hematopoietic system cancer in their children. Male workers employed in occupations that involved significant social contact, or in the leather and livestock industries, and in occupations with high levels of exposure to lead and organic solvents showed a high risk of malignancies, including lympho-hematopoietic system cancer, neuroblastoma, and central nervous system tumors in their children. Studies that investigated both male and female workers reported that children of male smelters showed a high risk of premature birth, and children of male workers exposed to metals showed a high risk of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. Children of male welders and workers employed in the glass, ceramic, and tile industries showed a high risk of premature birth.
Conclusion: The findings of this study will serve as basic data for further research on male workers' reproductive health and provide a scientific basis for the development of strategies to protect the reproductive health of males employed in high-risk occupations. Moreover, the results of this study may provide guidelines to improve the understanding of and knowledge on male workers' reproductive health.

KCI등재

4크롬 직업병 유소견자와 요관찰자 추이 및 취급 근로자의 생물학적 노출수준 고찰

저자 : 박상일 ( Sang-il Park ) , 김남수 ( Nam-soo Kim ) , 황보영 ( Young Hwangbo ) , 김화성 ( Hwa-sung Kim ) , 이성수 ( Sung-soo Lee ) , 김용배 ( Yong-bae Kim )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 213-225 (13 pages)

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Objectives: This study identifies the trends in possible and probable occupational disease among chromium workers and reviews the literature on domestic and foreign chromium workers to review the industries, biological exposure levels, and major results.
Methods: The results of the Ministry of Employment and Labor's special health-screening program for hazard agents among workers from 2009 to 2019 were used. Also, the industries, biological exposure levels, and major results on chromium workers were reviewed using PubMed and RISS.
Results: The average annual proportion of both possible and probable occupational disease for chromium workers has recently increased. The average annual proportion of possible and probable occupational disease that can occur was high for both men and women in their 60s or older by age and 10 to 14 years by work duration. By industry, possible occupational disease showed high in manufacturing. In the literature review, many electroplating-related chromium-workers reported high levels of exposure to blood and urine chromium, as did dental technicians; tannery, tile factory or glass mill workers; cement workers; and sodium bichromate workers. Furthermore, a number of main findings in recent studies have reported that chromium exposure is related to genetic toxicity among workers.
Conclusions: In this study, the average annual rate of both possible and probable occupational disease in domestic chromium workers is increasing, and a body of literature shows that chromium exposure is related to genetic toxicity and associated indicators among workers, which requires more systematic study.

KCI등재

5국내·외 라돈 관련 제도 비교를 통한 산업안전보건법 개선방안

저자 : 임대성 ( Dae Sung Lim ) , 김기연 ( Ki-youn Kim ) , 조용민 ( Yong Min Cho ) , 서성철 ( Sung Chul Seo )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 226-236 (11 pages)

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Objectives: Concerns have been raised about the possible health effects of radon on both workers and consumers with the spread of social attention to the impact of radon exposure. Thus, an entire raw material handling workshop was investigated, and standards for radon levels in the workplace were newly established at 600 ㏃/㎥. However, regulations on the management of workers exposed to radon are still insufficiently developed. Therefore, by comparative analysis of overseas and domestic radon-related regulations for workplaces, this study aims to suggest improvement plans of protection regulations under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) for the prevention of health disorders of radon-exposed workers.
Methods: For overseas case studies, we consulted radon-related laws and reports officially published on the websites of the European Union (EU), the United States (U.S.) and the United Kingdom (UK) government agencies. Domestic law studies were conducted mainly on the Act on Protective Action Guidelines against Radiation in the Natural Environment and the OSH Act.
Results: In Europe, the basic safety standards for protection against risks arising from radon (Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM of 5 December 2013) was established by the EU. They recommend that the Member States manage radon level in workplaces based on this criterion. In the U.S., the standards for workplaces are controlled by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Action on radon in the UK is specified in “Radon in the workplace” published by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE).
Conclusions: The Act on Protective Action Guidelines against Radiation in the Natural Environment mainly refers to the management of workplaces that use or handle raw materials but does not have any provisions in terms of protecting naturally exposed workers. In the OSH Act, it is necessary to define whether radon is included in radiation for that reason that its current regulations have limitations in ensuring the safety workers who may be exposed to naturally occurring radon. The management standards are needed for workplaces that do not directly deal with radon but are likely to be exposed to radon. We propose that this could be specified in the regulations for the prevention of health damage caused by radiation, not in Article 125 of the OSH Act.

