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한국운동생리학회> 운동과학> 지구성 운동과 MitoQ 섭취가 Alcl3로 유도된 알츠하이머 질환 동물 모델의 Tau 과인산화, 산화스트레스, 항산화 조절 요인, 미토콘드리아 기능 및 인지기능에 미치는 영향

KCI등재SCOUPUS

지구성 운동과 MitoQ 섭취가 Alcl3로 유도된 알츠하이머 질환 동물 모델의 Tau 과인산화, 산화스트레스, 항산화 조절 요인, 미토콘드리아 기능 및 인지기능에 미치는 영향

Effect of Endurance Exercise and MitoQ Intake on Tau Hyperphosphorylation, Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Modulating Factors, Mitochondrial Function, and Cognitive Function in Alcl3-Induced Alzheimer’s Disease Animal Model

정진희 ( Jin-Hue Jeong ) , 최동훈 ( Dong-hun Choi ) , 이정국 ( Jeong-Kook Lee ) , 조준용 ( Joon-yong Cho )
  • : 한국운동생리학회
  • : 운동과학 30권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 08월
  • : 396-406(11pages)
운동과학

DOI


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서 론
연구 방법
연구 결과
논 의
결 론
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
ORCID
REFERENCES

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of endurance exercise and MitoQ intake on tau hyperphosphorylation, oxidative stress, antioxidant modulating factors, mitochondrial function, and cognitive function in an AlCl3-induced Alzheimer’s disease animal model.
METHODS: For the experimental animals, 40 mg/kg of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) was diluted with physiological saline for 60 days and intraperitoneally injected to create an Alzheimer’s disease animal model. In addition, endurance exercise was performed at a speed of 12 m/min using a treadmill for laboratory animals for 8 weeks, and MitoQ was applied with a 100 μm concentration of negative water. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: a saline control group (NC, n=6), an AlCl3 injection group (AC, n=6), an AlCl3 injection and treadmill exercise group (AE, n=6), an AlCl3 injection and MitoQ group (AM, n=6), and an AlCl3 injection and treadmill exercise and MitoQ intake group (AEM, n=6). The SPSS program was used for statistical analyses. Differences between the groups in each variable were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA.
RESULTS: Endurance exercise and MitoQ intake for 8 weeks showed positive results in cognitive function and decreased tau hyper-phosphorylation in the animal model with Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, they reduced oxidative stress (4-HNE, MDA) and had a positive effect on antioxidant indicators (catalase, SOD-1, SOD-2). Finally, they exhibited a positive effect on factors related to mitochondrial function (PGC-1, Tfam).
CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of endurance exercise and MitoQ intake are thought to have a positive effect in alleviating Alzheimer’s disease in terms of improving cognitive function through AlCl3 accumulation, tau hyperphosphorylation, oxidative stress, antioxidant modulating factors, and mitochondrial function.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-600-000764421

간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-1726
  • : 2384-0544
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2022
  • : 1103


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1Letter to the Editor at Exercise Science

저자 : Song-young Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 157-158 (2 pages)

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2The Association between Maternal Folate Status and Childhood Obesity-Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

저자 : Junechul Kim , Bo-eun Yoon , Jinho Park , Eun Hye Kwon , Kyungun Kim , Sukho Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 159-167 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: Maternal nutrition plays a crucial role in fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes. Folate is an essential methyl donor in the epigenetic programming of offspring. This review and meta-analysis was conducted to compile the evidence reported thus far to identify associations between maternal folate status and childhood obesity.
METHODS: A keyword/reference search was performed in EBSCOhost and Web of Science databases. A CMA program was used for a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled effect of maternal folate status on childhood obesity in offspring and to examine the influence of moderating variables on the overall effect.
RESULTS: Better maternal folate intake was associated with a lower risk of childhood obesity: the overall effect size (ES; Hedges' g) was 0.168 (95% CI=0.075 to 0.260, p<.001; small effects; cf., Cohen's criteria). Moderator analysis revealed that the ≥Q statistic for the age group was statistically significant (Qb=4.730, df=1. p=.030; heterogeneity of ES). In offspring < 7 years and >7 years, the ES was 0.277 (95% CI=0.151, 0.404) and 0.089 (95% CI=-0.025, 0.202), respectively. The study design was a statistically significant variable (Qb=4.310, df=1. p=.038; heterogeneity of ES). In cohort studies, ES was 0.251 (95% CI=0.135, 0.367), whereas in randomized controlled trial group, ES was 0.062 (95% CI=-0.073, 0.197).
CONCLUSIONS: Maternal folate intake significantly affects childhood obesity, and the effect of maternal folate status is stronger in children younger than 7 years.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

