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대한금속재료학회> 대한금속재료학회지> 나노구조의 ZrB2-Al2O3 복합재료 합성과 소결

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

나노구조의 ZrB2-Al2O3 복합재료 합성과 소결

Synthesis and Sintering of Nanostructured ZrB2-Al2O3 Composite

손인진 ( In-jin Shon )
  • : 대한금속재료학회
  • : 대한금속재료학회지 59권10호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 10월
  • : 692-697(6pages)
대한금속재료학회지

DOI


목차

1. 서 론
2. 실험 방법
3. 결과 및 고찰
4. 결 론
REFERENCES

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ZrB2 is considered a candidate material for ultra-high temperature ceramics because of its high thermal conductivity, high melting point, and low coefficient of thermal expansion. Despite these attractive properties, ZrB2 applications are limited by its low fracture toughness below the brittle-ductile transition temperature. To improve its ductile properties, the approach universally utilized has been to add a second material to form composites, and to fabricate nanostructured materials. In this study a dense nanostructured ZrB2-Al2O3 composite was rapidly sintered using the pulsed current activated heating (PCAH) method within 3 min in one step, from mechanically synthesized powders of ZrB2 and Al2O3. Consolidation was accomplished using an effective combination of current and mechanical pressure. A highly dense ZrB2- Al2O3 composite with a relative density of up to 97.4% was fabricated using the simultaneous application of 70 MPa pressure and a pulsed current. The fracture toughness and hardness of the ZrB2-Al2O3 composite were 3.9 MPa.m1/2 and 1917 kg/㎟, respectively. The fracture toughness of the composite was higher than that of monolithic ZrB2.
(Received May 7 2021; Accepted July 20, 2021)

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 공학분야  > 금속공학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCI,SCOPUS
  • : 월간
  • : 1738-8228
  • : 2288-8241
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1963-2021
  • : 6961


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59권11호(2021년 11월) 수록논문
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KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

1영구자석 재료의 개발현황 및 향후 발전방향

저자 : 최철진 ( Chul-jin Choi ) , 박지훈 ( Jihoon Park ) , 임정태 ( Jung Tae Lim ) , 김종우 ( Jong-woo Kim )

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 761-768 (8 pages)

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Permanent magnetic materials are essential for converting mechanical and electric energy, and are needed in electric vehicles, electronics, wind turbines, and etc. However, high performance rare-earth element based magnets have many limitations, including critical materials problems and the degradation of magnetic properties at elevated temperatures. There has been increasing international demand to solve these problems, and to develop new magnets with reduced rare earth materials, or free magnets based on metallic alloys. This paper describes current research trends, and state of art and future research directions for next generation permanent magnetic materials, to accelerate their research and rapid industrialization.
(Received July 26 2021; Accepted August 19, 2021)

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

21.25Cr-0.5Mo과 2.25Cr-1Mo 강의 동적 변형시효 거동에 미치는 합금원소 및 미세조직의 영향

저자 : 이요섭 ( Yo Seob Lee ) , 이호중 ( Ho Jung Lee ) , 이종현 ( Jong Hyeon Lee )

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 769-780 (12 pages)

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The effect of alloying elements and microstructure on the dynamic strain aging (DSA) behavior of 1.25Cr-0.5Mo (P11, ASTM 335Gr.P11) and 2.25Cr-1Mo (P22, ASTM 335Gr.P22) steels was investigated. For both steels, different cooling conditions such as air-cooling (AC) and oil-quenching (OQ) were applied. Tensile tests were conducted in the temperature range of 20-450 ℃ and a strain rate in the range of 6 × 10-5- 6 × 10-3 s-1 for the steels with different cooling conditions. The P11AC steel showed serration behavior over a wider temperature range and exhibited higher ultimate tensile strength (UTS) than for the P22AC steel. This is attributed to the effects of alloying elements (Cr, Mo and Si) due to dissolved C, and the ferrite fraction on mechanical behavior. Meanwhile, the P11AC and P11OQ steels also showed different behaviors for DSA starting temperature, DSA temperature range, and serration type. The AC condition showed higher UTS from the interaction solid solution hardening (ISSH) effect due to substitutional Cr, Mo, and interstitial C elements. The calculated activation energy value (Q) for the P11 steel was around 94-103 kJ/mol-1, similar to that of ferritic steels, and it was higher for the P22 steel, with a Q value of 233 kJ/mol-1 from the ISSH effect.
(Received July 21, 2021; Accepted August 23, 2021)

