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한국운동생리학회> 운동과학> 치매예방을 위한 근거기반 운동의 필요성

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치매예방을 위한 근거기반 운동의 필요성

The Necessity of Evidence-Based Exercise to Prevent Dementia

김창선 ( Changsun Kim )
  • : 한국운동생리학회
  • : 운동과학 30권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 08월
  • : 271-272(2pages)
운동과학

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UCI(KEPA)

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  • : 예체능분야  > 체육학
  • : KCI등재
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  • : 계간
  • : 1226-1726
  • : 2384-0544
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2021
  • : 1071


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1Emerging Era of Exercise Genomics

저자 : Seung Kyum Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 407-411 (5 pages)

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2앞십자인대 손상 예방을 위한 근신경 훈련의 최신 경향: 문헌 고찰

저자 : 이광진 ( Kwang-jin Lee ) , 안근옥 ( Keun-ok An )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 412-418 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are the most common in sports and have doubled in the past 20 years. This study aimed to analyze the latest trends and changes in training programs for ACL injury prevention.
METHODS: In this study, literature was searched using academic search sites, such as 'PubMed', 'Google Scholar', and 'Wiley Online Library'. The literature published between 2015 and 2021 was used.
RESULTS: Eleven papers were selected based on the literature selection criteria. Five warm-up exercise papers and six ACL injury prevention training program papers emphasized neuromuscular training.
CONCLUSIONS: The ACL injury prevention program can be applied in warm-up exercises and training programs. It consists of an exercise form that includes multidimensional components such as plyometrics, muscle strength, balance, and agility. The key to the ACL injury prevention program is to reflect multidimensional components in neuromuscular training and to obtain a significant effect, and it is recommended to participate in regular training for 12-18 sessions and at least 6 months. In addition, it is suggested to utilize the ACL injury prevention program presented in this study until an individual study for ACL injury prevention by sports type is conducted.

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3비만 노쇠와 복합 운동

저자 : 이해성 ( Hae Sung Lee ) , 김종희 ( Jong-hee Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 419-431 (13 pages)

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PURPOSE: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that impairs the health and quality of life of older adults. While unintended weight loss is known to be a primary risk factor for frailty, obesity has also been closely associated with frailty. Combined exercise is thought to be an effective way of resolving obesity and frailty, but studies demonstrating the effect of combined exercise on obese frailty are lacking. In this review, we seek to understand the relevant mechanisms by exploring prior studies on obese frailty, and provide the implications of appropriate combined exercise interventions for obese frailty.
METHODS: To collect data for this study, we used academic search systems such as Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science. The keywords used for the search were a combination of words such as 'obesity', 'frailty', 'combined or multicomponent exercise', and 'older or elderly adults'.
RESULTS: The results from the 16 selected articles confirmed that combined exercise reduces body weight, percentage of body fat, and risk of falls. Moreover, it improves muscle strength, balance, and walking function of the obese frail population.
CONCLUSIONS: As we have confirmed the positive outcomes on the combined exercise for obese frail older adults, an optimal exercise program needs to be presented. Older adults with obesity are recommended to exercise at least 2-3 times a week during the initial period. Further, they should begin with low-intensity walking, full-body exercise, balance, and flexibility exercises, then gradually increase the exercise volume. Moreover, to facilitate the positive outcomes of physical training and to encourage autonomy and enjoyment of exercise among obese frail older adults, a novel method and an individualized scientific exercise program need to be developed.

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4유방암 환자의 인지 손상에 미치는 운동 효과: 메타분석적 접근

저자 : 은홍범 ( Hong-bum Eun ) , 백성수 ( Seung-soo Baek )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 432-443 (12 pages)

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PURPOSE: Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is exposed to cognitive impairments that interfere with their daily lives after a complete recovery. Exercise is one of the effective non-pharmacological treatments to prevent or improve cognitive function decline. This study evaluated the effects of exercise interventions on cognitive function improvement in CRCI breast cancer patients and searched the association of various aspects in which exercise affects cognitive function improvement.
METHODS: PubMed, ScienceDirect, ACS journal, and Google scholar databases from 1 January 2014 to 31 May 2021 were utilized for searching articles related to research purpose. Meta-analysis was conducted with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 using the random-effect model.
RESULTS: A meta-analysis of seven studies showed that walking (ES=0.59, p=.000) was the most effective in improving cognitive function, and moderate-intensity (ES=0.60, p=.000) was more effective than moderate-to-high intensity (ES=0.27, p=.007) exercise in CRCI patients with breast cancer. Cognitive function improvement was observed in short-term exercise intervention for four weeks (ES=0.46, p=.038), and after that, it was found that the cognition improvement effect was maintained or improved through long-term (12 or 24 weeks) exercise. Moreover, the cognitive function of CRCI patients with breast cancer improved without supervision during exercise interventions (ES=0.39, p=.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Walking and moderate-intensity exercise can suppress cognitive impairment in CRCI patients with breast cancer. Personalized exercise prescription through short-term and long-term exercise periods can alleviate cognitive decline and improve the cognitive function of CRCI breast cancer patients. Exercise interventions without supervision also show a positive influence on cognitive function improvement.