3Creatine Kinase and Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzymes Response to Lactate Tolerance Exercise Test

저자 : Karamatollah Rahmanian , Farhang Hooshmand , Masihollah Shakeri , Vahid Rahmanian , Fatemeh Sotoodeh Jahromi , Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 168-172 (5 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess alterations in serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels after performing a lactate tolerance exercise test (LTET) in elite male swimmers.
METHODS: Fourteen male adolescent swimmers participated in this study. All subjects performed LTET (8×100-meter swimming) with a 1-minute recovery interval between eight trainings. Plasma CK and LDH (markers of muscle damage) levels were measured 30 minute before and 24 hours after the test. A paired t-test was used for statistical analysis of data.
RESULTS: Plasma CK and LDH levels increased immediately after LTET as compared to the values 30 minutes prior to exercise (188.91±34.04 vs. 148.83±29.63 mg/dL, p=.029; 318.17±53.89 vs. 272.08±52.93 mg/dL, p=.010, respectively). Both CK and LDH levels displayed a decreasing trend 24 hours post-LTET; however, there was no significant difference immediately after the test.
CONCLUSIONS: Plasma CK and LDH levels increased following LTET, which is representative of muscle damage.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

4영양 건강 위험과 신체활동이 우울 증상에 미치는 영향

저자 : 권지혜 ( Jihye Gwon ) , 신지호 ( Jiho Shin ) , 강현식 ( Hyunsik Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 173-180 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study examined the combined effects of nutritional health risk and physical activity on depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults aged 65 years and older (4,116 men and 5,154 women) from the 2020 Korea Longitudinal Study of Aging.
METHODS: Nutritional health risk was categorized as good, moderate, and high according to the Nutrition Screening Initiative. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Short Form of Geriatric Depression Scale (SGDS).
RESULTS: There were significant age differences (p<.001), education level (p<.001), marital status (p<.001), and SDGS (p<.001) according to nutritional health risk or physical activity status. In particular, a general linear model (GLM) showed a significant interaction (R2=.239, F(2,9849)=5.582, p<.004) between nutritional health risk and physical activity on SGDS-based depressive symptoms. The antidepressant effect of regular physical activity was observed in individuals with good or moderate nutritional health risks. However, such beneficial effects of physical activity were not observed in individuals with high nutritional health risks.
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings of this study suggest that both good nutrition and physical activity for mental health should be emphasized in older adults, with a greater focus on nutrition for those with a high nutritional health risk.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

5Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Respiration and Balance in Patients with Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

저자 : Kwang-bin An , Hye-joo Jeon , Woo-nam Chang

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 181-187 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: Respiratory function can be adversely affected after a cerebrovascular accident. This study aimed to determine whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) changes the respiration and balance abilities of patients with stroke.
METHODS: Twelve patients with stroke were randomly assigned to the study (n=6) and control (n=6) groups. The study and control groups received IMT and general physical therapy, respectively for 6 weeks, five times a week for 30 min/day. Inspiratory and expiratory functions and balance were measured pre- and post-evaluation.
RESULTS: After IMT intervention, the weight distribution ratio (WDR) for balance ability measurement was significantly decreased (p<.05), and the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum inspiratory flow rate (MIFR), maximum inspiratory capacity (MIC), peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and limits of stability (LOS) were significantly increased in the study group (p<.05). A comparison of the study and control groups revealed statistically significant differences in MIP (p<0.01), MIFR (p<.01), MIC (p<.05), PEF (p<.05), FEV1 (p<.05), WDR (p<.01), and LOS (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that IMT is a useful and effective exercise intervention for patients with stroke.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