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

3Effect of Cooling Rate on The Microstructure And Cryogenic Impact Toughness of HAZ in 9% Ni Steel

저자 : Hae Won Eom , Joo Yeon Won , Sang Yong Shin

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 781-795 (15 pages)

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The effects of cooling rate on the microstructure and cryogenic impact toughness of coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) and inter-critically reheated coarse-grained HAZ (IC CGHAZ) in 9% Ni steel were investigated. CGHAZ and IC CGHAZ specimens were prepared from 9% Ni steel by controlling the cooling rate of the simulated welding process. The microstructure of the CGHAZ specimens consisted of auto-tempered martensite and lath martensite. As the cooling rate increased, the volume fraction of the auto-tempered martensite and the effective grain size decreased. A large amount of fine carbides was distributed inside the auto-tempered martensite, the dislocation density was low, and high angle grain boundaries were not observed. The microstructure of the IC CGHAZ specimens consisted of tempered martensite and lath martensite. As the cooling rate increased, the volume fraction of the tempered martensite and effective grain size decreased. Finer carbides were distributed inside the tempered martensite than in the auto-tempered martensite, the dislocation density was low, and high angle grain boundaries were not observed. Cryogenic fracture revealed that ductile fracture occurred in the auto-tempered martensite and tempered martensite, and brittle fracture occurred in the lath martensite. The crack propagation path was zig-zag in the high angle grain boundaries of the lath martensite. The volume fraction of auto-tempered martensite and tempered martensite and the effective grain size in the HAZ specimens had a significant effect on cryogenic impact toughness. In the IC CGHAZ specimens, cryogenic impact toughness decreased and then became constant as the cooling rate increased, due to a decrease in the volume fraction of the tempered martensite and effective grain size.
(Received July 14 2021; Accepted August 13, 2021)

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

4Effect of Joule-Heating Treatment on the Microstructure and Physical Properties of 16-Stranded Compressed Copper Wires

저자 : Jin-ju Choi , Byoungyong Im , Yubin Kang , Dae-geun Kim

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 796-801 (6 pages)

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Compressed wires are produced by cross-sectionally compressing stranded conductors, which results in a smaller conductor diameter. This also leads to a lower weight wire, because a thinner external insulated coating can be used, compared to the low-voltage wires typically used in automobiles. However, a post production heat treatment of the compressed wires is required because plastic deformation occurs during compression after drawing the wires. In this study, the work hardening of stranded compressed copper wires was controlled by Joule-heating, and the resulting changes in microstructure, mechanical, and electrical properties after various annealing voltages (0, 25, 27, 31, 35, and 39 V) were observed. The results confirmed that as the annealing voltage increased from 0 to 31 V, the anisotropic deformation texture with a <111> orientation as the main component was reduced, and micrograins were generated throughout the stranded wires via recrystallization. At an annealing voltage above 31 V, the grains grew to be more than twice as large as those before heat treatment. At an annealing voltage of 31 V these structural changes contribute to the elongation increase of the compressed wires to 28.34%, and an improvement in electrical resistance to 145.85 mΩ.
(Received July 7 2021; Accepted August 23, 2021)

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

5Nano Silicon Composite with Gelatin/Melamine Derived N-doped Carbon as an Efficient Anode Material for Li-ion Batteries

저자 : Venugopal Nulu

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 802-812 (11 pages)

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Silicon (Si) has a high theoretical capacity and low working potential vs. Li/Li+, and has been investigated as the most capable negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, Si undergoes significant volume changes during the Li+ alloying/ dealloying processes, leading to unstable cycle life and limiting its practical applicability in anodes. Introducing carbon into the Si anodes can effectively address the Si drawbacks, while providing advantages of improved conductivity and structural stability. In this study we choose gelatin/ melamine combination as an eco-friendly and cost-effective source for nitrogen-doped carbon to make a Si composite. The prepared composite was studied as an anode material for LIBs, and it delivered excellent cyclability with 2175 mAh g-1 capacity after 50 cycles with 86% capacity retention at 200 mA g-1. The composite exhibited superior rate capability and improved Li+ diffusion properties compared with bare Si nanoparticles (Si NP). The significant enhancement could be attributed to the structural stability and conductivity provided by the nitrogen-doped carbon matrix. This work promotes emerging batteries with low-cost materials as a promising solution for increasing energy storage requirements.
(Received June 29, 2021; Accepted August 20, 2021)

