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한국운동생리학회> 운동과학> 운동선수의 비타민D에 대한 최신지견

KCI등재SCOUPUS

운동선수의 비타민D에 대한 최신지견

Recent Advance on Vitamin D in Athletes

조진경 ( Jinkyung Cho ) , 박수현 ( Soo-hyun Park ) , 송홍선 ( Hong-sun Song )
  • : 한국운동생리학회
  • : 운동과학 30권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 08월
  • : 278-287(10pages)
운동과학

DOI


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서 론
연구 방법
결 과
결 론
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
ORCID
REFERENCES

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PURPOSE: Vitamin D plays important roles in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Since vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are located in a variety of organs, including skeletal muscle, vitamin D has potentially widespread effects. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current understanding of the effects of vitamin D on muscle function and exercise performance in athletes.
METHODS: In this narrative review, we summarized previous studies by searching the literature in the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases.
RESULTS: Vitamin D has been shown to regulate multiple actions in skeletal muscle tissue, such as myocyte proliferation and growth via genomic and non-genomic molecular pathways. Higher levels of vitamin D are associated with improved skeletal muscle function and exercise performance. Moreover, in some studies, vitamin D supplementation has beneficial effects on muscle strength in athletes, especially those who are vitamin D-deficient.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D appears to have beneficial effects on muscle and exercise performance in athletes. However, more studies are needed to clarify the action and dosage of vitamin D in athletes.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2022-600-000764289

간행물정보

  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 계간
  • : 1226-1726
  • : 2384-0544
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2022
  • : 1087


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1휴먼헬스디지털테크놀로지 시대에서 운동과학의 역할

저자 : 이호성 ( Ho-seong Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-3 (3 pages)

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2운동과학에서 Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methyl Butyrate 보충의 효과와 적용

저자 : 최은주 ( Eun-ju Choi )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 4-10 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: The effect of hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on leucine is a major area of interest in exercise science. The present review aimed to investigate the various effects of HMB supplementation and provide guidelines for its practical use.
METHODS: This review collected and analyzed previous studies on HMB supplementation from online databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Wiley Online Library.
RESULTS: Although studies suggest different results, this review found that HMB supplementation before or after exercise could have positive effects on body composition (muscle mass), exercise performance (strength and power, endurance), and recovery after muscle damage (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase). In particular, HMB supplementation had a significant effect on resistance exercise, and in general, a daily dose of 3 g is recommended. However, the effects of combined HMB and creatine supplementation remain unclear.
CONCLUSIONS: HMB can be a useful and effective supplement for athletes with various purposes and for ordinary people who regularly exercise. Further research should investigate several limitations of HMB supplementation, as suggested in previous studies.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

3Does Taekwondo Poomsae Training Impact on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Blood Composition in Children and Adolescents? A Systematic Review

저자 : Ye Lei , Hyung-pil Jun

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 11-25 (15 pages)

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PURPOSE: Numerous studies claim that Taekwondo can effectively help obese children improve their physical fitness. In addition, Taekwondo might help prevent lifestyle diseases and metabolic syndrome caused by obesity. However, studies and reviews on the effectiveness of Taekwondo Poomsae are very few compared to those on Taekwondo Kyorugi. Based on previous reviews, this study aims to clarify the effect of Taekwondo Poomsae training on improving body composition, physical fitness, and blood composition of children and adolescents of different groups. Furthermore, the applicability of Taekwondo Poomsae training is to be determined.
METHODS: Two-hundred and two studies were searched via Korea electronic databases RISS, KISS, and DBPIA from March 1 to 3, 2021, and 22 of these were included in this review.
RESULTS: Our review confirms that Taekwondo Poomsae is effective in improving the physical condition of developing children and adolescents. However, we cannot assert that this sport is also an effective exercise therapy for special youth groups, such as those who are overweight, obese, or have a metabolic growth or development syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that sports implementers, Taekwando experts, coaches, and other sport professionals provide more Taekwondo Poomsae training programs suitable for physical and physiotherapeutic exercises for different ages and groups.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

