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한국운동생리학회> 운동과학> 편심성 운동 후 상완이두근의 국소부위 간 기계적 속성의 차이

KCI등재

편심성 운동 후 상완이두근의 국소부위 간 기계적 속성의 차이

Regional Differences of Mechanical Properties in a Biceps Brachii Following Eccentric Exercise

김춘섭 ( Choun-sub Kim ) , 김맹규 ( Maeng-kyu Kim )
  • : 한국운동생리학회
  • : 운동과학 30권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 08월
  • : 327-335(9pages)
운동과학

DOI


목차

서 론
연구 방법
연구 결과
논 의
결 론
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
ORCID
REFERENCES

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초록 보기

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of eccentric exercise (ECC) on the indices of mechanical properties together with markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in different sites of the biceps brachii (BB) muscle.
METHODS: ECC using an elbow joint was performed in 13 non-trained, college men. Global symptoms of EIMD were identified through changes in muscle soreness and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, including muscle function following ECC. To evaluate regional EIMD, muscle swelling and tenderness as well as muscular echo intensity were measured at distal (4 cm above the elbow joint) and middle (30% of the distance from the antecubital crease to the acromion) sites within the BB muscle. A handheld myotonometer was used to estimate changes in mechanical properties, that is, oscillation frequency (F), dynamic stiffness (S), and relaxation time (R), of BB muscles after ECC.
RESULTS: A significant difference in the major markers of EIMD, such as muscle soreness and serum CK activity, along with parameters of muscle function, was observed after ECC compared to baseline. Although all indirect markers of regional muscle damage demonstrated meaningful differences between before and after ECC, no statistically significant interaction between the distal and middle sites was observed in any of the markers. After ECC, both distal and middle sites showed significant changes in F, S, and R, but no statistical differences in changes in muscle mechanical properties were observed between localized muscle sites within BB muscles.
CONCLUSIONS: Changes in mechanical properties, including regional muscle damage, seem to be uniformly influenced by different anatomical locations within the BB muscle, such as elbow flexors, following ECC.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-1726
  • : 2384-0544
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2021
  • : 1055


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KCI등재

1치매예방을 위한 근거기반 운동의 필요성

저자 : 김창선 ( Changsun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 271-272 (2 pages)

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2운동부족 시대의 운동과학의 역할

저자 : 박현태 ( Hyuntae Park )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 273-277 (5 pages)

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3운동선수의 비타민D에 대한 최신지견

저자 : 조진경 ( Jinkyung Cho ) , 박수현 ( Soo-hyun Park ) , 송홍선 ( Hong-sun Song )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 278-287 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: Vitamin D plays important roles in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Since vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are located in a variety of organs, including skeletal muscle, vitamin D has potentially widespread effects. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current understanding of the effects of vitamin D on muscle function and exercise performance in athletes.
METHODS: In this narrative review, we summarized previous studies by searching the literature in the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases.
RESULTS: Vitamin D has been shown to regulate multiple actions in skeletal muscle tissue, such as myocyte proliferation and growth via genomic and non-genomic molecular pathways. Higher levels of vitamin D are associated with improved skeletal muscle function and exercise performance. Moreover, in some studies, vitamin D supplementation has beneficial effects on muscle strength in athletes, especially those who are vitamin D-deficient.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D appears to have beneficial effects on muscle and exercise performance in athletes. However, more studies are needed to clarify the action and dosage of vitamin D in athletes.

KCI등재

4The Moderating Effect of Urbanization on the Association between Socioeconomic Status and Physical Activity in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

저자 : Nan Chen , Chang Gyeong Kim , Kang Jae Jerry Lee , Jaehyun Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 288-294 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: Rapid urbanization has witnessed a dramatic decrease in physical activity. The purpose of this research was to explore the vulnerable inactivity group influenced by urbanization in China.
METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the 2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey were utilized. A total of 7,319 households, including 20,914 individuals within 12 provinces, were pooled. Seven types of physical activity were included in statistical testing. Community-level urbanization was measured on an urbanicity scale consisting of 12 dimensions. Cross-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the direct and interactive effects of individual socioeconomic statuses and community-level urbanization on a leisure time physical activity (LTPA). After removing incomplete responses, 8,617 samples were selected for the statistical analyses.
RESULTS: Community-level urbanization was positively related to participation probability in the LTPA. With an increase of one standard deviation (SD) in the level of urbanization, the odds of participating in the LTPA increased by approximately six times in the most urbanized areas compared with the least urbanized areas. The effect of employment status on the probability of participation in the LTPA differed across the levels of urbanization in each community. For white-collar workers who resided in the most urbanized communities, the odds of participating in the LTPA decreased by approximately 46% compared to their peers in the least urbanized communities.
CONCLUSIONS: Community-level urbanization should be addressed when developing interventions and health policies to promote physical activity during leisure time, especially for individuals who are white-collar workers living in urbanized communities.

