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한국운동역학회> 한국운동역학회지> Shoulder Arthrokinematics of Collegiate Ice Hockey Athletes Based on the 3D-2D Model Registration Technique

KCI등재

Shoulder Arthrokinematics of Collegiate Ice Hockey Athletes Based on the 3D-2D Model Registration Technique

Hee Seong Jeong , Junbom Song , Inje Lee , Doosup Kim , Sae Yong Lee
  • : 한국운동역학회
  • : 한국운동역학회지 31권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 09월
  • : 155-161(7pages)
한국운동역학회지

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
METHODS
RESULTS
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
REFERENCES

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초록 보기

Objective: There is a lack of studies using the 3D-2D image registration techniques on the mechanism of a shoulder injury for ice hockey players. This study aimed to analyze in vivo 3D glenohumeral joint arthrokinematics in collegiate ice hockey athletes and compare shoulder scaption with or without a hockey stick using the 3D-2D image registration technique.
Method: We recruited 12 male elite ice hockey players (age, 19.88 ± 0.65 years). For arthrokinematic analysis of the common shoulder abduction movements of the injury pathogenesis of ice hockey players, participants abducted their dominant arm along the scapular plane and then grabbed a stick using the same motion under C-arm fluoroscopy with 16 frames per second. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the shoulder complex were obtained with a 0.6-mm slice pitch. Data from the humerus translation distances, scapula upward rotation, anterior-posterior tilt, internal to external rotation angles, and scapulohumeral rhythm (SHR) ratio on glenohumeral (GH) joint kinematics were outputted using a MATLAB customized code.
Results: The humeral translation in the stick hand compared to the bare hand moved more anterior and more superior until the abduction angle reached 40°. When the GH joint in the stick hand was at the maximal abduction of the scapula, the scapula was externally rotated 2~5° relative to 0°. The SHR ratio relative to the abduction along the scapular plane at 40° indicated a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: With arm loading with the stick, the humeral and scapular kinematics showed a significant correlation in the initial section of the SHR. Although these correlations might be difficult in clinical settings, ice hockey athletes can lead to the movement difference of the scapulohumeral joints with inherent instability.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-2226
  • : 2093-9752
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1992-2021
  • : 1209


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KCI등재

1Shoulder Arthrokinematics of Collegiate Ice Hockey Athletes Based on the 3D-2D Model Registration Technique

저자 : Hee Seong Jeong , Junbom Song , Inje Lee , Doosup Kim , Sae Yong Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 155-161 (7 pages)

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Objective: There is a lack of studies using the 3D-2D image registration techniques on the mechanism of a shoulder injury for ice hockey players. This study aimed to analyze in vivo 3D glenohumeral joint arthrokinematics in collegiate ice hockey athletes and compare shoulder scaption with or without a hockey stick using the 3D-2D image registration technique.
Method: We recruited 12 male elite ice hockey players (age, 19.88 ± 0.65 years). For arthrokinematic analysis of the common shoulder abduction movements of the injury pathogenesis of ice hockey players, participants abducted their dominant arm along the scapular plane and then grabbed a stick using the same motion under C-arm fluoroscopy with 16 frames per second. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the shoulder complex were obtained with a 0.6-mm slice pitch. Data from the humerus translation distances, scapula upward rotation, anterior-posterior tilt, internal to external rotation angles, and scapulohumeral rhythm (SHR) ratio on glenohumeral (GH) joint kinematics were outputted using a MATLAB customized code.
Results: The humeral translation in the stick hand compared to the bare hand moved more anterior and more superior until the abduction angle reached 40°. When the GH joint in the stick hand was at the maximal abduction of the scapula, the scapula was externally rotated 2~5° relative to 0°. The SHR ratio relative to the abduction along the scapular plane at 40° indicated a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: With arm loading with the stick, the humeral and scapular kinematics showed a significant correlation in the initial section of the SHR. Although these correlations might be difficult in clinical settings, ice hockey athletes can lead to the movement difference of the scapulohumeral joints with inherent instability.