KCI등재

6잠재프로파일분석을 통한 임금근로자의 위험요인 노출 유형분류 및 영향요인 검증

저자 : 이은진 ( Eunjin Lee ) , 홍세희 ( Sehee Hong )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 237-254 (18 pages)

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Objectives: This study aims to classify the latent profiles in the exposure to hazard factors of salaried employees and test the determinants.
Methods: Latent profile analysis(LPA) was conducted using data from the fifth Korean Working Conditions Survey(KWCS). 30,050 of salaried employees were the subjects of this study. After classifying the employees, multinomial logistic regression was used to test the determinants.
Results: Salaried employees were classified with three latent profiles based on the exposure to the hazard factors. Employees included in class 1(32.8%) tend to experience low level of physical hazard factors, moderate level of psychological hazard factors, and high level of office work hazard factors. Employees included in class 2(61.8%) tend to be exposed to the moderate to high level of physical hazard factors, moderate to low level of psychological hazard factors, and low level of office work hazard factors. Employees included in class 3(5.4%) tend to experience high level of psychological and physical hazard factors, and moderate level of office work hazard factors. After classification, the demographic, health-, and employment-related variables were tested.
Conclusions: This study clarified the features of each class, and proved that employees in class 3 are quite hazardous in that they are exposed to physical and psychological hazard factors much more frequently than other employees. Thus, this study can be used in predicting the high-risk employees and taking preemptive measures for preventing industrial accidents.

KCI등재

7무기산류에 대한 국내 작업환경측정 현황 분석

저자 : 박해동 ( Hae Dong Park ) , 박승현 ( Seung-hyun Park ) , 정기효 ( Kihyo Jung )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 255-265 (11 pages)

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Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze the exposure characteristics of inorganic acids.
Methods: We analyzed exposure data (n = 363,146) for six inorganic acids (hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen bromide, hydrogen chloride, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid) collected between 2017 and 2019 in South Korea. Measurement characteristics and exposure levels (ELs) were analyzed by inorganic acid, industry category, enterprise size, and measurement year.
Results: Measurement percentage dominated in time-weighted average (TWA, 91%) compared to short term exposure limit (STEL) and Ceiling. Most of the measurements (79.7%) were collected from the manufacturing category of industry. Medians of ELs were mostly low (≤3% of the threshold limit), with the exception of sulfuric acid (4.6% of TWA and 10.5% of STEL). The percentages of exceeding 1% of the occupational exposure limits (OELs) in TWA were relatively high for sulfuric acid (35.8%) and hydrogen chloride (16.5%) compared to the other acids (4.2%-6.6%). In addition, the percentages of exceeding 1% of OELs in STEL or Ceiling were higher for sulfuric acid (22.9%), hydrogen chloride (12.3%), and nitric acid (8.2%) compared to the other acids (1.2%-1.9%). The small-sized enterprises showed higher ELs in TWA; contrarily, the large-sized enterprises had higher ELs in STEL or Ceiling.
Conclusions: The measurement characteristics and ELs identified in this study could be useful for establishing safety and health policies for inorganic acids.