6Effects of 4 Weeks of Beta-Alanine Intake on Inflammatory Cytokines after 10 km Long Distance Running Exercise

저자 : Su-yeon Jin , Hwang-woon Moon , Jun-su Kim , Ha-young Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 188-196 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the immunological effects of β-alanine intake for 4 weeks on immune function changes after long-distance exercise and the possibility of β-alanine intake as an effective exercise supplement to improve exercise performance and maintain immune function.
METHODS: Eighteen male college students were randomly assigned to two groups, one with two capsules of 250 mg β-alanine and the other with placebo without a nutritional effect. The participants took one capsule each in the morning and evening after the meals. This study was conducted in a double-blinded manner. To analyze the inflammatory cytokines expressed during exercise, a 10 km long-running exercise was performed, and blood was collected from the forearm vein a total of 4 times (at rest, immediately after exercise, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes in recovery).
RESULTS: As a result of analyzing the level of inflammatory cytokine IL-6, compared to the placebo group, the β-alanine intake group decreased significantly to 60 minutes after recovery from long-distance aerobic exercise, and both groups showed a significant difference between both periods (p<.001). However, there was no significant difference between the groups based on the measurement period before and after intake. As a result of analyzing the level of TNF-β, the expression of TNF-β in the placebo group was significantly decreased from immediately after long-distance aerobic exercise to 60 minutes after recovery, but in the β-alanine group, TNF-β expression did not occur immediately after exercise, and there was no significant difference until the recovery period; thus, there was no statistically significant difference between the two periods. In addition, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the measurement period before and after intake.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the above results, β-alanine intake for 4 weeks is thought to be effective in maintaining temporarily reduced immune function after long-distance exercise by reducing the level of inflammatory cytokines in the study participants.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

7The Effects of External Vibration on Coordination Strategies of Multi-Muscles during Voluntary Isometric Torque Production

저자 : Jiseop Lee , Junkyung Song , Jaebum Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 197-206 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of muscle vibration on performance accuracy and multi-muscle coordination pattern during voluntary isometric knee extension torque production.
METHODS: The subjects were tested under two conditions of external vibration frequencies (90 Hz vibration (VIB)&no-vibration (NVIB)) with three levels of torque magnitudes of 20% (MVT20), 40% (MVT40), and 60% of maximal voluntary torque (MVT60). The subjects were instructed to perform a submaximal isometric ramp task and matched the produced torque with the torque template shown in the screen as accurately as possible. External vibration was applied to the rectus femoris (RF).
RESULTS: The performance error (RMSENORM) was reduced in 60% of MVT (MVT60) in both ramp and SS phases, and the iEMGAGO was significantly reduced by vibration under the same torque conditions in the SS phase. In addition, the muscle-mode (M-mode) composition was found to be different in the VIB and NVIB in the SS phase. We found that the VIB condition showed co-contraction M-modes and mixed M-modes. However, there was no significant difference in the ramp phase under all conditions.
CONCLUSIONS: The neurophysiological changes due to muscle vibration may positively affect the task characteristics and steps that require accurate torque generation and provide information for the quantitative understanding of multi-muscle coordination of vibration.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