KCI등재

2여자 윈드서핑 선수의 경기 중 Global Positioning System 정보를 활용한 경기력 분석

저자 : Sa Bin Chun , Jong Chul Park , Sang Ha Park , Jin Soo Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 162-167 (6 pages)

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Objective: This study aimed to identify the different wind speed categories and competitive level among windsurfers through GPS variables to provide the useful information on the development of training programs for enhancing windsurfers' performance.
Method: Data from 69 female athletes who participated in 27 races during the 2018-2019 windsurfing season were used for the analysis. Average board speed, total race time, total distance, upwind race time, downwind race time, beam reach race time were collected through GPS. Unconfirmed data were excluded along with penalty point data. The wind conditions were classified as light, light to medium, medium, medium to heavy, and heavy wind, the competitive levels were classified as level 1, level 2, and level 3.
Results: As for the average board speed, the level 1 or level 2 group showed higher board speed than the level 3 group in all wind conditions except for the light wind. The total race time and upwind race time showed less time in level 1 or level 2 group than level 3 group in all wind conditions. The total distance, downwind race time and beam reach race time showed less distance and time in level1 group than level 3 group under sufficient wind conditions.
Conclusion: Our results show that the aerobic capacity to sustain pumping during upwind course in wind conditions below 15 kts effects performance. In wind conditions of 15 kts or more, indicated that the board control for the fast board speed and small distance required during up, down, beam reach courses had an effect on competition performance. This information can be provided to windsurfers and coaching as basic data for training programs to improve performance.

KCI등재

3만성 발목 불안정성(CAI) 환자와 건강 대조군 간 종합적 발목관절복합체의 생체역학적 특성

저자 : Byong Hun Kim , Hee Seong Jeong , Inje Lee , Hyung Gyu Jeon , Sae Yong Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 168-175 (8 pages)

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Objective: To investigate the static and dynamic analysis of ankle joint complex between subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) and healthy controls.
Method: A total of 38 subjects and CAI group (N=19) and healthy control (N=19) participated in this first study. Variables that were measured in this study were as follows: 1) Subtalar joint axis inclination and deviation 2) Rearfoot angle 3) Navicular drop test 4) Heel alignment view in alignment analysis. Intra Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is used for reliability. A secondary 17 subjects are recruited including 9 of CAI and healthy for gait analysis between group. Lower extremity sagittal, frontal, and transverse kinematics were measured. All data were analyzed to ensemble curve analysis.
Results: 1) There were statistically significant differences in standing rearfoot, navicular drop, heel alignment view, subtalar joint (STJ) inclination and deviation. 2) Only in sagittal, meaningful difference is showed during walking in gait analysis.
Conclusion: Morphological problem can affect ankle sprain in aspect of structure with no relation to compensation of neuromuscular.

KCI등재

4Three-dimensional Kinematics of Knee Joint in a Complete Gait Cycle: A Comparative Study between Handball Players and Non-athletes

저자 : Paudel Dinesh , Jin-ho Back

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 176-182 (7 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the athletic knee show greater rotation and translation movement than non-athletic knee during the treadmill walking with their preferred speed in a complete gait cycle.
Method: Thirty young and healthy male subjects participated in the study, fifteen handball players (mean age: 19.6 ± 1.4 years old, mean weight: 85 ± 11.9 Kg, mean height: 179.8 ± 4.7) and fifteen non-athletes (mean age: 22.8 ± 1.2 years old, mean weight: 74.5 ± 8.6 Kg, mean height: 175 ± 5.9). Three-dimensional positional coordinate of lower limb during treadmill walking were analyzed.
Results: There were significant differences (t (22.014)=1.585, p=0.127 in the range of internal and external rotation with mean value for handball player (M=14.4513, SD=2.3839) was higher than non-athletes (M= 13.3327, SD=1.337). The magnitude of the difference in the means (mean difference=1.11867, 95% CI: -0.34489 to 2.5822) was significant. There were also significant differences (t (17.956)=1.654, p=0.116 in the max abduction and adduction with mean value for handball player (M=5.7160, SD=2.49281) was higher than non-athletes (M=4.5773, SD=0.94667). The magnitude of the difference in the means (mean difference=1.138, 95% CI: -0.30805 to 2.58539) was significant. At significance level 0.05.
Conclusion: Finding of this study suggest that to understand the actual characteristic of knee motion studies have to be done in different walking and running trial at variable speed.