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

6높은 전류밀도에서 리튬이온배터리의 사이클 성능 향상을 위한 세라믹 코팅 분리막 연구

저자 : 조규상 ( Kyusang Cho ) , 찬드란발라무루간 ( Chandran Balamurugan ) , 임하나 ( Hana Im ) , 김형진 ( Hyeong-jin Kim )

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 813-820 (8 pages)

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Given the global demand for green energy, the battery industry is positioned to be an important future technology. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), which are the most widely used battery in the market, are the focus of various research and development efforts, from materials to systems, that seek to improve their performance. The separator is one of the core materials in LIBs and is a significant factor in the lifespan of high-performance batteries. To improve the performance of present LIBs, electrochemical testing and related surface analyses of the separator is essential. In this paper, we prepared a ceramic (Boehmite, γ-AlOOH) coated polypropylene separator and a porous polyimide separator to compare their electrochemical properties with a commercialized polypropylene (PP) separator. The prepared separators were assembled into nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) cathode half-cell and full-cell lithium-ion batteries. Their cycling performances were evaluated using differential capacity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with ethylene carbonate:dimethylcarbonate (EC:DMC) electrolyte. The ceramic coated polypropylene separator exhibited the best cycle performance at a high 5 C rate, with high ionic conductivity and less resistive solid electrolyte interphase. Also, it was confirmed that a separator solid electrolyte interface (SSEI) layer formed on the separator with cycle repetition, and it was also confirmed that this phenomenon determined the cycle life of the battery depending on the electrolyte.
(Received July 13, 2021; Accepted August 20, 2021)

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

7Electrochemical Corrosion Resistance and Electrical Conductivity of Three-Dimensionally Interconnected Graphene-Reinforced Cu Composites

저자 : Xue Li , Ateeq Ahmed , Byung-sang Choi

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 821-828 (8 pages)

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A three-dimensionally interconnected graphene-reinforced Cu (3Di Gr-Cu) composite was synthesized using a simple two-step process technique which involves the mechanical compaction of micron-sized Cu particles followed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at 995 ℃. The microstructural properties of pure Cu and the 3Di Gr-Cu composite were investigated by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray diffractometer. The electrical and corrosion behaviors of the 3Di Gr-Cu composite and Cu only, prepared by powder metallurgy (PM Cu), were studied and compared. The electrical conductivity (EC) of the 3Di Gr-Cu composites was found to be 38.8 MSm-1 at a carbon content of 73 ppm, and exhibited a 12% higher EC than the PM Cu. Due to the interconnected graphene around the Cu grains, the corrosion current density and corrosion rate of the 3Di Gr-Cu composite decreased by 29% and 40%, respectively, compared to the PM Cu. The EC of the 3Di Gr-Cu composite depended on the carbon content. The improvement in the EC of the 3Di Gr-Cu composite is attributed to the electron-carrying ability of the three-dimensionally interconnected graphene network (3DIGN) formed at the grain boundaries in the composite. The enhancement in corrosion resistance is due to the impermeability of graphene to various chemical species.
(Received May 17, 2021; Accepted August 11, 2021)

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

8기계학습에 의한 Al-Si 주조 합금 미세조직 이미지 생성

저자 : 황인규 ( In-kyu Hwang ) , 이현지 ( Hyun-ji Lee ) , 정상준 ( Sang-jun Jeong ) , 조인성 ( In-sung Cho ) , 김희수 ( Hee-soo Kim )

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 828-837 (10 pages)

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In this study, we constructed a deep convolutional generative adversarial network (DCGAN) to generate the microstructural images that imitate the real microstructures of binary Al-Si cast alloys. We prepared four combinations of alloys, Al-6wt%Si, Al-9wt%Si, Al-12wt%Si and Al-15wt%Si for machine learning. DCGAN is composed of a generator and a discriminator. The discriminator has a typical convolutional neural network (CNN), and the generator has an inverse shaped CNN. The fake images generated using DCGAN were similar to real microstructural images. However, they showed some strange morphology, including dendrites without directionality, and deformed Si crystals. Verification with Inception V3 revealed that the fake images generated using DCGAN were well classified into the target categories. Even the visually imperfect images in the initial training iterations showed high similarity to the target. It seems that the imperfect images had enough microstructural characteristics to satisfy the classification, even though human cannot recognize the images. Cross validation was carried out using real, fake and other test images. When the training dataset had the fake images only, the real and test images showed high similarities to the target categories. When the training dataset contained both the real and fake images, the similarity at the target categories were high enough to meet the right answers. We concluded that the DCGAN developed for microstructural images in this study is highly useful for data augmentation for rare microstructures.
(Received July 22, 2021; Accepted August 24, 2021)