KCI등재

5남자 대학생의 8주간 넙다리뒤근 웨이트 트레이닝이 H/Q ratio와 H/Q FI에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김승리 ( Seung-Ri Kim ) , 강현주 ( Hyun-joo Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 295-302 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects on the hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q ratio) and H/Q ratio fatigue index (H/Q FI) of the knee joint of an 8-week weight training to improve the hamstring muscles of male college students.
METHODS: Twenty male college students were divided into two groups: an exercise group (EG) and a control group (CG). The EG participated in an 8-week hamstring weight training program, working out twice a week, 60 min per session, with a 60-80% 1RM and 12-16 RPE intensity. The peak torque, H/Q ratio, and H/Q FI were measured, and a t-test was used to verify the statistical significance of the difference between the pre- and post-intervention results.
RESULTS: The right flexor peak torque at 60°/sec increased by 14.10±9.60%BW in the EG and decreased by -9.00±16.55%BW in the CG, showing a significant difference between the groups (p<0.01). The left flexor peak torque increased by 6.60±12.31%BW in the EG and decreased by -5.10±10.68%BW in the CG, showing a significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). The left extensor peak torque decreased by -5.40±19.53%BW in the EG and by -28.40±25.70%BW in the CG, showing a significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). The H/Q ratios tended to increase, but the difference was not significant.
CONCLUSIONS: To prevent injuries and stabilize the knee joint, the central joint of the lower extremity that plays an important role in daily life and sports activities, hamstring weight training can be performed to maintain the H/Q ratio within the normal range.

KCI등재

6The Effect of a Short Foot Eccentric Endurance Exercise on Foot Center of Pressure: A Pilot study

저자 : Jim Schilling , Bobby Gragston , Bryan Dunlavey , Jupil Ko

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 303-308 (6 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 5-week short foot eccentric endurance training program on the foot center of pressure measures in healthy university graduate students.
METHODS: Eleven healthy students between the ages of 18 and 35 years (n=11, 3 males, 8 females; mean age 26.5±2.5 years; BMI 23.9±2.6 kg/㎡) were included in the study. The participants volunteered in a 5-week progressive eccentric contraction short foot exercise program performed three times per week. The main outcome pressure measurements pre- and post-intervention in static double leg stance were measured using a MatScan® Pressure Mapping System.
RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in the base of support (p=.002, ES=2.59), time to boundary (p=.024, ES=1.63), and overall minima measures (p=.05, ES=1.36) pre- and post-intervention.
CONCLUSIONS: A 5-week progressive eccentric contraction short foot exercise program significantly decreased the center of pressure excursion measures, demonstrating improved postural control.

KCI등재

7저항성 운동이 제2형 당뇨쥐의 심근 내 염증 인자와 ERK1/2 발현에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김문주 ( Moon-ju Kim ) , 김경래 ( Kyeong-lae Kim ) , 안민지 ( Min-ji An )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 309-317 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance ladder exercise on myocardial inflammatory cytokines and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 expression in type 2 diabetic rats.
METHODS: A total of 21 8-week-old male Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) and Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were divided into three groups: LETO group (CON, n=7), OLETF group (DM, n=7), and resistance exercise group (DM+EXE, n=7). Resistance exercise referred to a climbing exercise on a slope. The rats performed this exercise 3 full d per week, for 8 week. The expression of myocardial inflammatory cytokines and ERK1/2 was analyzed via western blotting after 8 week of exercise intervention.
RESULTS: After 8 weeks of resistance exercise for the management of type 2 diabetes, the production of anti-inflammatory factor Interleukin (IL)-10 in the myocardium increased. This inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory factors IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, resistance exercise did not affect the expression of ERK1 and ERK2, which are apoptosis regulatory proteins.
CONCLUSIONS: In type 2 diabetes, resistance exercise is thought to be effective in reducing inflammatory factors by mediating cytokines. Although the effects of resistance ladder exercise were confirmed, further studies on a variety of exercise types and intensities should be conducted to prevent and improve the conditions of those with diabetes.