KCI등재

5은 나노입자 프린팅 기반의 재활치료용 신축성 관절센서 개발

저자 : Woen-sik Chae , Jae-hu Jung

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 183-188 (6 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a stretchable joint motion sensor that is based on silver nano-particle. Through this sensor, it can be utilized as an equipment for rehabilitation and analyze joint movement.
Method: In this study, precursor solution was created, after that, nozel printer (Musashi, Image master 350PC) was used to print on a circuit board. Sourcemeter (Keithley, Keithley-2450) was used in order to evaluate changes of electric resistance as the sensor stretches. In addition, the sensor was attached on center of a knee joint to 2 male adults, and performed knee flexion-extension in order to evaluate accurate analysis; 3 infrared cameras (100 Hz, Motion Master 100, Visol Inc., Korea) were also used to analyze three dimensional movement. Descriptive statistics were suggested for comparing each accuracy of measurement variables of joint motions with the sensor and 3D motions.
Results: The change of electric resistance of the sensor indicated multiple of 30 times from initial value in 50% of elongation and the value of electric resistance were distinctively classified by following 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% of elongation respectively. Through using the sensor and 3D camera to analyze movement variable, it showed a resistance of 99% in a knee joint extension, whereas, it indicated about 80% in flexion phase.
Conclusion: In this research, the stretchable joint motion sensor was created based on silver nanoparticle that has high conductivity. If the sensor stretches, the distance between nanoparticles recede which lead gradual disconnection of an electric circuit and to have increment of electric resistance. Through evaluating angle of knee joints with observation of sensor's electric resistance, it showed similar a result and propensity from 3D motion analysis. However, unstable electric resistance of the stretchable sensor was observed when it stretches to maximum length, or went through numerous joint movements. Therefore, the sensor need complement that requires stability when it comes to measuring motions in any condition.

KCI등재

6환경조건에 따른 보행 시 낙상 위험 여성 노인과 정상 여성 노인의 생체역학적 변인 비교 연구

저자 : Tae-whan Kim , Dae-hyun Kim , Seok-ki Min , Eun-hyung Cho , Jin-seok Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 189-198 (10 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of biomechanical variables on gait according to indoor and outdoor environmental conditions in elderly women at risk of falling.
Method: 26 elderly women aged 70 years or older, and consisted of 13 elderly people with a walking speed of less 1.0 m/s and 13 people in the fall risk group as normal groups. Depending on the purpose of the study, physical examination and psychological questionnaire were prepared, and then walking was performed in an indoor/outdoor environment, and the gait pattern, muscle activity, and plantar pressure results were compared and analyzed in the elderly females through a 2 group × 2 environment 2-way repeted ANOVA analysis.
Results: The gait variable showed an interaction effect the cadence. The muscle variables showed interaction effects in the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles, and the interaction effects of the plantar pressure variables were confirmed in the forefoot and midfoot of the contact area, and the midfoot of the mean pressure.
Conclusion: These results indicate that both groups are exposed to falls risk when gait in an outdoor environment, but the fall risk group has a higher risk of falls in both the gait pattern, muscle activity, and plantar pressure variables. The results of this study are considered to be helpful as basic data and development of exercise programs to prevent falls.

KCI등재

7관성센서를 활용한 새로운 품새 경기력 평가 방법 연구

저자 : Young-kwan Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 199-204 (6 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to present a new idea of methodology to evaluate Poomsae performance using inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors in terms of signal processing techniques.
Method: Ten collegian Taekwondo athletes, consisting of five Poomsae elite athletes (age: 21.4 ± 0.9 years, height: 168.4 ± 11.3 cm, weight: 65.0 ± 10.6 kg, experience: 12 ± 0.7 years) and five breaking demonstration athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.0 years, height: 168.4 ± 4.7 cm, weight: 63.8 ± 8.2 kg, experience: 13.0 ± 2.1 years), voluntarily participated in this study. They performed three different black belt Poomsae such as Goryeo, Geumgang, and Taebaek Poomsae repeatedly twice. Repeated measured motion data on the wrist and ankle were calculated by the methods of cosine similarity and Euclidean distance.
Results: The Poomsse athletes showed superior performance in terms of temporal consistency at Goryeo and Taebaek Poomsae, cosine similarity at Geumgang and Taebaek Poomsae, and Euclidian distance at Geumgang Poomsae.
Conclusion: IMU sensor would be a useful tool for monitoring and evaluating within-subject temporal variability of Taekwondo Poomsae motions. As well it distinguished spatiotemporal characteristics among three different Poomsae.