KCI등재

8근골격계 유해요인 조사 보고서 검토를 통한 조사 방법 및 제도 개선 방안

저자 : 김병훈 ( Byoung Hoon Kim ) , 박지영 ( Ji Young Park ) , 백경희 ( Kyunghee Baek ) , 하권철 ( Kwonchul Ha )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 266-273 (8 pages)

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Objective: The objective of this study was to suggest improvement methods for investigations and systems through a review of musculoskeletal risk factor investigation reports conducted in the workplace.
Methods: A total of 34 reports on musculoskeletal risk factor investigations were reviewed. To confirm the appropriateness of the evaluation, reevaluation was conducted through a field investigation using other evaluation tools. In order to understand the effectiveness of the improvement plan, a survey was conducted with those in charge of tasks with ergonomic burdens.
Results: As a result of performing a field survey using the work sampling method recommended by the KOSHA (Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency) for ten tasks, eight tasks were determined to pose an ergonomic burden. When 30 tasks were evaluated with RULA (rapid entire body assessment), 90% of them were evaluated at a higher level than the results of the workplace survey. Among the improvement measures, only 36% of the field workers affirmed them, and in only 19% of the workplaces were actual improvements made.
Conclusions: In order to improve the ergonomic investigation system for risk factors in the ergonomic burden task, it is necessary to secure the objectivity of the evaluation performed by the institution and enable the active participation of workers in improvement activities.

KCI등재

9적정 작업환경측정수수료 산정을 위한 소고

저자 : 박지연 ( Ji-yeon Park )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 274-285 (12 pages)

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Objectives: The question of whether the level of fees paid to working environment measurement agencies is appropriate has long been a matter of concern to the government. In addition, measurement institutions express dissatisfaction with their level of compensation, which has a great influence on the evaluation of a subject's policy. This study is intended to find a way to appropriately calculate working environment measurement fees.
Methods: We looked at the principle of fee determination as a basic theory of fee calculation used in fee calculation, the legal and academic aspects of the general method of fee calculation, and government cost calculation standards. Furthermore, we reviewed the research methods applied so far to derive a method of calculating fees appropriate for this environment.
Results: The working environment measurement environment is different from other commission calculation environments. The other environment is to appropriately calculate the service price provided by a monopoly public enterprise, while the situation is to appropriately calculate the fees provided by competitive private enterprises. Therefore, the service delivery environment and the delivery entity are different. In this case, the appropriate method of calculating service fees would be competitive pricing. There have also been many problems under the method of calculation by service cost.
Conclusions: First, the working environment measurement fee requires an accounting correction of endogenous variables. Second, the theory of calculating fees appropriate for this situation is appropriate for competitive pricing that applies to private competitors. Third, the government should make efforts to make the service supply market a fully competitive market while ensuring that the service fee level is determined at the marginal cost level. Fourth, economically, research on marginal cost levels is needed.

KCI등재

10만성폐쇄성폐질환을 동반한 무기분진 노출 이직근로자의 혈중 림프구 아형분포에 미치는 영향요인

저자 : 백진이 ( Jin Ee Baek ) , 신재훈 ( Jae Hoon Shin ) , 황주환 ( Joo Hwan Hwang ) , 이유림 ( Youlim Lee ) , 이종성 ( Jong Seong Lee ) , 최병순 ( Byung-soon Choi )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 286-293 (8 pages)

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Objectives: Inorganic dust is known to be a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) regardless of smoking and pneumoconiosis. Adaptive and innate immunity, including lymphocyte infiltrate, are involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. The purpose of this study was to analyze the lymphocyte subsets in the blood of workers exposed to inorganic dust and confirm the influencing factors.
Methods: The general characteristics of the subjects (n=107) were analyzed through a personal questionnaire. Diagnosis of COPD was established according to pulmonary function tests with FEV1/FVC post bronchodilator lower than 70%, according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. For lymphocyte analysis, blood was stained with a fluorescent CD marker and analyzed by flow cytometry.
Results: The increase in CD4+ T lymphocytes was associated with a decrease in age (β=-0.273, p=0.008) and an increase in the cumulative smoking amount (β=0.205, p=0.034). The increase in NK cells was associated with an increase in age (β=0.325, p=0.001) and a decrease in cumulative smoking (β=-0.220, p=0.019). The period of exposure to dust, %FVC predicted and %FEV1/FVC, and the relative population of peripheral blood lymphocytes did not show a statistically significant relationship.
Conclusions: CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD56+CD16+ NK cells in peripheral blood were more related to age and cumulative smoking than the duration of dust exposure. Age and smoking are major risk factors for the development of COPD, so it can be predicted that peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD56+CD16+ NK cells are related to the development of COPD in workers exposed to inorganic dust.