4Effects of Resistance Training and/or Protein Supplementation on Usual Gait Speed in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

저자 : Jae Ho Park , Junghwan Oh , Sok Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 26-41 (16 pages)

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PURPOSE: The present review aimed to verify the meta-effects of resistance training (RT) or protein supplementation (PS) on usual gait speed (UGS) in postmenopausal women and the additive effect of RT and PS on UGS.
METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed/Medline and Web of Science (core collection) was performed from inception to December 31, 2021. Electronic search methods were used to identify 18 relevant randomized controlled trials. Meta-analyses of standardized mean difference (SMD) calculated using Hedges' g between RT and/or PS groups versus control groups were conducted using a random-effects model. The meta-effects are presented in a forest plot with a 95% confidence interval (CI).
RESULTS: The meta-analysis showed that RT significantly improved UGS (SMD, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.12-0.68; p=.006), while PS did not improve UGS (SMD, -0.17; 95% CI, -0.80 to 0.46; p=.601). A subgroup analysis indicated that there were significant increases in UGS after both 'RT-only intervention (SMD, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.59; p=.046)' and 'RT combined with balance training (BT) (SMD, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.17-1.13; p=.008)', while there was no significant increase in UGS after 'RT combined with power training (PT) (SMD, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.62 to 0.45; p=.765)'. There was no additive effect on UGS after RT combined with PS (SMD, -0.06; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.24; p=.699).
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that RT significantly improved UGS in postmenopausal women, and adding BT to RT further improved UGS. In addition, there was no significant improvement in UGS after PS in postmenopausal women, and no additive effect on UGS after RT combined with PS.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

5유방암 환자의 범이론적 모델 단계에 따른 신체활동량과 운동 제약

저자 : 박하늬 ( Ha Nui Park ) , 연수진 ( Su Jin Yeon ) , 민지희 ( Ji Hee Min ) , 이정민 ( Jeong Min Lee ) , 정안숙 ( Ansuk Jeong ) , 김지예 ( Jee Ye Kim ) , 박형석 ( Hyung Seok Park ) , 김승일 ( Seung Il Kim ) , 전용관 ( Justin Y. Jeon )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 42-52 (11 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the physical activity (PA) and exercise barriers of stages 0-3 breast cancer survivors according to the Transtheoretical Model (TTM).
METHODS: This cross-sectional study that included data from a total of 295 breast cancer survivors (Age: 52.2±8.2 years, BMI: 23.5±3.3 kg/㎡), at Shinchon Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea. The levels of PA and exercise barriers according to TTM were investigated using questionnaires.
RESULTS: PA participation increased in the TTM stage. The proportion of participants categorized according to TTM stage differed according to the time since cancer diagnosis: a higher proportion of participants were in pre-contemplation/contemplation within one year after diagnosis, while a higher proportion of participants were in maintenance after three three years since diagnosis. The five most prevalent exercise barriers were fatigue, low level of physical fitness, poor health, lack of interest, and tendency to be physically inactive. Fatigue is the most prevalent exercise barrier regardless of TTM stage, while most exercise barriers tend to reduce as participants are in the preparation/action and maintenance stages.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we confirmed that the participants in the maintenance stage were the most active, while the proportion of participants in the TTM stage varied according to time since diagnosis. Since PA and exercise barriers vary according to the TTM stage, the TTM stage may increase PA participation in breast cancer patients.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