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

9매트랩/시뮬링크 simulation model을 이용한 열전 모듈의 효율 예측

저자 : 이나영 ( Nayoung Lee ) , 예성욱 ( Sungwook Ye ) , Rahman Jamil Ur , 탁장렬 ( Jang-yeul Tak ) , 조중영 ( Jung Young Cho ) , 서원선 ( Won Seon Seo ) , 신원호 ( Weon Ho Shin ) , Walter Commerell , 남우현 ( Woo Hyun Nam ) , 노종욱 ( Jong Wook Roh )

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 829-837 (9 pages)

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Development new high-performance thermoelectric materials for more efficient power generation systems and eco-friendly refrigerating systems has been challenging. Over the past few decades, thermoelectric studies have been focused on increasing the thermoelectric properties of materials. However, for conventional applications, developing of thermoelectric devices or modules with lower cost and simpler fabrication processes is also important. Simulation models that can predict the thermoelectric efficiency of modules using the thermoelectric properties of materials are needed for this purpose. In this study, we developed a simple model for calculating the efficiency of thermoelectric modules using MATLAB/Simulink. In this model, the temperature difference between the hot source and heat sink was fixed to ensure the precise comparisons of thermoelectric efficiency. The electric resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of thermoelectric materials was used in order to predict the efficiency of the thermoelectric modules. Then, the efficiency of the thermoelectric modules was verified using measured values which had been reported in prior experimental works. In this study, the simulated values were higher than the real thermoelectric effiency values. To address this, the simulations should consider the thermal resistance or electric contact resistance between the thermoelectric materials and electrodes.
(Received July 16, 2021; Accepted August 24, 2021)

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KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

1저온 템퍼링을 이용한 1.2 GPa급 페라이트계 경량철강 개발

저자 : 배효주 ( Hyo Ju Bae ) , 고광규 ( Kwang Kyu Ko ) , 박형석 ( Hyoung Seok Park ) , 정재석 ( Jae Seok Jeong ) , 김정기 ( Jung Gi Kim ) , 성효경 ( Hyokyung Sung ) , 설재복 ( Jae Bok Seol )

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 683-691 (9 pages)

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Previously reported low-Mn ferritic-based lightweight steels are potential candidates for industrial applications, however, they typically exhibit lower strength, with < 1 GPa and lower strength-ductility balance, than medium- and high-Mn austenitic lightweight steels. Herein, we introduce a low-temperature tempering-induced partitioning (LTP) treatment that avoids the strength-ductility dilemma of low-Mn ferritic-based steels. When the LTP process was performed at 330 ℃ for 665 s, the strength of typical ferritic base Fe-2.8Mn5.7Al0.3C (wt%) steel with heterogeneously sized metastable austenite grains embedded in a ferrite matrix, exceeded 1.1 GPa. Notably, the increased strength-ductility balance of the LTP-processed ferritic steel was comparable to that of the high-Mn based austenitic lightweight steel series. Using microscale to nearatomic scale characterization we found that the simultaneous improvement in strength and total elongation could be attributed to size-dependent dislocation movement, and controlled deformation-induced martensitic transformation.
(Received May 14 2021; Accepted July 5, 2021)

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

2나노구조의 ZrB2-Al2O3 복합재료 합성과 소결

저자 : 손인진 ( In-jin Shon )

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 692-697 (6 pages)