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KCI등재

1발암성 흡입독성 시험물질선정 신뢰도 향상방안에 관한 연구

저자 : 조중래 ( Jung-rae Cho ) , 임경택 ( Kyung-taek Rim ) , 이종호 ( Jong-ho Lee )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 185-193 (9 pages)

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Objectives: Inhalation toxicity testing of chemical substances to identify carcinogenicity requires a long time and considerable cost, so the selection of test candidates is a very important aspect. This study was performed to determine optimal procedures for selecting carcinogenic inhalation toxicity test substances as conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI).
Methods: At the beginning, a database was constructed containing complex information such as usage amount, hazard, carcinogenicity prediction, and testability in order to select chemicals requiring carcinogenicity testing. Selection of test substances was carried out with priority given to usage, carcinogenicity, and testability.
Results: Chemicals used in large quantities in industrial fields and strongly suspected of carcinogenicity were winnowed down to 12 substances, and these substances were scheduled for future testing by OSHRI.
Conclusions: For the stable and reliable operation of carcinogenicity tests as conducted by OSHRI, this study standardized the procedures for selecting carcinogenicity test substances and suggested the introduction of various carcinogenicity prediction techniques.

KCI등재

2어깨 부위 근골격계 상병 신청자들의 특성

저자 : 조우인 ( Woo-in Jo ) , 이사우 ( Sa-woo Lee ) , 피영규 ( Young Gyu Phee )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 194-201 (8 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the distribution of diagnostic disease among applicants for shoulder musculoskeletal disease.
Methods: In 2020, 47 diagnostic disease applicants were investigated for sociodemographic, health, work, job, and diagnostic disease characteristics. The data were corrected through on-site visits and analyzed using descriptive statistics with SPSS WIN23.0.
Results: Most of the applicants were male and elderly. They had high blood pressure(38.3%) and diabetes (21.3%), and the drinking rate and smoking rate were also high. The most common type of employment was daily workers, and it was confirmed that the working condition was poor due to excessive working hours and short rest times. Most of the applicants for shoulder diagnostic diseases were in the construction industry, and the most common diagnostic disease was a rotator cuff tear.
Conclusions: It is necessary to develop a musculoskeletal disease prevention program suitable for construction workers to reduce their work-related disease. When establishing a program, business type, task, and diagnostic disease must be considered.

KCI등재

3남성 근로자의 생식보건 역학연구

저자 : 최병주 ( Byeong Ju Choi ) , 이상길 ( Sanggil Lee ) , 김성규 ( Seonggyu Kim ) , 성정민 ( Jungmin Sung ) , 예신희 ( Shinhee Ye )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 202-212 (11 pages)

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Objectives: The reproductive health of female workers has been extensively investigated in South Korea and other countries worldwide. However, few studies have discussed the reproductive health of male workers. In this study, we reviewed the recent literature that reports on the effects of occupational exposure on the reproductive health of male workers and the health of their children.
Methods: In May 2020 we used the PubMed search engine to search the literature over the last 10 years and chose case-control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies and reviews. We selected epidemiological studies that investigated the association between pre-pregnant occupational exposure and the reproductive health of male workers and the health of their children. We excluded case reports, non-epidemiological studies (animal experiments, cellular-level experiments, and similar articles), and studies that described postnatal occupational exposure.
Results: We eventually selected 23 studies. The studies that included exclusively male workers reported that those employed in the agricultural sector or those exposed to pesticides showed lower blood levels of reproductive hormones and a high risk of lympho-hematopoietic system cancer in their children. Male workers exposed to complex organic solvents and organic compounds showed a high risk of poor semen quality, increased time to pregnancy, decreased blood levels of reproductive hormones, and a high risk of lympho-hematopoietic system cancer in their children. Male workers employed in occupations that involved significant social contact, or in the leather and livestock industries, and in occupations with high levels of exposure to lead and organic solvents showed a high risk of malignancies, including lympho-hematopoietic system cancer, neuroblastoma, and central nervous system tumors in their children. Studies that investigated both male and female workers reported that children of male smelters showed a high risk of premature birth, and children of male workers exposed to metals showed a high risk of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. Children of male welders and workers employed in the glass, ceramic, and tile industries showed a high risk of premature birth.
Conclusion: The findings of this study will serve as basic data for further research on male workers' reproductive health and provide a scientific basis for the development of strategies to protect the reproductive health of males employed in high-risk occupations. Moreover, the results of this study may provide guidelines to improve the understanding of and knowledge on male workers' reproductive health.