6양측 및 편측 신장성 운동이 근손상 및 근생리학적 지표에 미치는 영향

저자 : 박종연 ( Jong-yeon Park ) , 이호성 ( Ho-seong Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 53-61 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effects of bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises on muscle damage and muscular physiological indices in healthy men.
METHODS: Using a randomized crossover design, nine adult males without musculoskeletal disorders were divided into a bilateral eccentric exercise group (BEG, n=9) and a unilateral eccentric exercise group (UEG, n=9). Bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises involved five sets of six repetitions of the rhythm metronome speed eccentric contraction 3 seconds at 110% one repetition maximum (1RM) using bilateral of BEG and the dominant and non-dominant of UEG separated by four weeks, respectively. Muscle damage (flexed and extended ROM, CIR, and VAS) and muscular physiological indices (muscle activity, muscle fatigue, and muscle tone) were measured before, immediately after (0 hour), 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours following bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises.
RESULTS: The flexed ROM, CIR, VAS, muscle activity, and muscle tone were significantly increased after both bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises (p<.05, respectively). Extended ROM and muscle activity significantly decreased after both bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises (p<.05, respectively). However, there was no significant interaction between side (S) and time and side (T×S).
CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that there was no difference in muscle damage and physiological indices after measuring and setting the 1RM muscle strength separated by bilateral and unilateral eccentric exercises.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

7위드 코로나 시대 8주간의 온라인 고강도 인터벌 트레이닝이 과체중 남성의 신체조성, 혈중지질, 사이토카인 및 삶의 질에 미치는 영향

저자 : 최동훈 ( Dong-hun Choi ) , 현아현 ( Ah-hyun Hyun )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 62-71 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), using real-time video application programs, on the body composition, blood lipids, cytokines, and quality of life (QOL) of over-weight men.
METHODS: The participants of this study were overweight men, aged < 45 years, who voluntarily applied to the online notices for this study. The men had a body mass index (BMI) >28. Twenty people participated in this experiment and were divided into two groups: a HIIT group (n=10) and a control group (n=10). Both groups were pre-examined to determine body composition, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and QOL indices and also underwent blood tests. The HIIT group underwent high-intensity interval training for 8 weeks (twice a week and 35 minutes per day) using real-time video programs. The main exercise program for HIIT was 20 seconds high-intensity (85-90% HRmax) exercise followed by 30 seconds exercise at a 60% HRmax.
RESULTS: Comparison and analysis of the effects observed before and after the exercise revealed that the real-time online HIIT group showed reduced body fat (F=5.690, p=.028). Results of the blood tests showed that the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL; F=24.584, p=.001) was increased, while the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL; F=24.963, p=.001), triglycerides (TG; F=7.295, p=.015;), and total cholesterol (TC; F=14.934, p=.001) levels were decreased. No significant effects were observed on the insulin and c-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Finally, the QOL test results showed that the total score of the HIIT group had increased (F=190.815, p=.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Online HIIT is a useful method that aids in reducing fat levels in obese men and improving their blood lipid profile and QOL during the COVID-19 pandemic.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

8Changes in Heart Rate, Muscle Temperature, Blood Lactate Concentration, Blood Pressure, and Fatigue Perception Following Jogging and Running: An Observational Study

저자 : Junhyeong Lim , Hyeongjun Park , Seunghee Lee , Jihong Park

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 72-79 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: To report the magnitude of changes in heart rate, muscle temperature, blood lactate concentration, blood pressure, and fatigue perception after treadmill jogging and running.
METHODS: Eleven healthy male adults (174±7 cm, 72±10 kg) visited the laboratory twice. After a 10-minute rest each visit, subjects performed a treadmill jog (maintaining a speed of 9 km/h at a 1% incline) or a treadmill run (initially 5 km/h at a 1% incline, belt speed, and incline increased by 1 km/h and 0.5% every minute; average speed of 9 km/h). Heart rate and muscle (gastrocnemius) temperature were recorded before, during, and after the treadmill jog/run. Blood lactate concentration, blood pressure, and fatigue perception were assessed before and after. The effect of the condition over time was analysed using parametric or nonparametric tests (p≤.05) with Cohen's d effect sizes.
RESULTS: There was a condition effect over time in heart rate (F1,30=22.16, p<.0001), blood lactate concentration (χ2=34.88, df=3, p<.0001), systolic blood pressure (F1,30=4.18, p=.05), and fatigue perception (F1,30=10.24, p=.003). Specifically, subjects who ran showed a higher heart rate (187 vs. 158 bpm, p<.0001, d=2.11), blood lactate concentration (11.4 vs. 3.8 mmol/L, p<.0001, d=3.39), systolic blood pressure (164 vs. 147 mmHg, p=.006, d=1.34), and fatigue perception (2.7 vs. 5.0 cm, p=.0005, d=1.46) than those who jogged. There was a time effect (F1,30=94.84, p<.0001) on muscle temperature, with a 1.5°C increase in muscle temperature after jogging/running (p<.0001, d=1.88).
CONCLUSIONS: While treadmill jogging and running induced a similar temperature increase in the gastrocnemius, running resulted in higher heart rate, blood lactate concentration, systolic blood pressure, and fatigue perception. These results can be used as a basis for planning warm-up protocols.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