8신장과 체중을 이용한 상대체중지수의 타당성 고찰

저자 : 박지용 ( Ji-yong Park ) , 권태원 ( Tae-won Gwon )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 207-214 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to consider the validity of relative weight indices, which are used to compare people of different heights.
METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using the 2017-2021 “National Fitness Award” in South Korea. Males (n=77,705) aged 18-65 years and females (n=84,641) were included. Three indices [I1=kg/m, I2=kg/㎡, and I3=kg/㎥] and I4 [I4=kg/㎡], which simply reduce the standard error of I1, were analyzed. Pearson's correlation analysis was conducted to determine an index that was highly correlated with weight and was independent of height. Furthermore, an index that was highly correlated with the body fat percentage was considered. The linear relationship between height and the indices was confirmed using regression analysis. The n value of the index (kg/mn), which provides the same value for all height ranges, was derived by regression analysis between weight and height.
RESULTS: The correlation analysis between height and the indices described I2 (r=-.009, p<.05) as the most suitable for males. The I1 and I4 (r=-.049, p<.01) were appropriate for females. Weight showed a significant correlation with all indices. The association between body fat percentage and I3 showed a high correlation in both males (r=.722, p<.01) and females (r=.734, p<.01). Regression analyses represented I2 (B=-.005, p<.05) suitability for males. For females, I4 (B=.022, p<.01) was replaceable.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that I2 (kg/㎡) is appropriate for males. The I4 (kg/㎡) was applicable to females. The I3 (kg/㎥) showed the strongest correlation with body fat percentage in both males and females.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

9서킷 형태의 근신경 운동이 MZ세대의 근력, 순발력, 기능적 수행력에 미치는 영향

저자 : 이광진 ( Kwang-jin Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 215-221 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of circuit-type neuromuscular training (CTNT) on strength, power, and functional performance among the MZ generation.
METHODS: Twenty-eight participants were assigned to either the circuit-type neuromuscular training group (CTNTG, n=14) or the control group (CG, n=14). CTNT was performed for 50 minutes a day, 2-3 times a week, for 6 weeks. The CG only performed activities of daily living during the study period. Baseline and post measures included isometric muscular strength (knee flexion, knee extension, back flexion, back extension), vertical jump, 30 m sprint, T-agility, and Y-balance tests.
RESULTS: The results showed that the CTNT had a positive effect on the improvement of knee flexion (p=.015), knee extension (p=.047), back extension (p=.003), vertical jump (p=.025), T-agility (p=.046), posteromedial (p=.031), posterolateral (p=.022), and composite score (p=.032).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings can be a factor that the strength, power, and functional performance of MZ generation can be sufficiently improved through the CTNT program. This suggests that CTNT is the most appropriate exercise intervention method to improve the strength, power, and functional performance of the MZ generation.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

10자가근막이완을 포함한 동적 준비운동 프로그램이 연부조직의 강직도 및 운동수행능력에 미치는 영향

저자 : 선세영 ( Se-young Seon ) , 안근옥 ( Keun-ok An ) , 이광진 ( Kwang-jin Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 222-229 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of dynamic warm-up (DW), including DW and self-myofascial release (SMFR), on soft tissue stiffness and exercise performance.
METHODS: Eight adult men participated in this study. The procedure was conducted twice every 2 weeks. Soft tissue stiffness measurements and exercise performance were performed as a pre-post-test. DW only and DW with SMFR were performed as an exercise intervention for the two groups, respectively.
RESULTS: In the group conducted solely by DW, the stiffness of the gastrocnemius and rectus femoris muscles increased (p<.05), and in the DW group including SMFR, the stiffness of the rectus femoris muscle (p<.01) and biceps femoris muscle increased (p<.05). The Achilles and patellar tendon showed no significant changes in either group. A significant increase was observed in both the DW group and the DW group containing SMFR in the 30 m sprint (p<.01). The vertical jump (VJ) showed no significant change in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, DW, including DW with SMFR, increased muscle stiffness, specifically through a 30-m sprint. In a follow-up study, it is considered necessary to investigate the effect of the VJ through the development of a DW program that changes the stiffness of tendons.