KCI등재

8달리기 시 인솔의 굽힘 강성 증가에 따른 발목과 중족골 관절의 운동학적 변인 및 관절 협응에 미치는 영향

저자 : Sungmin Kim , Jeheon Moon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 205-213 (9 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze body stability Joint coordination pattern though as bending stiffness of shoes during stance phase of running.
Method: 47 male subjects (Age: 26.33 ± 2.11 years, Height: 177.32 ± 4.31 cm, Weight: 65.8 ± 3.87 kg) participated in this study. All subjects tested wearing the same type of running shoes by classifying bending stiffness (A shoes: 3.2~4.1 N, B shoes: 9.25~10.53 N, C shoes: 20.22~21.59 N). They ran 10 m at 3.3 m/s (SD ±3%) speed, and the speed was monitored by installing a speedometer at 3 m intervals between force plate, and the measured data were analyzed five times. During running, ankle joint, MTP joint, coupling angle, inclination angle (anterior-posterior, medial-lateral) was collected and analyzed. Vector coding methods were used to calculate vector angle of 2 joint couples during running: MTP-Ankle joint frontal plane. All analyses were performed with SPSS 21.0 and for repeated measured ANOVA and Post-hoc was Bonferroni.
Results: Results indicated that there was an interaction between three shoes and phases for MTP (Metatarsalphalangeal) joint angle (p = .045), the phases in the three shoes showed difference with heel strike~ impact peak (p1) (p = .000), impact peak~active peak (p2) (p = .002), from active peak to half the distance to take-off until take-off (p4) (p = .032) except for active peak~from active peak to half the distance to take-off (p3) (p = .155). ML IA (medial-lateral inclination angle) for C shoes was increased than other shoes. The coupling angle of ankle angle and MTP joint showed that there was significantly difference of p2 (p = .005), p4 (p = .045), and the characteristics of C shoes were that single-joint pattern (ankle-phase, MTP-phase) was shown in each phase.
Conclusion: In conclusion, by wearing high bending stiffness shoes, their body instability was increased during running.

KCI등재

9양발의 위치에 따른 스위스 볼 운동이 뒤넙다리근 근활성도에 미치는 영향

저자 : Yujin Jang , Sukhoon Yoon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 214-219 (6 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in muscle activity of hamstring muscle depending on the position of the feet during Swiss ball hamstring curl exercise.
Method: Total of 15 male participants with no history of hamstring muscle injuries and musculoskeletal disorders in the past 6 months were participated in this study (Age: 29.27 ± 4.96 yrs, Height: 173.47 ± 5.18 cm, Body mass: 75.47 ± 12.50 kg). The muscle activation of semitendinosus and biceps femoris with four different feet positions including neutral stance, internal rotation, external rotation, and wide stance were measured during a Swiss ball hamstring curl exercise. For the analysis, the Swiss ball exercise movement comprised of 3 events (90°→ 0°→ 90°) based on the knee angle and 2 phases relative to the mechanism of muscle contraction (eccentric/concentric contraction). To pursue the study goal, an one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was performed with statistical significance as α = 0.05.
Results: There was no statistically significant feet position effect found during the Swiss ball hamstring curl with eccentric contraction phase (p>.05). It is, however, semitendinosus showed an enhanced muscle activation in concentric contraction phase, displaying the highest muscle activity in wide stance and the lowest in external rotation (p<.05).
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that this exercise can be beneficial in selectively training the semitendinosus. In other words, Swiss ball hamstring curls performed in wide stance strengthens semitendinosus, which improves the stability of knee and are effective in preventing knee injuries and reinforces rehabilitation.