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ZrB2 is considered a candidate material for ultra-high temperature ceramics because of its high thermal conductivity, high melting point, and low coefficient of thermal expansion. Despite these attractive properties, ZrB2 applications are limited by its low fracture toughness below the brittle-ductile transition temperature. To improve its ductile properties, the approach universally utilized has been to add a second material to form composites, and to fabricate nanostructured materials. In this study a dense nanostructured ZrB2-Al2O3 composite was rapidly sintered using the pulsed current activated heating (PCAH) method within 3 min in one step, from mechanically synthesized powders of ZrB2 and Al2O3. Consolidation was accomplished using an effective combination of current and mechanical pressure. A highly dense ZrB2- Al2O3 composite with a relative density of up to 97.4% was fabricated using the simultaneous application of 70 MPa pressure and a pulsed current. The fracture toughness and hardness of the ZrB2-Al2O3 composite were 3.9 MPa.m1/2 and 1917 kg/㎟, respectively. The fracture toughness of the composite was higher than that of monolithic ZrB2.
(Received May 7 2021; Accepted July 20, 2021)

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

3ERNiFeCr-2 용가재 적용에 따른 CM247LC 초내열합금 용접부 응고균열 민감도 변화 거동

저자 : 김경민 ( Kyeong-min Kim ) , 정혜은 ( Hye-eun Jeong ) , 정예선 ( Ye-seon Jeong ) , 이의종 ( Uijong Lee ) , 이형수 ( Hyungsoo Lee ) , 서성문 ( Seong-moon Seo ) , 천은준 ( Eun-joon Chun )

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 698-708 (11 pages)

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The metallurgical aspects of weld solidification cracking in Ni-based superalloys (with Ti+Al > 5 mass%) have not been widely investigated thus far. Herein, the solidification cracking susceptibility of the CM247LC superalloy and its welds with ERNiFeCr-2 filler wire was quantitatively evaluated using a novel modified Varestraint testing method, for the successful manufacturing of CM247LC superalloy gas turbine blades. It was found that the solidification brittle temperature range (BTR) of the CM247LC superalloy was 400 K. This measurement was obtained with a high-speed thermo-vision camera. The BTR increased to 486 K for the CM247LC/ERNiFeCr-2 welds (dilution ratio: 74%). Theoretical calculations (i.e., the Scheil equation, performed using Thermo-Calc software) were conducted to determine the temperature range in which both solid and liquid phases coexist, together with the microstructural characterization of the solidification cracking surfaces. The greater increase in BTR for the CM247LC/ERNiFeCr-2 welds than that for CM247LC was attributed to the enlargement of the solid-liquid coexistence temperature range. This correlated with the formation of a low-temperature Laves phase during the terminal stage of solidification, and was affected by the diluted Nb and Fe components in the ERNiFeCr-2 filler metal. Based on the experimental and theoretical results, the proposed modified Varestraint testing method for dissimilar welds is expected to be an effective testing process for solidification cracking behavior in the manufacturing of high-soundness CM247LC superalloy welds.
(Received June 24 2021; Accepted July 16, 2021)

KCI등재SCISCOUPUS

4수소 분위기에서 Mg와 VCl3의 밀링에 의한 Mg의 수소 흡수 방출 특성의 향상

저자 : 송명엽 ( Myoung Youp Song ) , 이성호 ( Seong Ho Lee ) , 곽영준 ( Young Jun Kwak )

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 709-717 (9 pages)

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VCl3 (vanadium (III) chloride) was selected as an additive to Mg to increase the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation rates and the hydrogen storage capacity of Mg. Instead of MgH2, Mg was used as a starting material since Mg is cheaper than MgH2. Samples with a composition of 95 wt% Mg + 5 wt% VCl3 (named Mg-5VCl3) were prepared by milling in hydrogen atmosphere (reactive milling). In the first cycle (n=1), Mg-5VCl3 absorbed 5.38 wt% H for 5 min and 5.95 wt% H for 60 min at 573 K in 12 bar hydrogen. The activation of Mg-5VCl3 was completed after three hydrogenation-dehydrogenation cycles. During milling in hydrogen, β-MgH2 and γ-MgH2 were produced. The formed β-MgH2 and γ-MgH2 are considered to have made the effects of reactive milling stronger as β-MgH2 and γ-MgH2 themselves were being pulverized. The introduced defects and the interfaces between the Mg and the phases formed during the reactive milling and during hydrogenation-dehydrogenation cycling are believed to serve as heterogeneous active nucleation sites for MgH2 and Mg-H solid solution. The phases generated during hydrogenation-dehydrognation cycling are also believed to prevent the particles from coalescing during hydrogenation-dehydrognation cycling.
(Received June 13 2021; Accepted July 28, 2021)