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KCI등재SCOUPUS

1치매예방을 위한 근거기반 운동의 필요성

저자 : 김창선 ( Changsun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 271-272 (2 pages)

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2운동부족 시대의 운동과학의 역할

저자 : 박현태 ( Hyuntae Park )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 273-277 (5 pages)

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3운동선수의 비타민D에 대한 최신지견

저자 : 조진경 ( Jinkyung Cho ) , 박수현 ( Soo-hyun Park ) , 송홍선 ( Hong-sun Song )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 278-287 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: Vitamin D plays important roles in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Since vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are located in a variety of organs, including skeletal muscle, vitamin D has potentially widespread effects. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current understanding of the effects of vitamin D on muscle function and exercise performance in athletes.
METHODS: In this narrative review, we summarized previous studies by searching the literature in the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases.
RESULTS: Vitamin D has been shown to regulate multiple actions in skeletal muscle tissue, such as myocyte proliferation and growth via genomic and non-genomic molecular pathways. Higher levels of vitamin D are associated with improved skeletal muscle function and exercise performance. Moreover, in some studies, vitamin D supplementation has beneficial effects on muscle strength in athletes, especially those who are vitamin D-deficient.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D appears to have beneficial effects on muscle and exercise performance in athletes. However, more studies are needed to clarify the action and dosage of vitamin D in athletes.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

4The Moderating Effect of Urbanization on the Association between Socioeconomic Status and Physical Activity in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

저자 : Nan Chen , Chang Gyeong Kim , Kang Jae Jerry Lee , Jaehyun Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 288-294 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: Rapid urbanization has witnessed a dramatic decrease in physical activity. The purpose of this research was to explore the vulnerable inactivity group influenced by urbanization in China.
METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the 2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey were utilized. A total of 7,319 households, including 20,914 individuals within 12 provinces, were pooled. Seven types of physical activity were included in statistical testing. Community-level urbanization was measured on an urbanicity scale consisting of 12 dimensions. Cross-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the direct and interactive effects of individual socioeconomic statuses and community-level urbanization on a leisure time physical activity (LTPA). After removing incomplete responses, 8,617 samples were selected for the statistical analyses.
RESULTS: Community-level urbanization was positively related to participation probability in the LTPA. With an increase of one standard deviation (SD) in the level of urbanization, the odds of participating in the LTPA increased by approximately six times in the most urbanized areas compared with the least urbanized areas. The effect of employment status on the probability of participation in the LTPA differed across the levels of urbanization in each community. For white-collar workers who resided in the most urbanized communities, the odds of participating in the LTPA decreased by approximately 46% compared to their peers in the least urbanized communities.
CONCLUSIONS: Community-level urbanization should be addressed when developing interventions and health policies to promote physical activity during leisure time, especially for individuals who are white-collar workers living in urbanized communities.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

5남자 대학생의 8주간 넙다리뒤근 웨이트 트레이닝이 H/Q ratio와 H/Q FI에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김승리 ( Seung-Ri Kim ) , 강현주 ( Hyun-joo Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 295-302 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects on the hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q ratio) and H/Q ratio fatigue index (H/Q FI) of the knee joint of an 8-week weight training to improve the hamstring muscles of male college students.
METHODS: Twenty male college students were divided into two groups: an exercise group (EG) and a control group (CG). The EG participated in an 8-week hamstring weight training program, working out twice a week, 60 min per session, with a 60-80% 1RM and 12-16 RPE intensity. The peak torque, H/Q ratio, and H/Q FI were measured, and a t-test was used to verify the statistical significance of the difference between the pre- and post-intervention results.
RESULTS: The right flexor peak torque at 60°/sec increased by 14.10±9.60%BW in the EG and decreased by -9.00±16.55%BW in the CG, showing a significant difference between the groups (p<0.01). The left flexor peak torque increased by 6.60±12.31%BW in the EG and decreased by -5.10±10.68%BW in the CG, showing a significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). The left extensor peak torque decreased by -5.40±19.53%BW in the EG and by -28.40±25.70%BW in the CG, showing a significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). The H/Q ratios tended to increase, but the difference was not significant.
CONCLUSIONS: To prevent injuries and stabilize the knee joint, the central joint of the lower extremity that plays an important role in daily life and sports activities, hamstring weight training can be performed to maintain the H/Q ratio within the normal range.