KCI등재

10가슴압박소생술 시 교육수준에 따른 지면반력 및 압력중심의 차이

저자 : Kihoon Han , Ho-jong Gil , Mi-kyoung Lee , Joonsung Park , Jongbin Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 220-225 (6 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of education on ground reaction force and center of pressure parameters during chest compression resuscitation.
Method: Twenty male university students were divided into two groups; certified group (CG, n=10) and non-certified group (NCG, n=10). Two force plates were used to measure ground reaction force and center of pressure parameters during 30 times (three trials) chest compression resuscitation. Independent t-tests were used to compare ground reaction force and center of pressure parameters between two groups. An alpha level of 0.05 was used in all tests.
Results: All chest-compression time parameters (total time, 1 systolic time, and diastolic time) in CG were significantly shorter than those in NCG (p<.05). Fy of the diastolic and Fz of the systolic in CG revealed significantly the larger GRF values and Fy of the systolic in CG showed significantly the smaller GRF value (p<.05). The standard deviation of Fz of the systolic and diastolic within the subject during 30 times chestcompression resuscitation revealed significantly the smaller values in CG (p<.05).
Conclusion: First, CG performed chest compressions efficiently at an appropriate rate compared to NCG. Second, CG showed lower Fx and Fy values in both the mediolateral and anteroposterior axes compared to NCG, which reduced unnecessary chest-compression force consumption and minimized the movement in patients with cardiac arrest. Third, CG showed high Fz value of the systolic and low Fz value of the diastolic. Based on this, chest compression resuscitation was performed to increase the survival rate of cardiac arrest patients.

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KCI등재

1Shoulder Arthrokinematics of Collegiate Ice Hockey Athletes Based on the 3D-2D Model Registration Technique

저자 : Hee Seong Jeong , Junbom Song , Inje Lee , Doosup Kim , Sae Yong Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 155-161 (7 pages)

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Objective: There is a lack of studies using the 3D-2D image registration techniques on the mechanism of a shoulder injury for ice hockey players. This study aimed to analyze in vivo 3D glenohumeral joint arthrokinematics in collegiate ice hockey athletes and compare shoulder scaption with or without a hockey stick using the 3D-2D image registration technique.
Method: We recruited 12 male elite ice hockey players (age, 19.88 ± 0.65 years). For arthrokinematic analysis of the common shoulder abduction movements of the injury pathogenesis of ice hockey players, participants abducted their dominant arm along the scapular plane and then grabbed a stick using the same motion under C-arm fluoroscopy with 16 frames per second. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the shoulder complex were obtained with a 0.6-mm slice pitch. Data from the humerus translation distances, scapula upward rotation, anterior-posterior tilt, internal to external rotation angles, and scapulohumeral rhythm (SHR) ratio on glenohumeral (GH) joint kinematics were outputted using a MATLAB customized code.
Results: The humeral translation in the stick hand compared to the bare hand moved more anterior and more superior until the abduction angle reached 40°. When the GH joint in the stick hand was at the maximal abduction of the scapula, the scapula was externally rotated 2~5° relative to 0°. The SHR ratio relative to the abduction along the scapular plane at 40° indicated a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: With arm loading with the stick, the humeral and scapular kinematics showed a significant correlation in the initial section of the SHR. Although these correlations might be difficult in clinical settings, ice hockey athletes can lead to the movement difference of the scapulohumeral joints with inherent instability.

KCI등재

2여자 윈드서핑 선수의 경기 중 Global Positioning System 정보를 활용한 경기력 분석

저자 : Sa Bin Chun , Jong Chul Park , Sang Ha Park , Jin Soo Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 162-167 (6 pages)

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Objective: This study aimed to identify the different wind speed categories and competitive level among windsurfers through GPS variables to provide the useful information on the development of training programs for enhancing windsurfers' performance.
Method: Data from 69 female athletes who participated in 27 races during the 2018-2019 windsurfing season were used for the analysis. Average board speed, total race time, total distance, upwind race time, downwind race time, beam reach race time were collected through GPS. Unconfirmed data were excluded along with penalty point data. The wind conditions were classified as light, light to medium, medium, medium to heavy, and heavy wind, the competitive levels were classified as level 1, level 2, and level 3.
Results: As for the average board speed, the level 1 or level 2 group showed higher board speed than the level 3 group in all wind conditions except for the light wind. The total race time and upwind race time showed less time in level 1 or level 2 group than level 3 group in all wind conditions. The total distance, downwind race time and beam reach race time showed less distance and time in level1 group than level 3 group under sufficient wind conditions.
Conclusion: Our results show that the aerobic capacity to sustain pumping during upwind course in wind conditions below 15 kts effects performance. In wind conditions of 15 kts or more, indicated that the board control for the fast board speed and small distance required during up, down, beam reach courses had an effect on competition performance. This information can be provided to windsurfers and coaching as basic data for training programs to improve performance.