9여성 노인의 낙상과 비낙상의 보행변인 비교 및 평지와 장애물 보행 중 보행속도에 따른 낙상여부의 비교위험도

저자 : 강현주 ( Hyun-joo Kang ) , 이병근 ( Byung-kun Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 80-87 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the gait variables and the relative risk of falling between elderly Korean women that fall and do not fall based on the walking speed during flat walking and in the presence of obstacles.
METHODS: The study included 148 women, aged 65 years or older (22 fallers, aged 75.05±5.38 years; 126 non-fallers, aged 71.80±5.14 years). The gait variables were measured in a space of 9 m×1 m, and obstacle walking was measured while crossing obstacles measuring, 5 cm and 30 cm. A t-test, correlation analysis, and logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the gait variables to determine if there was a fall and to analyze the relationship and the risk ratio of a fall at a walking speed.
RESULTS: Out of 148 participants, 22 participants (14.9%), fell while walking. During flat ground walking, right step length (p<.01) left step length (p<.05), and stride lengths (p<.01) were smaller in the faller group, while the stance phase (p<.01) and double-support time ratio (p<.05) were smaller in the non-faller group. In obstacle walking, slower walking speeds were observed for the 5-cm obstacles (p<.01) and 30-cm obstacles (p<.05) in the faller group. For the low-speed and medium-high speed groups, the odds ratio of the fall experience was 2.844 (1.125-7.191) (p<.05) for flat gait, 3.585 (1.354-9.491) (p<.05) for the 5 cm obstacle, and 4.877 (1.731- 13.742) (p<.01) for the 30 cm obstacle. As the height of the obstacle increased, the fall odds ratio increased.
CONCLUSIONS: In the faller group, the step and stride lengths were smaller during flat walking, and the walking speed of the obstacles was low. The low-speed group had a high falling experience odds ratio, and as the height of the obstacle increased, the falling experience odds ratio increased.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

10웨이트 트레이닝 전 자가근막이완 기법이 기능적 움직임과 지연성 근육통에 미치는 효과

저자 : 이미래 ( Mi-rae Lee ) , 김종희 ( Jong-hee Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 31권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 88-97 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effect of the self-myofascial release technique conducted before weight training on functional movement and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS).
METHODS: The study subjects were divided into three groups: a control group (CON, n=8), an active stretching group (DS, n=8), and a self-myofascial release group (SMR, n=8). All three groups performed the same leg press exercise program for 30 minutes, twice a week for eight weeks. Active stretching and self-myofascial release techniques were conducted before exercise for 30 minutes. Body composition, 1RM, and functional movement screen (FMS) were tested before the 1st-week exercise and after the 4th- and 8th-week exercise training. The DOMS levels were assessed immediately after exercise and at 24, 48, and 72 hours post-exercise using the visual analog scale (VAS).
RESULTS: Body weight and body fat percentage showed a significant decrease (p<0.01), and muscle mass and 1RM increased with the exercise period (p<0.01). The FMS score differed between the groups (p<0.05), periods (p<0.01), and groups×periods (p<0.01). The FMS score was significantly higher in the SMR than in the CON group at the 4th- and 8th-week exercise. The exercise-induced VAS level peaked at 48 hours post-exercise in all groups and significantly decreased at 72 hours post-exercise in the SMR group.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that self-myofascial release positively affects functional movements and effectively alleviates exercise-induced pain levels. Therefore, self-myofascial release techniques could be used as an effective warm-up strategy to improve physical function and relieve exercise-induced injury and muscle pain.