KCI등재

8Neuromuscular Characteristics and Physical Function in Participants with Parkinson's Disease

저자 : Ji-young Kim , Ji-Yong Byeon , Hyuk-in Yang , Jeonghoon-Oh , Ju-hee Lee , Moon-Ki Choi , Hae-Dong Lee , Justin Y Jeon

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 318-326 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the level of physical function, lower body strength, and muscle activation during various types of muscle contraction in participants with and without Parkinson's disease (PD).
METHODS: Twelve participants with PD (mean age=63.17±6.24 years) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy adults (mean age = 58.67±6.39 years) were recruited. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the length- and velocity-dependent maximum voluntary force and the rate of torque development (RTD) of the knee extensor muscles. Muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles of both legs was examined using surface electromyography. The 6-minute walk test, chair stand test, timed up-and-go test, sit-and-reach test, and back-scratch test were performed to assess physical function.
RESULTS: Compared to healthy individuals, participants with PD showed significantly lower maximum voluntary force and RTD (p<.05), performed fewer repetitions in the chair stand test (11.64±1.75 vs. 17.08±2.27, p<.001), were slower in the timed up-and-go test (8.36±1.42 vs. 5.65±1.07, p<.001), and walked shorter distances in the 6-minute walk test (424.17±65.97 vs. 539.47±63.18, p<.001). However, activation of the three different muscles during isometric and isokinetic muscle contraction was not different between participants with and without PD.
CONCLUSIONS: Preserved muscle activation and significantly lower muscle strength during various types of muscle contractions may suggest lower muscle strength and efficiency. The lower physical function seen in participants with mild PD could be due to disease and low physical activity-related muscle atrophy rather than lower muscle activation.

KCI등재

9편심성 운동 후 상완이두근의 국소부위 간 기계적 속성의 차이

저자 : 김춘섭 ( Choun-sub Kim ) , 김맹규 ( Maeng-kyu Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 327-335 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of eccentric exercise (ECC) on the indices of mechanical properties together with markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in different sites of the biceps brachii (BB) muscle.
METHODS: ECC using an elbow joint was performed in 13 non-trained, college men. Global symptoms of EIMD were identified through changes in muscle soreness and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, including muscle function following ECC. To evaluate regional EIMD, muscle swelling and tenderness as well as muscular echo intensity were measured at distal (4 cm above the elbow joint) and middle (30% of the distance from the antecubital crease to the acromion) sites within the BB muscle. A handheld myotonometer was used to estimate changes in mechanical properties, that is, oscillation frequency (F), dynamic stiffness (S), and relaxation time (R), of BB muscles after ECC.
RESULTS: A significant difference in the major markers of EIMD, such as muscle soreness and serum CK activity, along with parameters of muscle function, was observed after ECC compared to baseline. Although all indirect markers of regional muscle damage demonstrated meaningful differences between before and after ECC, no statistically significant interaction between the distal and middle sites was observed in any of the markers. After ECC, both distal and middle sites showed significant changes in F, S, and R, but no statistical differences in changes in muscle mechanical properties were observed between localized muscle sites within BB muscles.
CONCLUSIONS: Changes in mechanical properties, including regional muscle damage, seem to be uniformly influenced by different anatomical locations within the BB muscle, such as elbow flexors, following ECC.