KCI등재

3만성 발목 불안정성(CAI) 환자와 건강 대조군 간 종합적 발목관절복합체의 생체역학적 특성

저자 : Byong Hun Kim , Hee Seong Jeong , Inje Lee , Hyung Gyu Jeon , Sae Yong Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 168-175 (8 pages)

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Objective: To investigate the static and dynamic analysis of ankle joint complex between subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) and healthy controls.
Method: A total of 38 subjects and CAI group (N=19) and healthy control (N=19) participated in this first study. Variables that were measured in this study were as follows: 1) Subtalar joint axis inclination and deviation 2) Rearfoot angle 3) Navicular drop test 4) Heel alignment view in alignment analysis. Intra Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is used for reliability. A secondary 17 subjects are recruited including 9 of CAI and healthy for gait analysis between group. Lower extremity sagittal, frontal, and transverse kinematics were measured. All data were analyzed to ensemble curve analysis.
Results: 1) There were statistically significant differences in standing rearfoot, navicular drop, heel alignment view, subtalar joint (STJ) inclination and deviation. 2) Only in sagittal, meaningful difference is showed during walking in gait analysis.
Conclusion: Morphological problem can affect ankle sprain in aspect of structure with no relation to compensation of neuromuscular.

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4Three-dimensional Kinematics of Knee Joint in a Complete Gait Cycle: A Comparative Study between Handball Players and Non-athletes

저자 : Paudel Dinesh , Jin-ho Back

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 176-182 (7 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the athletic knee show greater rotation and translation movement than non-athletic knee during the treadmill walking with their preferred speed in a complete gait cycle.
Method: Thirty young and healthy male subjects participated in the study, fifteen handball players (mean age: 19.6 ± 1.4 years old, mean weight: 85 ± 11.9 Kg, mean height: 179.8 ± 4.7) and fifteen non-athletes (mean age: 22.8 ± 1.2 years old, mean weight: 74.5 ± 8.6 Kg, mean height: 175 ± 5.9). Three-dimensional positional coordinate of lower limb during treadmill walking were analyzed.
Results: There were significant differences (t (22.014)=1.585, p=0.127 in the range of internal and external rotation with mean value for handball player (M=14.4513, SD=2.3839) was higher than non-athletes (M= 13.3327, SD=1.337). The magnitude of the difference in the means (mean difference=1.11867, 95% CI: -0.34489 to 2.5822) was significant. There were also significant differences (t (17.956)=1.654, p=0.116 in the max abduction and adduction with mean value for handball player (M=5.7160, SD=2.49281) was higher than non-athletes (M=4.5773, SD=0.94667). The magnitude of the difference in the means (mean difference=1.138, 95% CI: -0.30805 to 2.58539) was significant. At significance level 0.05.
Conclusion: Finding of this study suggest that to understand the actual characteristic of knee motion studies have to be done in different walking and running trial at variable speed.

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5은 나노입자 프린팅 기반의 재활치료용 신축성 관절센서 개발

저자 : Woen-sik Chae , Jae-hu Jung

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 183-188 (6 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a stretchable joint motion sensor that is based on silver nano-particle. Through this sensor, it can be utilized as an equipment for rehabilitation and analyze joint movement.
Method: In this study, precursor solution was created, after that, nozel printer (Musashi, Image master 350PC) was used to print on a circuit board. Sourcemeter (Keithley, Keithley-2450) was used in order to evaluate changes of electric resistance as the sensor stretches. In addition, the sensor was attached on center of a knee joint to 2 male adults, and performed knee flexion-extension in order to evaluate accurate analysis; 3 infrared cameras (100 Hz, Motion Master 100, Visol Inc., Korea) were also used to analyze three dimensional movement. Descriptive statistics were suggested for comparing each accuracy of measurement variables of joint motions with the sensor and 3D motions.
Results: The change of electric resistance of the sensor indicated multiple of 30 times from initial value in 50% of elongation and the value of electric resistance were distinctively classified by following 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% of elongation respectively. Through using the sensor and 3D camera to analyze movement variable, it showed a resistance of 99% in a knee joint extension, whereas, it indicated about 80% in flexion phase.
Conclusion: In this research, the stretchable joint motion sensor was created based on silver nanoparticle that has high conductivity. If the sensor stretches, the distance between nanoparticles recede which lead gradual disconnection of an electric circuit and to have increment of electric resistance. Through evaluating angle of knee joints with observation of sensor's electric resistance, it showed similar a result and propensity from 3D motion analysis. However, unstable electric resistance of the stretchable sensor was observed when it stretches to maximum length, or went through numerous joint movements. Therefore, the sensor need complement that requires stability when it comes to measuring motions in any condition.