KCI등재

4크롬 직업병 유소견자와 요관찰자 추이 및 취급 근로자의 생물학적 노출수준 고찰

저자 : 박상일 ( Sang-il Park ) , 김남수 ( Nam-soo Kim ) , 황보영 ( Young Hwangbo ) , 김화성 ( Hwa-sung Kim ) , 이성수 ( Sung-soo Lee ) , 김용배 ( Yong-bae Kim )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 213-225 (13 pages)

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Objectives: This study identifies the trends in possible and probable occupational disease among chromium workers and reviews the literature on domestic and foreign chromium workers to review the industries, biological exposure levels, and major results.
Methods: The results of the Ministry of Employment and Labor's special health-screening program for hazard agents among workers from 2009 to 2019 were used. Also, the industries, biological exposure levels, and major results on chromium workers were reviewed using PubMed and RISS.
Results: The average annual proportion of both possible and probable occupational disease for chromium workers has recently increased. The average annual proportion of possible and probable occupational disease that can occur was high for both men and women in their 60s or older by age and 10 to 14 years by work duration. By industry, possible occupational disease showed high in manufacturing. In the literature review, many electroplating-related chromium-workers reported high levels of exposure to blood and urine chromium, as did dental technicians; tannery, tile factory or glass mill workers; cement workers; and sodium bichromate workers. Furthermore, a number of main findings in recent studies have reported that chromium exposure is related to genetic toxicity among workers.
Conclusions: In this study, the average annual rate of both possible and probable occupational disease in domestic chromium workers is increasing, and a body of literature shows that chromium exposure is related to genetic toxicity and associated indicators among workers, which requires more systematic study.

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5국내·외 라돈 관련 제도 비교를 통한 산업안전보건법 개선방안

저자 : 임대성 ( Dae Sung Lim ) , 김기연 ( Ki-youn Kim ) , 조용민 ( Yong Min Cho ) , 서성철 ( Sung Chul Seo )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 226-236 (11 pages)

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Objectives: Concerns have been raised about the possible health effects of radon on both workers and consumers with the spread of social attention to the impact of radon exposure. Thus, an entire raw material handling workshop was investigated, and standards for radon levels in the workplace were newly established at 600 ㏃/㎥. However, regulations on the management of workers exposed to radon are still insufficiently developed. Therefore, by comparative analysis of overseas and domestic radon-related regulations for workplaces, this study aims to suggest improvement plans of protection regulations under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) for the prevention of health disorders of radon-exposed workers.
Methods: For overseas case studies, we consulted radon-related laws and reports officially published on the websites of the European Union (EU), the United States (U.S.) and the United Kingdom (UK) government agencies. Domestic law studies were conducted mainly on the Act on Protective Action Guidelines against Radiation in the Natural Environment and the OSH Act.
Results: In Europe, the basic safety standards for protection against risks arising from radon (Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM of 5 December 2013) was established by the EU. They recommend that the Member States manage radon level in workplaces based on this criterion. In the U.S., the standards for workplaces are controlled by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Action on radon in the UK is specified in “Radon in the workplace” published by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE).
Conclusions: The Act on Protective Action Guidelines against Radiation in the Natural Environment mainly refers to the management of workplaces that use or handle raw materials but does not have any provisions in terms of protecting naturally exposed workers. In the OSH Act, it is necessary to define whether radon is included in radiation for that reason that its current regulations have limitations in ensuring the safety workers who may be exposed to naturally occurring radon. The management standards are needed for workplaces that do not directly deal with radon but are likely to be exposed to radon. We propose that this could be specified in the regulations for the prevention of health damage caused by radiation, not in Article 125 of the OSH Act.