KCI등재

10수온 차이에 의한 하이드로테라피 적용이 편심성 운동 후 근손상 발현 및 회복에 미치는 영향

저자 : 조현덕 ( Hyeon-deok Jo ) , 김춘섭 ( Choun-sub Kim ) , 김맹규 ( Maeng-kyu Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 336-345 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effect of hydrotherapy at different temperatures following eccentric exercise on muscle damage and recovery profiles in young men.
METHODS: Male college students without any cardiovascular or orthopedic disorders were randomly assigned to three hydrotherapy groups: a 5°C group (cold water, COLD), a 15°C group (cool water, COOL), and a control group (CON). Thirty maximal eccentric exercises were performed using the participants' nondominant elbow flexor muscles. Each treatment consisted of immersion five times for 1 minute, along with a 1-minute rest between each immersion trial. Each intervention was conducted immediately after the eccentric exercise and every 24 hours. Changes in the level of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), circumference, muscle soreness, range of motion (ROM), maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), muscle dynamic stiffness, and muscular echo intensity (EI) were measured. All parameters were measured at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after exercise, as well as immediately before and after exercise.
RESULTS: Muscle soreness was significantly higher in the COLD group than in the other groups. Moreover, the muscle circumference tended to increase in the COLD group than in the other groups. However, an increase in the dynamic stiffness and EI, promoting the recovery of MVIC, was observed in the COOL group. In addition, ROM tended to return more rapidly in the COOL group than in the other groups.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that hydrotherapy at moderately low temperatures compared with that at extremely low temperatures may induce relatively positive effects on EIMD and recovery phases following eccentric exercise in the arms.

12
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KCI등재

1치매예방을 위한 근거기반 운동의 필요성

저자 : 김창선 ( Changsun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 271-272 (2 pages)

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2운동부족 시대의 운동과학의 역할

저자 : 박현태 ( Hyuntae Park )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 273-277 (5 pages)

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3운동선수의 비타민D에 대한 최신지견

저자 : 조진경 ( Jinkyung Cho ) , 박수현 ( Soo-hyun Park ) , 송홍선 ( Hong-sun Song )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 278-287 (10 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

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PURPOSE: Vitamin D plays important roles in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Since vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are located in a variety of organs, including skeletal muscle, vitamin D has potentially widespread effects. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current understanding of the effects of vitamin D on muscle function and exercise performance in athletes.
METHODS: In this narrative review, we summarized previous studies by searching the literature in the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases.
RESULTS: Vitamin D has been shown to regulate multiple actions in skeletal muscle tissue, such as myocyte proliferation and growth via genomic and non-genomic molecular pathways. Higher levels of vitamin D are associated with improved skeletal muscle function and exercise performance. Moreover, in some studies, vitamin D supplementation has beneficial effects on muscle strength in athletes, especially those who are vitamin D-deficient.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D appears to have beneficial effects on muscle and exercise performance in athletes. However, more studies are needed to clarify the action and dosage of vitamin D in athletes.

KCI등재

4The Moderating Effect of Urbanization on the Association between Socioeconomic Status and Physical Activity in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

저자 : Nan Chen , Chang Gyeong Kim , Kang Jae Jerry Lee , Jaehyun Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 288-294 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: Rapid urbanization has witnessed a dramatic decrease in physical activity. The purpose of this research was to explore the vulnerable inactivity group influenced by urbanization in China.
METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the 2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey were utilized. A total of 7,319 households, including 20,914 individuals within 12 provinces, were pooled. Seven types of physical activity were included in statistical testing. Community-level urbanization was measured on an urbanicity scale consisting of 12 dimensions. Cross-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the direct and interactive effects of individual socioeconomic statuses and community-level urbanization on a leisure time physical activity (LTPA). After removing incomplete responses, 8,617 samples were selected for the statistical analyses.
RESULTS: Community-level urbanization was positively related to participation probability in the LTPA. With an increase of one standard deviation (SD) in the level of urbanization, the odds of participating in the LTPA increased by approximately six times in the most urbanized areas compared with the least urbanized areas. The effect of employment status on the probability of participation in the LTPA differed across the levels of urbanization in each community. For white-collar workers who resided in the most urbanized communities, the odds of participating in the LTPA decreased by approximately 46% compared to their peers in the least urbanized communities.
CONCLUSIONS: Community-level urbanization should be addressed when developing interventions and health policies to promote physical activity during leisure time, especially for individuals who are white-collar workers living in urbanized communities.