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6The Effect of a Short Foot Eccentric Endurance Exercise on Foot Center of Pressure: A Pilot study

저자 : Jim Schilling , Bobby Gragston , Bryan Dunlavey , Jupil Ko

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 303-308 (6 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 5-week short foot eccentric endurance training program on the foot center of pressure measures in healthy university graduate students.
METHODS: Eleven healthy students between the ages of 18 and 35 years (n=11, 3 males, 8 females; mean age 26.5±2.5 years; BMI 23.9±2.6 kg/㎡) were included in the study. The participants volunteered in a 5-week progressive eccentric contraction short foot exercise program performed three times per week. The main outcome pressure measurements pre- and post-intervention in static double leg stance were measured using a MatScan® Pressure Mapping System.
RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in the base of support (p=.002, ES=2.59), time to boundary (p=.024, ES=1.63), and overall minima measures (p=.05, ES=1.36) pre- and post-intervention.
CONCLUSIONS: A 5-week progressive eccentric contraction short foot exercise program significantly decreased the center of pressure excursion measures, demonstrating improved postural control.

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7저항성 운동이 제2형 당뇨쥐의 심근 내 염증 인자와 ERK1/2 발현에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김문주 ( Moon-ju Kim ) , 김경래 ( Kyeong-lae Kim ) , 안민지 ( Min-ji An )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 309-317 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance ladder exercise on myocardial inflammatory cytokines and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 expression in type 2 diabetic rats.
METHODS: A total of 21 8-week-old male Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) and Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were divided into three groups: LETO group (CON, n=7), OLETF group (DM, n=7), and resistance exercise group (DM+EXE, n=7). Resistance exercise referred to a climbing exercise on a slope. The rats performed this exercise 3 full d per week, for 8 week. The expression of myocardial inflammatory cytokines and ERK1/2 was analyzed via western blotting after 8 week of exercise intervention.
RESULTS: After 8 weeks of resistance exercise for the management of type 2 diabetes, the production of anti-inflammatory factor Interleukin (IL)-10 in the myocardium increased. This inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory factors IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, resistance exercise did not affect the expression of ERK1 and ERK2, which are apoptosis regulatory proteins.
CONCLUSIONS: In type 2 diabetes, resistance exercise is thought to be effective in reducing inflammatory factors by mediating cytokines. Although the effects of resistance ladder exercise were confirmed, further studies on a variety of exercise types and intensities should be conducted to prevent and improve the conditions of those with diabetes.

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8Neuromuscular Characteristics and Physical Function in Participants with Parkinson's Disease

저자 : Ji-young Kim , Ji-Yong Byeon , Hyuk-in Yang , Jeonghoon-Oh , Ju-hee Lee , Moon-Ki Choi , Hae-Dong Lee , Justin Y Jeon