KCI등재

6잠재프로파일분석을 통한 임금근로자의 위험요인 노출 유형분류 및 영향요인 검증

저자 : 이은진 ( Eunjin Lee ) , 홍세희 ( Sehee Hong )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 237-254 (18 pages)

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Objectives: This study aims to classify the latent profiles in the exposure to hazard factors of salaried employees and test the determinants.
Methods: Latent profile analysis(LPA) was conducted using data from the fifth Korean Working Conditions Survey(KWCS). 30,050 of salaried employees were the subjects of this study. After classifying the employees, multinomial logistic regression was used to test the determinants.
Results: Salaried employees were classified with three latent profiles based on the exposure to the hazard factors. Employees included in class 1(32.8%) tend to experience low level of physical hazard factors, moderate level of psychological hazard factors, and high level of office work hazard factors. Employees included in class 2(61.8%) tend to be exposed to the moderate to high level of physical hazard factors, moderate to low level of psychological hazard factors, and low level of office work hazard factors. Employees included in class 3(5.4%) tend to experience high level of psychological and physical hazard factors, and moderate level of office work hazard factors. After classification, the demographic, health-, and employment-related variables were tested.
Conclusions: This study clarified the features of each class, and proved that employees in class 3 are quite hazardous in that they are exposed to physical and psychological hazard factors much more frequently than other employees. Thus, this study can be used in predicting the high-risk employees and taking preemptive measures for preventing industrial accidents.

KCI등재

7무기산류에 대한 국내 작업환경측정 현황 분석

저자 : 박해동 ( Hae Dong Park ) , 박승현 ( Seung-hyun Park ) , 정기효 ( Kihyo Jung )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 255-265 (11 pages)

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Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze the exposure characteristics of inorganic acids.
Methods: We analyzed exposure data (n = 363,146) for six inorganic acids (hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen bromide, hydrogen chloride, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid) collected between 2017 and 2019 in South Korea. Measurement characteristics and exposure levels (ELs) were analyzed by inorganic acid, industry category, enterprise size, and measurement year.
Results: Measurement percentage dominated in time-weighted average (TWA, 91%) compared to short term exposure limit (STEL) and Ceiling. Most of the measurements (79.7%) were collected from the manufacturing category of industry. Medians of ELs were mostly low (≤3% of the threshold limit), with the exception of sulfuric acid (4.6% of TWA and 10.5% of STEL). The percentages of exceeding 1% of the occupational exposure limits (OELs) in TWA were relatively high for sulfuric acid (35.8%) and hydrogen chloride (16.5%) compared to the other acids (4.2%-6.6%). In addition, the percentages of exceeding 1% of OELs in STEL or Ceiling were higher for sulfuric acid (22.9%), hydrogen chloride (12.3%), and nitric acid (8.2%) compared to the other acids (1.2%-1.9%). The small-sized enterprises showed higher ELs in TWA; contrarily, the large-sized enterprises had higher ELs in STEL or Ceiling.
Conclusions: The measurement characteristics and ELs identified in this study could be useful for establishing safety and health policies for inorganic acids.

KCI등재

8근골격계 유해요인 조사 보고서 검토를 통한 조사 방법 및 제도 개선 방안

저자 : 김병훈 ( Byoung Hoon Kim ) , 박지영 ( Ji Young Park ) , 백경희 ( Kyunghee Baek ) , 하권철 ( Kwonchul Ha )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 266-273 (8 pages)