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5RF sputtering으로 증착된 ZnO 박막을 전자 수송층으로 사용한 양자점 발광 다이오드에 관한 연구

저자 : 강명석 ( Myoungsuk Kang ) , 김지완 ( Jiwan Kim )

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 718-723 (6 pages)

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We report a highly efficient quantum dot light emitting diode (QLEDs) with a radio frequency (RF) sputtered ZnO thin film as an electron transport layer (ETL) instead of the conventional ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by solution process. ZnO NPs have been used as a key material to improve the performance of QLEDs, but the charge imbalance in ZnO NPs resulting from fast electron injection, and their limited uniformity are significant disadvantages. In this study, ZnO layers were deposited by RF sputtering with various O2 partial pressures. All of the ZnO films showed preferential growth along the (002) direction, smooth morphology, and good optical transmittance. To test their feasibility for QLEDs, we fabricated devices with RF sputtered ZnO layers as an ETL, which has the inverted structure of ITO/RF sputtered ZnO/QDs/CBP/MoO3/Al. The optical/electrical characteristics of two devices, comprised of RF sputtered ZnO and ZnO NPs, were compared with each other. QLEDs with the sputtered ZnO ETL achieved a current efficiency of 11.32 cd/A, which was higher than the 8.23 cd/A of the QLEDs with ZnO NPs ETL. Next, to find the optimum ZnO thin film for highly efficient QLEDs, deposition conditions with various O2 partial pressures were tested, and device performance was investigated. The maximum current efficiency was 13.33 cd/A when the ratio of Ar/O2 was 4:3. Additional oxygen gas reduced the O vacancies in the ZnO thin film, which resulted in a decrease in electrical conductivity, thereby improving charge balance in the emission layer of the QLEDs. As a result, we provide a way to control the ZnO ETL properties and to improve device performance by controlling O2 partial pressure.
(Received June 14 2021; Accepted July 9, 2021)

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6Charge Transport and Thermoelectric Properties of Sn-Doped Tetrahedrites Cu12Sb4-ySnyS13

저자 : Hee-jae Ahn , Il-ho Kim

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 724-731 (8 pages)

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In this study, tetrahedrite compounds doped with Sn were prepared by mechanical alloying and hot pressing, and their charge transport and thermoelectric properties were analyzed. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both the synthetic powders and sintered bodies were synthesized as a single tetrahedrite phase without secondary phases. Densely sintered specimens were obtained with relatively high densities of 99.5%-100.0% of the theoretical density, and the component elements were distributed uniformly. Sn was successfully substituted at the Sb site, and the lattice constant increased from 1.0348 to 1.0364 nm. Positive signs of the Hall and Seebeck coefficients confirmed that the Sn-doped tetrahedrites were p-type semiconductors. The carrier concentration decreased from 1.28 × 1019 to 1.57 × 1018 cm-3 as the Sn content decreased because excess electrons were supplied by doping with Sn4+ at the Sb3+ site of the tetrahedrite. The Seebeck coefficient increased with increasing Sn content, and Cu12Sb3.6Sn0.4S13 exhibited maximum values of 238-270 μVK-1 at temperatures of 323-723 K. However, the electrical conductivity decreased as the amount of Sn doping increased. Thus, Cu12Sb3.9Sn0.1S13 exhibited the highest electrical conductivity of (2.24-2.40) × 104 Sm-1 at temperatures of 323-723 K. A maximum power factor of 0.73 mWm-1K-2 was achieved at 723 K for Cu12Sb3.9Sn0.1S13. Sn substitution reduced both the electronic and lattice thermal conductivities. The lowest thermal conductivity of 0.49-0.60Wm-1K-1 was obtained at temperatures of 323-723 K for Cu12Sb3.6Sn0.4S13, where the lattice thermal conductivity was dominant at 0.49-0.57 Wm-1K-1. As a result, a maximum dimensionless figure of merit of 0.66 was achieved at 723 K for Cu12Sb3.9Sn0.1S13.
(Received July 12, 2021; Accepted July 28, 2021)

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7Glycothermally Synthesized Self-aggregated ZnS Spherical Particles for Methyl Orange Photodecomposition

저자 : Sang-jun Park , Jeong-hwan Song

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 732-740 (9 pages)