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6환경조건에 따른 보행 시 낙상 위험 여성 노인과 정상 여성 노인의 생체역학적 변인 비교 연구

저자 : Tae-whan Kim , Dae-hyun Kim , Seok-ki Min , Eun-hyung Cho , Jin-seok Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 189-198 (10 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of biomechanical variables on gait according to indoor and outdoor environmental conditions in elderly women at risk of falling.
Method: 26 elderly women aged 70 years or older, and consisted of 13 elderly people with a walking speed of less 1.0 m/s and 13 people in the fall risk group as normal groups. Depending on the purpose of the study, physical examination and psychological questionnaire were prepared, and then walking was performed in an indoor/outdoor environment, and the gait pattern, muscle activity, and plantar pressure results were compared and analyzed in the elderly females through a 2 group × 2 environment 2-way repeted ANOVA analysis.
Results: The gait variable showed an interaction effect the cadence. The muscle variables showed interaction effects in the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles, and the interaction effects of the plantar pressure variables were confirmed in the forefoot and midfoot of the contact area, and the midfoot of the mean pressure.
Conclusion: These results indicate that both groups are exposed to falls risk when gait in an outdoor environment, but the fall risk group has a higher risk of falls in both the gait pattern, muscle activity, and plantar pressure variables. The results of this study are considered to be helpful as basic data and development of exercise programs to prevent falls.

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7관성센서를 활용한 새로운 품새 경기력 평가 방법 연구

저자 : Young-kwan Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 199-204 (6 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to present a new idea of methodology to evaluate Poomsae performance using inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors in terms of signal processing techniques.
Method: Ten collegian Taekwondo athletes, consisting of five Poomsae elite athletes (age: 21.4 ± 0.9 years, height: 168.4 ± 11.3 cm, weight: 65.0 ± 10.6 kg, experience: 12 ± 0.7 years) and five breaking demonstration athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.0 years, height: 168.4 ± 4.7 cm, weight: 63.8 ± 8.2 kg, experience: 13.0 ± 2.1 years), voluntarily participated in this study. They performed three different black belt Poomsae such as Goryeo, Geumgang, and Taebaek Poomsae repeatedly twice. Repeated measured motion data on the wrist and ankle were calculated by the methods of cosine similarity and Euclidean distance.
Results: The Poomsse athletes showed superior performance in terms of temporal consistency at Goryeo and Taebaek Poomsae, cosine similarity at Geumgang and Taebaek Poomsae, and Euclidian distance at Geumgang Poomsae.
Conclusion: IMU sensor would be a useful tool for monitoring and evaluating within-subject temporal variability of Taekwondo Poomsae motions. As well it distinguished spatiotemporal characteristics among three different Poomsae.

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8달리기 시 인솔의 굽힘 강성 증가에 따른 발목과 중족골 관절의 운동학적 변인 및 관절 협응에 미치는 영향