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1치매예방을 위한 근거기반 운동의 필요성

저자 : 김창선 ( Changsun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 271-272 (2 pages)

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2운동부족 시대의 운동과학의 역할

저자 : 박현태 ( Hyuntae Park )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 273-277 (5 pages)

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3운동선수의 비타민D에 대한 최신지견

저자 : 조진경 ( Jinkyung Cho ) , 박수현 ( Soo-hyun Park ) , 송홍선 ( Hong-sun Song )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 278-287 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: Vitamin D plays important roles in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Since vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are located in a variety of organs, including skeletal muscle, vitamin D has potentially widespread effects. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current understanding of the effects of vitamin D on muscle function and exercise performance in athletes.
METHODS: In this narrative review, we summarized previous studies by searching the literature in the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases.
RESULTS: Vitamin D has been shown to regulate multiple actions in skeletal muscle tissue, such as myocyte proliferation and growth via genomic and non-genomic molecular pathways. Higher levels of vitamin D are associated with improved skeletal muscle function and exercise performance. Moreover, in some studies, vitamin D supplementation has beneficial effects on muscle strength in athletes, especially those who are vitamin D-deficient.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D appears to have beneficial effects on muscle and exercise performance in athletes. However, more studies are needed to clarify the action and dosage of vitamin D in athletes.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

4The Moderating Effect of Urbanization on the Association between Socioeconomic Status and Physical Activity in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

저자 : Nan Chen , Chang Gyeong Kim , Kang Jae Jerry Lee , Jaehyun Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 288-294 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: Rapid urbanization has witnessed a dramatic decrease in physical activity. The purpose of this research was to explore the vulnerable inactivity group influenced by urbanization in China.
METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the 2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey were utilized. A total of 7,319 households, including 20,914 individuals within 12 provinces, were pooled. Seven types of physical activity were included in statistical testing. Community-level urbanization was measured on an urbanicity scale consisting of 12 dimensions. Cross-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the direct and interactive effects of individual socioeconomic statuses and community-level urbanization on a leisure time physical activity (LTPA). After removing incomplete responses, 8,617 samples were selected for the statistical analyses.
RESULTS: Community-level urbanization was positively related to participation probability in the LTPA. With an increase of one standard deviation (SD) in the level of urbanization, the odds of participating in the LTPA increased by approximately six times in the most urbanized areas compared with the least urbanized areas. The effect of employment status on the probability of participation in the LTPA differed across the levels of urbanization in each community. For white-collar workers who resided in the most urbanized communities, the odds of participating in the LTPA decreased by approximately 46% compared to their peers in the least urbanized communities.
CONCLUSIONS: Community-level urbanization should be addressed when developing interventions and health policies to promote physical activity during leisure time, especially for individuals who are white-collar workers living in urbanized communities.

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5남자 대학생의 8주간 넙다리뒤근 웨이트 트레이닝이 H/Q ratio와 H/Q FI에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김승리 ( Seung-Ri Kim ) , 강현주 ( Hyun-joo Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 295-302 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects on the hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q ratio) and H/Q ratio fatigue index (H/Q FI) of the knee joint of an 8-week weight training to improve the hamstring muscles of male college students.
METHODS: Twenty male college students were divided into two groups: an exercise group (EG) and a control group (CG). The EG participated in an 8-week hamstring weight training program, working out twice a week, 60 min per session, with a 60-80% 1RM and 12-16 RPE intensity. The peak torque, H/Q ratio, and H/Q FI were measured, and a t-test was used to verify the statistical significance of the difference between the pre- and post-intervention results.
RESULTS: The right flexor peak torque at 60°/sec increased by 14.10±9.60%BW in the EG and decreased by -9.00±16.55%BW in the CG, showing a significant difference between the groups (p<0.01). The left flexor peak torque increased by 6.60±12.31%BW in the EG and decreased by -5.10±10.68%BW in the CG, showing a significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). The left extensor peak torque decreased by -5.40±19.53%BW in the EG and by -28.40±25.70%BW in the CG, showing a significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). The H/Q ratios tended to increase, but the difference was not significant.
CONCLUSIONS: To prevent injuries and stabilize the knee joint, the central joint of the lower extremity that plays an important role in daily life and sports activities, hamstring weight training can be performed to maintain the H/Q ratio within the normal range.