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 318-326 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the level of physical function, lower body strength, and muscle activation during various types of muscle contraction in participants with and without Parkinson's disease (PD).
METHODS: Twelve participants with PD (mean age=63.17±6.24 years) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy adults (mean age = 58.67±6.39 years) were recruited. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the length- and velocity-dependent maximum voluntary force and the rate of torque development (RTD) of the knee extensor muscles. Muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles of both legs was examined using surface electromyography. The 6-minute walk test, chair stand test, timed up-and-go test, sit-and-reach test, and back-scratch test were performed to assess physical function.
RESULTS: Compared to healthy individuals, participants with PD showed significantly lower maximum voluntary force and RTD (p<.05), performed fewer repetitions in the chair stand test (11.64±1.75 vs. 17.08±2.27, p<.001), were slower in the timed up-and-go test (8.36±1.42 vs. 5.65±1.07, p<.001), and walked shorter distances in the 6-minute walk test (424.17±65.97 vs. 539.47±63.18, p<.001). However, activation of the three different muscles during isometric and isokinetic muscle contraction was not different between participants with and without PD.
CONCLUSIONS: Preserved muscle activation and significantly lower muscle strength during various types of muscle contractions may suggest lower muscle strength and efficiency. The lower physical function seen in participants with mild PD could be due to disease and low physical activity-related muscle atrophy rather than lower muscle activation.

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9편심성 운동 후 상완이두근의 국소부위 간 기계적 속성의 차이

저자 : 김춘섭 ( Choun-sub Kim ) , 김맹규 ( Maeng-kyu Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 327-335 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of eccentric exercise (ECC) on the indices of mechanical properties together with markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in different sites of the biceps brachii (BB) muscle.
METHODS: ECC using an elbow joint was performed in 13 non-trained, college men. Global symptoms of EIMD were identified through changes in muscle soreness and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, including muscle function following ECC. To evaluate regional EIMD, muscle swelling and tenderness as well as muscular echo intensity were measured at distal (4 cm above the elbow joint) and middle (30% of the distance from the antecubital crease to the acromion) sites within the BB muscle. A handheld myotonometer was used to estimate changes in mechanical properties, that is, oscillation frequency (F), dynamic stiffness (S), and relaxation time (R), of BB muscles after ECC.
RESULTS: A significant difference in the major markers of EIMD, such as muscle soreness and serum CK activity, along with parameters of muscle function, was observed after ECC compared to baseline. Although all indirect markers of regional muscle damage demonstrated meaningful differences between before and after ECC, no statistically significant interaction between the distal and middle sites was observed in any of the markers. After ECC, both distal and middle sites showed significant changes in F, S, and R, but no statistical differences in changes in muscle mechanical properties were observed between localized muscle sites within BB muscles.
CONCLUSIONS: Changes in mechanical properties, including regional muscle damage, seem to be uniformly influenced by different anatomical locations within the BB muscle, such as elbow flexors, following ECC.

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10수온 차이에 의한 하이드로테라피 적용이 편심성 운동 후 근손상 발현 및 회복에 미치는 영향

저자 : 조현덕 ( Hyeon-deok Jo ) , 김춘섭 ( Choun-sub Kim ) , 김맹규 ( Maeng-kyu Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 336-345 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effect of hydrotherapy at different temperatures following eccentric exercise on muscle damage and recovery profiles in young men.
METHODS: Male college students without any cardiovascular or orthopedic disorders were randomly assigned to three hydrotherapy groups: a 5°C group (cold water, COLD), a 15°C group (cool water, COOL), and a control group (CON). Thirty maximal eccentric exercises were performed using the participants' nondominant elbow flexor muscles. Each treatment consisted of immersion five times for 1 minute, along with a 1-minute rest between each immersion trial. Each intervention was conducted immediately after the eccentric exercise and every 24 hours. Changes in the level of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), circumference, muscle soreness, range of motion (ROM), maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), muscle dynamic stiffness, and muscular echo intensity (EI) were measured. All parameters were measured at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after exercise, as well as immediately before and after exercise.
RESULTS: Muscle soreness was significantly higher in the COLD group than in the other groups. Moreover, the muscle circumference tended to increase in the COLD group than in the other groups. However, an increase in the dynamic stiffness and EI, promoting the recovery of MVIC, was observed in the COOL group. In addition, ROM tended to return more rapidly in the COOL group than in the other groups.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that hydrotherapy at moderately low temperatures compared with that at extremely low temperatures may induce relatively positive effects on EIMD and recovery phases following eccentric exercise in the arms.

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