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Using ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) as the solvent, ZnS particles were synthesized in high yield at a relatively low temperature of 125 ℃ via the glycothermal method. We report a facile method for preparing spherical self-aggregated ZnS particles from ZnS nanocrystals, using zinc acetate as the Zn2+ source and thiourea as a sulfur source, without mineralization or other agents. The crystal phase structure, morphology, size, surface chemical composition, and optical properties of the self-aggregated ZnS particles were characterized using XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, XPS, BET, and UV-Vis absorption. The ZnS particles had a cubic phase zinc blende structure without any other impurities. The average crystallite size of the synthesized primary nanocrystal, estimated from XRD peak width and TEM images, was nearly 4 nm. FE-SEM images showed that all of the ZnS consisted of self-aggregated particles with a spherical morphology and a size of approximately 0.2 μm~0.5 μm, and contained many tiny primary nanocrystals. The prepared ZnS exhibited strong photoabsorption in the UV region. The optical band gap decreased from 3.85 eV to 3.62 eV as the glycothermal reaction temperature was increased, due to improvement in particle size and crystallization. The effects of the glycothermal reaction temperature on the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized self-aggregated ZnS particles were investigated by the photodecomposition of methyl orange (MO) dye under UV illumination (λ = 365 nm). The prepared ZnS exhibited excellent photocatalytic degradation with increasing reaction temperature, of 125 ℃ (5%), 150 ℃ (10%), 175 ℃ (60%), and 200 ℃ (90%) after irradiation for 60 min. It was found that the ZnS particle prepared at 200 ℃ achieved the highest photocatalytic degradation, with nearly 100% MO decomposition after 90 min, by various photogenerated radical scavengers.
(Received June 9 2021; Accepted July 6, 2021)

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8고분자 전해질 연료전지의 산소환원반응에 대한 Pt-M 합금 촉매의 최근 연구 동향

저자 : 심유진 ( Yu-jin Shim ) , 정원석 ( Won Suk Jung )

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 741-752 (12 pages)

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Due to environmental pollution and global warming, research on new energy sources that can replace fossil fuels is important. A fuel cell is an eco-friendly energy conversion system that discharges water, and uses hydrogen as fuel. Although platinum is a widely used catalyst in PEMFCs, it has commercial limitations because of its low stability and high cost. Pt-based bimetal catalysts are being studied to improve performance and reduce the cost of fuel cell catalysts. Pt-M is excellent in terms of performance, stability, and cost, avoiding the disadvantages of the Pt catalyst. Studies on various bimetallic catalysts have been conducted, and among them, studies on Pt-Ni, Pt-Co, and Pt-Fe have been the most active. This review summarizes reports of fuel cell catalysts using Pt-M from 2014 to 2020. In recent studies, in order to improve the Pt-M performance, there have been attempts to change the pretreatment, the type of support, and the composition of Pt and M. There have also been studies that have applied new synthetic methods, which are different from traditional synthetic methods. Many Pt-M catalysts have shown better performance than commercial Pt/C, and exhibited stable performance in durability tests.
(Received May 29 2021; Accepted July 7, 2021)

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9질소 5N 가스 분위기에서 다공질 ZrFe 합금의 산화 안정화

저자 : 김광배 ( Kwangbae Kim ) , 진새라 ( Saera Jin ) , 임예솔 ( Yesol Lim ) , 이현준 ( Hyunjun Lee ) , 김성훈 ( Seonghoon Kim ) , 노윤영 ( Yunyoung Noh ) , 송오성 ( Ohsung Song )

발행기관 : 대한금속재료학회 간행물 : 대한금속재료학회지 59권 10호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 753-759 (7 pages)

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A porous ZrFe alloy specimen was prepared as a 6 × 3 mm (diameter × thickness) disk. The reaction of the ZrFe alloy was confirmed while the whole system was maintained at a target temperature, which was increased from 150 ℃ to 950 ℃ in a 99.999% low purity nitrogen atmosphere, consisting of 10 ppm of impurity gas. Surface color, pore size, stabilized layer, and phase change were confirmed with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Micro-Raman, according to temperature. The surface color of the ZrFe alloy changed from metallic silver to dark gray as the temperature increased. In the EDS and XPS results, nitrogen component was not observed, and oxygen content increased on each surface at the elevated temperatures. In this way, the ZrFe alloy was stabilized in a low purity nitrogen atmosphere, preventing rapid nitride reactions.
(Received June 1 2021; Accepted July 16, 2021)

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