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Objective: The objective of this study was to suggest improvement methods for investigations and systems through a review of musculoskeletal risk factor investigation reports conducted in the workplace.
Methods: A total of 34 reports on musculoskeletal risk factor investigations were reviewed. To confirm the appropriateness of the evaluation, reevaluation was conducted through a field investigation using other evaluation tools. In order to understand the effectiveness of the improvement plan, a survey was conducted with those in charge of tasks with ergonomic burdens.
Results: As a result of performing a field survey using the work sampling method recommended by the KOSHA (Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency) for ten tasks, eight tasks were determined to pose an ergonomic burden. When 30 tasks were evaluated with RULA (rapid entire body assessment), 90% of them were evaluated at a higher level than the results of the workplace survey. Among the improvement measures, only 36% of the field workers affirmed them, and in only 19% of the workplaces were actual improvements made.
Conclusions: In order to improve the ergonomic investigation system for risk factors in the ergonomic burden task, it is necessary to secure the objectivity of the evaluation performed by the institution and enable the active participation of workers in improvement activities.

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9적정 작업환경측정수수료 산정을 위한 소고

저자 : 박지연 ( Ji-yeon Park )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 274-285 (12 pages)

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Objectives: The question of whether the level of fees paid to working environment measurement agencies is appropriate has long been a matter of concern to the government. In addition, measurement institutions express dissatisfaction with their level of compensation, which has a great influence on the evaluation of a subject's policy. This study is intended to find a way to appropriately calculate working environment measurement fees.
Methods: We looked at the principle of fee determination as a basic theory of fee calculation used in fee calculation, the legal and academic aspects of the general method of fee calculation, and government cost calculation standards. Furthermore, we reviewed the research methods applied so far to derive a method of calculating fees appropriate for this environment.
Results: The working environment measurement environment is different from other commission calculation environments. The other environment is to appropriately calculate the service price provided by a monopoly public enterprise, while the situation is to appropriately calculate the fees provided by competitive private enterprises. Therefore, the service delivery environment and the delivery entity are different. In this case, the appropriate method of calculating service fees would be competitive pricing. There have also been many problems under the method of calculation by service cost.
Conclusions: First, the working environment measurement fee requires an accounting correction of endogenous variables. Second, the theory of calculating fees appropriate for this situation is appropriate for competitive pricing that applies to private competitors. Third, the government should make efforts to make the service supply market a fully competitive market while ensuring that the service fee level is determined at the marginal cost level. Fourth, economically, research on marginal cost levels is needed.

KCI등재

10만성폐쇄성폐질환을 동반한 무기분진 노출 이직근로자의 혈중 림프구 아형분포에 미치는 영향요인

저자 : 백진이 ( Jin Ee Baek ) , 신재훈 ( Jae Hoon Shin ) , 황주환 ( Joo Hwan Hwang ) , 이유림 ( Youlim Lee ) , 이종성 ( Jong Seong Lee ) , 최병순 ( Byung-soon Choi )

발행기관 : 한국산업보건학회 간행물 : 한국산업보건학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 286-293 (8 pages)

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Objectives: Inorganic dust is known to be a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) regardless of smoking and pneumoconiosis. Adaptive and innate immunity, including lymphocyte infiltrate, are involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. The purpose of this study was to analyze the lymphocyte subsets in the blood of workers exposed to inorganic dust and confirm the influencing factors.
Methods: The general characteristics of the subjects (n=107) were analyzed through a personal questionnaire. Diagnosis of COPD was established according to pulmonary function tests with FEV1/FVC post bronchodilator lower than 70%, according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. For lymphocyte analysis, blood was stained with a fluorescent CD marker and analyzed by flow cytometry.
Results: The increase in CD4+ T lymphocytes was associated with a decrease in age (β=-0.273, p=0.008) and an increase in the cumulative smoking amount (β=0.205, p=0.034). The increase in NK cells was associated with an increase in age (β=0.325, p=0.001) and a decrease in cumulative smoking (β=-0.220, p=0.019). The period of exposure to dust, %FVC predicted and %FEV1/FVC, and the relative population of peripheral blood lymphocytes did not show a statistically significant relationship.
Conclusions: CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD56+CD16+ NK cells in peripheral blood were more related to age and cumulative smoking than the duration of dust exposure. Age and smoking are major risk factors for the development of COPD, so it can be predicted that peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD56+CD16+ NK cells are related to the development of COPD in workers exposed to inorganic dust.

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