KCI등재

5남자 대학생의 8주간 넙다리뒤근 웨이트 트레이닝이 H/Q ratio와 H/Q FI에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김승리 ( Seung-Ri Kim ) , 강현주 ( Hyun-joo Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 295-302 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects on the hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q ratio) and H/Q ratio fatigue index (H/Q FI) of the knee joint of an 8-week weight training to improve the hamstring muscles of male college students.
METHODS: Twenty male college students were divided into two groups: an exercise group (EG) and a control group (CG). The EG participated in an 8-week hamstring weight training program, working out twice a week, 60 min per session, with a 60-80% 1RM and 12-16 RPE intensity. The peak torque, H/Q ratio, and H/Q FI were measured, and a t-test was used to verify the statistical significance of the difference between the pre- and post-intervention results.
RESULTS: The right flexor peak torque at 60°/sec increased by 14.10±9.60%BW in the EG and decreased by -9.00±16.55%BW in the CG, showing a significant difference between the groups (p<0.01). The left flexor peak torque increased by 6.60±12.31%BW in the EG and decreased by -5.10±10.68%BW in the CG, showing a significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). The left extensor peak torque decreased by -5.40±19.53%BW in the EG and by -28.40±25.70%BW in the CG, showing a significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). The H/Q ratios tended to increase, but the difference was not significant.
CONCLUSIONS: To prevent injuries and stabilize the knee joint, the central joint of the lower extremity that plays an important role in daily life and sports activities, hamstring weight training can be performed to maintain the H/Q ratio within the normal range.

KCI등재

6The Effect of a Short Foot Eccentric Endurance Exercise on Foot Center of Pressure: A Pilot study

저자 : Jim Schilling , Bobby Gragston , Bryan Dunlavey , Jupil Ko

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 303-308 (6 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 5-week short foot eccentric endurance training program on the foot center of pressure measures in healthy university graduate students.
METHODS: Eleven healthy students between the ages of 18 and 35 years (n=11, 3 males, 8 females; mean age 26.5±2.5 years; BMI 23.9±2.6 kg/㎡) were included in the study. The participants volunteered in a 5-week progressive eccentric contraction short foot exercise program performed three times per week. The main outcome pressure measurements pre- and post-intervention in static double leg stance were measured using a MatScan® Pressure Mapping System.
RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in the base of support (p=.002, ES=2.59), time to boundary (p=.024, ES=1.63), and overall minima measures (p=.05, ES=1.36) pre- and post-intervention.
CONCLUSIONS: A 5-week progressive eccentric contraction short foot exercise program significantly decreased the center of pressure excursion measures, demonstrating improved postural control.

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7저항성 운동이 제2형 당뇨쥐의 심근 내 염증 인자와 ERK1/2 발현에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김문주 ( Moon-ju Kim ) , 김경래 ( Kyeong-lae Kim ) , 안민지 ( Min-ji An )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 309-317 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance ladder exercise on myocardial inflammatory cytokines and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 expression in type 2 diabetic rats.
METHODS: A total of 21 8-week-old male Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) and Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were divided into three groups: LETO group (CON, n=7), OLETF group (DM, n=7), and resistance exercise group (DM+EXE, n=7). Resistance exercise referred to a climbing exercise on a slope. The rats performed this exercise 3 full d per week, for 8 week. The expression of myocardial inflammatory cytokines and ERK1/2 was analyzed via western blotting after 8 week of exercise intervention.
RESULTS: After 8 weeks of resistance exercise for the management of type 2 diabetes, the production of anti-inflammatory factor Interleukin (IL)-10 in the myocardium increased. This inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory factors IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, resistance exercise did not affect the expression of ERK1 and ERK2, which are apoptosis regulatory proteins.
CONCLUSIONS: In type 2 diabetes, resistance exercise is thought to be effective in reducing inflammatory factors by mediating cytokines. Although the effects of resistance ladder exercise were confirmed, further studies on a variety of exercise types and intensities should be conducted to prevent and improve the conditions of those with diabetes.