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6The Effect of a Short Foot Eccentric Endurance Exercise on Foot Center of Pressure: A Pilot study

저자 : Jim Schilling , Bobby Gragston , Bryan Dunlavey , Jupil Ko

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 303-308 (6 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 5-week short foot eccentric endurance training program on the foot center of pressure measures in healthy university graduate students.
METHODS: Eleven healthy students between the ages of 18 and 35 years (n=11, 3 males, 8 females; mean age 26.5±2.5 years; BMI 23.9±2.6 kg/㎡) were included in the study. The participants volunteered in a 5-week progressive eccentric contraction short foot exercise program performed three times per week. The main outcome pressure measurements pre- and post-intervention in static double leg stance were measured using a MatScan® Pressure Mapping System.
RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in the base of support (p=.002, ES=2.59), time to boundary (p=.024, ES=1.63), and overall minima measures (p=.05, ES=1.36) pre- and post-intervention.
CONCLUSIONS: A 5-week progressive eccentric contraction short foot exercise program significantly decreased the center of pressure excursion measures, demonstrating improved postural control.

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7저항성 운동이 제2형 당뇨쥐의 심근 내 염증 인자와 ERK1/2 발현에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김문주 ( Moon-ju Kim ) , 김경래 ( Kyeong-lae Kim ) , 안민지 ( Min-ji An )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 309-317 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance ladder exercise on myocardial inflammatory cytokines and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 expression in type 2 diabetic rats.
METHODS: A total of 21 8-week-old male Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) and Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were divided into three groups: LETO group (CON, n=7), OLETF group (DM, n=7), and resistance exercise group (DM+EXE, n=7). Resistance exercise referred to a climbing exercise on a slope. The rats performed this exercise 3 full d per week, for 8 week. The expression of myocardial inflammatory cytokines and ERK1/2 was analyzed via western blotting after 8 week of exercise intervention.
RESULTS: After 8 weeks of resistance exercise for the management of type 2 diabetes, the production of anti-inflammatory factor Interleukin (IL)-10 in the myocardium increased. This inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory factors IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, resistance exercise did not affect the expression of ERK1 and ERK2, which are apoptosis regulatory proteins.
CONCLUSIONS: In type 2 diabetes, resistance exercise is thought to be effective in reducing inflammatory factors by mediating cytokines. Although the effects of resistance ladder exercise were confirmed, further studies on a variety of exercise types and intensities should be conducted to prevent and improve the conditions of those with diabetes.

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8Neuromuscular Characteristics and Physical Function in Participants with Parkinson's Disease

저자 : Ji-young Kim , Ji-Yong Byeon , Hyuk-in Yang , Jeonghoon-Oh , Ju-hee Lee , Moon-Ki Choi , Hae-Dong Lee , Justin Y Jeon