저자 : Sungmin Kim , Jeheon Moon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 205-213 (9 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze body stability Joint coordination pattern though as bending stiffness of shoes during stance phase of running.
Method: 47 male subjects (Age: 26.33 ± 2.11 years, Height: 177.32 ± 4.31 cm, Weight: 65.8 ± 3.87 kg) participated in this study. All subjects tested wearing the same type of running shoes by classifying bending stiffness (A shoes: 3.2~4.1 N, B shoes: 9.25~10.53 N, C shoes: 20.22~21.59 N). They ran 10 m at 3.3 m/s (SD ±3%) speed, and the speed was monitored by installing a speedometer at 3 m intervals between force plate, and the measured data were analyzed five times. During running, ankle joint, MTP joint, coupling angle, inclination angle (anterior-posterior, medial-lateral) was collected and analyzed. Vector coding methods were used to calculate vector angle of 2 joint couples during running: MTP-Ankle joint frontal plane. All analyses were performed with SPSS 21.0 and for repeated measured ANOVA and Post-hoc was Bonferroni.
Results: Results indicated that there was an interaction between three shoes and phases for MTP (Metatarsalphalangeal) joint angle (p = .045), the phases in the three shoes showed difference with heel strike~ impact peak (p1) (p = .000), impact peak~active peak (p2) (p = .002), from active peak to half the distance to take-off until take-off (p4) (p = .032) except for active peak~from active peak to half the distance to take-off (p3) (p = .155). ML IA (medial-lateral inclination angle) for C shoes was increased than other shoes. The coupling angle of ankle angle and MTP joint showed that there was significantly difference of p2 (p = .005), p4 (p = .045), and the characteristics of C shoes were that single-joint pattern (ankle-phase, MTP-phase) was shown in each phase.
Conclusion: In conclusion, by wearing high bending stiffness shoes, their body instability was increased during running.

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9양발의 위치에 따른 스위스 볼 운동이 뒤넙다리근 근활성도에 미치는 영향

저자 : Yujin Jang , Sukhoon Yoon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 214-219 (6 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in muscle activity of hamstring muscle depending on the position of the feet during Swiss ball hamstring curl exercise.
Method: Total of 15 male participants with no history of hamstring muscle injuries and musculoskeletal disorders in the past 6 months were participated in this study (Age: 29.27 ± 4.96 yrs, Height: 173.47 ± 5.18 cm, Body mass: 75.47 ± 12.50 kg). The muscle activation of semitendinosus and biceps femoris with four different feet positions including neutral stance, internal rotation, external rotation, and wide stance were measured during a Swiss ball hamstring curl exercise. For the analysis, the Swiss ball exercise movement comprised of 3 events (90°→ 0°→ 90°) based on the knee angle and 2 phases relative to the mechanism of muscle contraction (eccentric/concentric contraction). To pursue the study goal, an one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was performed with statistical significance as α = 0.05.
Results: There was no statistically significant feet position effect found during the Swiss ball hamstring curl with eccentric contraction phase (p>.05). It is, however, semitendinosus showed an enhanced muscle activation in concentric contraction phase, displaying the highest muscle activity in wide stance and the lowest in external rotation (p<.05).
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that this exercise can be beneficial in selectively training the semitendinosus. In other words, Swiss ball hamstring curls performed in wide stance strengthens semitendinosus, which improves the stability of knee and are effective in preventing knee injuries and reinforces rehabilitation.

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10가슴압박소생술 시 교육수준에 따른 지면반력 및 압력중심의 차이

저자 : Kihoon Han , Ho-jong Gil , Mi-kyoung Lee , Joonsung Park , Jongbin Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 31권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 220-225 (6 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of education on ground reaction force and center of pressure parameters during chest compression resuscitation.
Method: Twenty male university students were divided into two groups; certified group (CG, n=10) and non-certified group (NCG, n=10). Two force plates were used to measure ground reaction force and center of pressure parameters during 30 times (three trials) chest compression resuscitation. Independent t-tests were used to compare ground reaction force and center of pressure parameters between two groups. An alpha level of 0.05 was used in all tests.
Results: All chest-compression time parameters (total time, 1 systolic time, and diastolic time) in CG were significantly shorter than those in NCG (p<.05). Fy of the diastolic and Fz of the systolic in CG revealed significantly the larger GRF values and Fy of the systolic in CG showed significantly the smaller GRF value (p<.05). The standard deviation of Fz of the systolic and diastolic within the subject during 30 times chestcompression resuscitation revealed significantly the smaller values in CG (p<.05).
Conclusion: First, CG performed chest compressions efficiently at an appropriate rate compared to NCG. Second, CG showed lower Fx and Fy values in both the mediolateral and anteroposterior axes compared to NCG, which reduced unnecessary chest-compression force consumption and minimized the movement in patients with cardiac arrest. Third, CG showed high Fz value of the systolic and low Fz value of the diastolic. Based on this, chest compression resuscitation was performed to increase the survival rate of cardiac arrest patients.

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