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8Neuromuscular Characteristics and Physical Function in Participants with Parkinson's Disease

저자 : Ji-young Kim , Ji-Yong Byeon , Hyuk-in Yang , Jeonghoon-Oh , Ju-hee Lee , Moon-Ki Choi , Hae-Dong Lee , Justin Y Jeon

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 318-326 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the level of physical function, lower body strength, and muscle activation during various types of muscle contraction in participants with and without Parkinson's disease (PD).
METHODS: Twelve participants with PD (mean age=63.17±6.24 years) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy adults (mean age = 58.67±6.39 years) were recruited. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the length- and velocity-dependent maximum voluntary force and the rate of torque development (RTD) of the knee extensor muscles. Muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles of both legs was examined using surface electromyography. The 6-minute walk test, chair stand test, timed up-and-go test, sit-and-reach test, and back-scratch test were performed to assess physical function.
RESULTS: Compared to healthy individuals, participants with PD showed significantly lower maximum voluntary force and RTD (p<.05), performed fewer repetitions in the chair stand test (11.64±1.75 vs. 17.08±2.27, p<.001), were slower in the timed up-and-go test (8.36±1.42 vs. 5.65±1.07, p<.001), and walked shorter distances in the 6-minute walk test (424.17±65.97 vs. 539.47±63.18, p<.001). However, activation of the three different muscles during isometric and isokinetic muscle contraction was not different between participants with and without PD.
CONCLUSIONS: Preserved muscle activation and significantly lower muscle strength during various types of muscle contractions may suggest lower muscle strength and efficiency. The lower physical function seen in participants with mild PD could be due to disease and low physical activity-related muscle atrophy rather than lower muscle activation.

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9편심성 운동 후 상완이두근의 국소부위 간 기계적 속성의 차이

저자 : 김춘섭 ( Choun-sub Kim ) , 김맹규 ( Maeng-kyu Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 327-335 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of eccentric exercise (ECC) on the indices of mechanical properties together with markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in different sites of the biceps brachii (BB) muscle.
METHODS: ECC using an elbow joint was performed in 13 non-trained, college men. Global symptoms of EIMD were identified through changes in muscle soreness and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, including muscle function following ECC. To evaluate regional EIMD, muscle swelling and tenderness as well as muscular echo intensity were measured at distal (4 cm above the elbow joint) and middle (30% of the distance from the antecubital crease to the acromion) sites within the BB muscle. A handheld myotonometer was used to estimate changes in mechanical properties, that is, oscillation frequency (F), dynamic stiffness (S), and relaxation time (R), of BB muscles after ECC.
RESULTS: A significant difference in the major markers of EIMD, such as muscle soreness and serum CK activity, along with parameters of muscle function, was observed after ECC compared to baseline. Although all indirect markers of regional muscle damage demonstrated meaningful differences between before and after ECC, no statistically significant interaction between the distal and middle sites was observed in any of the markers. After ECC, both distal and middle sites showed significant changes in F, S, and R, but no statistical differences in changes in muscle mechanical properties were observed between localized muscle sites within BB muscles.
CONCLUSIONS: Changes in mechanical properties, including regional muscle damage, seem to be uniformly influenced by different anatomical locations within the BB muscle, such as elbow flexors, following ECC.

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10수온 차이에 의한 하이드로테라피 적용이 편심성 운동 후 근손상 발현 및 회복에 미치는 영향

저자 : 조현덕 ( Hyeon-deok Jo ) , 김춘섭 ( Choun-sub Kim ) , 김맹규 ( Maeng-kyu Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 336-345 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effect of hydrotherapy at different temperatures following eccentric exercise on muscle damage and recovery profiles in young men.
METHODS: Male college students without any cardiovascular or orthopedic disorders were randomly assigned to three hydrotherapy groups: a 5°C group (cold water, COLD), a 15°C group (cool water, COOL), and a control group (CON). Thirty maximal eccentric exercises were performed using the participants' nondominant elbow flexor muscles. Each treatment consisted of immersion five times for 1 minute, along with a 1-minute rest between each immersion trial. Each intervention was conducted immediately after the eccentric exercise and every 24 hours. Changes in the level of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), circumference, muscle soreness, range of motion (ROM), maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), muscle dynamic stiffness, and muscular echo intensity (EI) were measured. All parameters were measured at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after exercise, as well as immediately before and after exercise.
RESULTS: Muscle soreness was significantly higher in the COLD group than in the other groups. Moreover, the muscle circumference tended to increase in the COLD group than in the other groups. However, an increase in the dynamic stiffness and EI, promoting the recovery of MVIC, was observed in the COOL group. In addition, ROM tended to return more rapidly in the COOL group than in the other groups.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that hydrotherapy at moderately low temperatures compared with that at extremely low temperatures may induce relatively positive effects on EIMD and recovery phases following eccentric exercise in the arms.

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