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 318-326 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the level of physical function, lower body strength, and muscle activation during various types of muscle contraction in participants with and without Parkinson's disease (PD).
METHODS: Twelve participants with PD (mean age=63.17±6.24 years) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy adults (mean age = 58.67±6.39 years) were recruited. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the length- and velocity-dependent maximum voluntary force and the rate of torque development (RTD) of the knee extensor muscles. Muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles of both legs was examined using surface electromyography. The 6-minute walk test, chair stand test, timed up-and-go test, sit-and-reach test, and back-scratch test were performed to assess physical function.
RESULTS: Compared to healthy individuals, participants with PD showed significantly lower maximum voluntary force and RTD (p<.05), performed fewer repetitions in the chair stand test (11.64±1.75 vs. 17.08±2.27, p<.001), were slower in the timed up-and-go test (8.36±1.42 vs. 5.65±1.07, p<.001), and walked shorter distances in the 6-minute walk test (424.17±65.97 vs. 539.47±63.18, p<.001). However, activation of the three different muscles during isometric and isokinetic muscle contraction was not different between participants with and without PD.
CONCLUSIONS: Preserved muscle activation and significantly lower muscle strength during various types of muscle contractions may suggest lower muscle strength and efficiency. The lower physical function seen in participants with mild PD could be due to disease and low physical activity-related muscle atrophy rather than lower muscle activation.

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9편심성 운동 후 상완이두근의 국소부위 간 기계적 속성의 차이

저자 : 김춘섭 ( Choun-sub Kim ) , 김맹규 ( Maeng-kyu Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 327-335 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of eccentric exercise (ECC) on the indices of mechanical properties together with markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in different sites of the biceps brachii (BB) muscle.
METHODS: ECC using an elbow joint was performed in 13 non-trained, college men. Global symptoms of EIMD were identified through changes in muscle soreness and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, including muscle function following ECC. To evaluate regional EIMD, muscle swelling and tenderness as well as muscular echo intensity were measured at distal (4 cm above the elbow joint) and middle (30% of the distance from the antecubital crease to the acromion) sites within the BB muscle. A handheld myotonometer was used to estimate changes in mechanical properties, that is, oscillation frequency (F), dynamic stiffness (S), and relaxation time (R), of BB muscles after ECC.
RESULTS: A significant difference in the major markers of EIMD, such as muscle soreness and serum CK activity, along with parameters of muscle function, was observed after ECC compared to baseline. Although all indirect markers of regional muscle damage demonstrated meaningful differences between before and after ECC, no statistically significant interaction between the distal and middle sites was observed in any of the markers. After ECC, both distal and middle sites showed significant changes in F, S, and R, but no statistical differences in changes in muscle mechanical properties were observed between localized muscle sites within BB muscles.
CONCLUSIONS: Changes in mechanical properties, including regional muscle damage, seem to be uniformly influenced by different anatomical locations within the BB muscle, such as elbow flexors, following ECC.

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10수온 차이에 의한 하이드로테라피 적용이 편심성 운동 후 근손상 발현 및 회복에 미치는 영향

저자 : 조현덕 ( Hyeon-deok Jo ) , 김춘섭 ( Choun-sub Kim ) , 김맹규 ( Maeng-kyu Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 336-345 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effect of hydrotherapy at different temperatures following eccentric exercise on muscle damage and recovery profiles in young men.
METHODS: Male college students without any cardiovascular or orthopedic disorders were randomly assigned to three hydrotherapy groups: a 5°C group (cold water, COLD), a 15°C group (cool water, COOL), and a control group (CON). Thirty maximal eccentric exercises were performed using the participants' nondominant elbow flexor muscles. Each treatment consisted of immersion five times for 1 minute, along with a 1-minute rest between each immersion trial. Each intervention was conducted immediately after the eccentric exercise and every 24 hours. Changes in the level of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), circumference, muscle soreness, range of motion (ROM), maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), muscle dynamic stiffness, and muscular echo intensity (EI) were measured. All parameters were measured at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after exercise, as well as immediately before and after exercise.
RESULTS: Muscle soreness was significantly higher in the COLD group than in the other groups. Moreover, the muscle circumference tended to increase in the COLD group than in the other groups. However, an increase in the dynamic stiffness and EI, promoting the recovery of MVIC, was observed in the COOL group. In addition, ROM tended to return more rapidly in the COOL group than in the other groups.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that hydrotherapy at moderately low temperatures compared with that at extremely low temperatures may induce relatively positive effects on EIMD and recovery phases following eccentric exercise in the arms.

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