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5Differential Gene Expression in Cell Types of the Human Skeletal Muscle: A Bioinformatics-Based Meta-Review

저자 : Kyung-wan Baek , So-jeong Kim , Ji-seok Kim , Sun-ok Kwon

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 444-452 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study evaluates the differences in the expression of genes frequently analyzed in the field of exercise science between the skeletal muscle tissue and various cell types that comprise the skeletal muscle tissue.
METHODS: We summarized the genes and proteins expressed in the skeletal muscle that were published in “Exercise Science” journal from 2015 to present. Thereafter, we selected 15 genes and proteins that were the most analyzed genes and proteins in the skeletal muscle. These genes and proteins were horizontally compared for expression differences in skeletal muscle components and cultured cells based on NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets.
RESULTS: The most analyzed genes (encoding analyzed proteins) in skeletal muscle tissues in “Exercise Science” were PPARGC1A, PPARD, MTOR, MAP1LC3A, MAP1LC3B, PRKAA1, AKT1, SLC2A4, MAPK1, COX4I1, MAPK14, MEF2A, MAPK8, RPS6KB1, and SOD1. Among them, PPARGC1A, AKT1, SLC2A4, MAPK1, and COX4I1 were specifically expressed in the skeletal muscle. However, expression of other genes was found to be significantly affected in other cell types of the skeletal muscle tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: Genes such as PPARGC1A, which are specifically expressed in the skeletal muscle, may be analyzed without pretreating (such as perfusion) the skeletal muscle tissue. However, expression of other genes may depend on the skeletal muscle cell type. Thus, in such instances, pretreatment, such as perfusion and isolation, should be considered.

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6국소 부위 고온 및 저온 스트레스가 안정 시 및 운동 시 온냉감 민감도 및 중성역에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김대환 ( Dae-hwan Kim ) , 한진희 ( Jean-hee Han ) , 장민혁 ( Min-hyeok Jang ) , 김정현 ( Jung-hyun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 453-461 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of local cold and heat stimuli on cutaneous thermal sensitivity and inter-threshold zone at rest and during exercise.
METHODS: Cutaneous warm and cold thresholds were measured on two body regions (forehead and hand) in three types of local thermal stress environments (neutral, heat, cold) using a method of limit in sixteen young, healthy male subjects (25.44±2.28 years) at rest and during exercise.
RESULTS: The results showed that the thermal inter-threshold zone was wider on the hand than on the forehead under thermal stress conditions at rest and during exercise. The thermal inter-threshold zone on both body regions widened with exercise (p<.05). Exercise significantly blunted both the warm and cold sensitivity in the forehead (p<.05), but only cold sensitivity in the hand (p<.05). Moreover, the thermal inter-threshold zone on both the forehead and hand became significantly wider when heat or cold stress was applied to the local body region (p<.001). In the forehead, warm and cold sensitivity were significantly blunted in both heat and cold stress environments (p<.05), whereas in the hard they were significantly blunted only in the heat stress environment (p<.01).
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the present study showed that the forehead is more sensitive to both warm and cold stimuli than the hand, regardless of thermal stress or exercise. Furthermore, the thermal inter-threshold zone on both the forehead and the hand widened with exercise and local thermal stimuli.

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7중년 남성의 신체활동량과 형태가 백혈구 텔로미어 길이에 미치는 영향

저자 : 신윤아 ( Yun-a Shin ) , 김창선 ( Chang-sun Kim ) , 이상현 ( Sang-hyun Lee ) , 이용우 ( Yong-woo Lee ) , 김준수 ( Jun-soo Kim ) , 박동호 ( Dong-ho Park )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 462-471 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a potential indicator of cellular senescence. However, its relationship with the type and volume of regular exercise is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the type and volume of long-term regular exercise on the LTL in middle-aged men (N=109, mean age=44.7±4.1 years [range: 40-56 years]).
METHODS: For all participants, the volume of physical activity (PA) was evaluated using a self-report questionnaire, and blood samples were collected simultaneously. We cross-sectionally examined the associations among the type and volume of PA, LTL, telomerase activity (TA), mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA), and body composition in three groups: 1) bodybuilders (BBs) with at least 5 years of athletic experience (n=36, mean age: 42.3±3.3 years [40-51 years]), 2) cyclists (CCs) with an athletic career similar to that of the BBs (n=37, mean age: 45.4±4.4 years [range: 40-53 years]), and 3) healthy ordinary people (CON; n=36, mean age: 46.3±3.3 years [range: 40-56 years]).
RESULTS: The LTL showed a significant positive correlation with the volume of PA (r=.285, p=.003), regardless of the type of PA. Furthermore, the LTLs were longer in the BB (p=.007) and CC (p=.003) groups (who performed moderate-to-vigorous PA for 150 minutes or more per week) than in the CON group. Conversely, the TA was significantly higher in the BB group (p=.009) than in the CON group; however, it only tended to be high in the CC group (p=.115). There were no intergroup differences in both the mtDNA (p=.127) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (p=.289) levels.
CONCLUSIONS: The TA was found to increase, and thus prevent telomere loss, in middle-aged men who performed PA of moderate-to-vigorous intensity, regardless of the PA type.

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8소변배출, 유산소 운동, 음식 및 물섭취가 생체전기 저항법을 이용한 신체조성측정에 미치는 영향

저자 : 조채은 ( Chaeeun Cho ) , 이세원 ( Sewon Lee )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 472-480 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: Body composition is strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, and accurate measurement of body composition is vital for the management of chronic diseases. In this study, we assessed whether major factors such as urination, aerobic exercise, food, and water consumption had significant effects on body composition by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).
METHODS: To achieve the goal of this study, research was conducted on 32 healthy young males (n=18) and females (n=14). All participants underwent body composition analysis in four different conditions (both pre- and post-urination, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for 30 minutes, immediately after food and water consumption, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after each treatment), and segmental BIA was performed using Inbody720.
RESULTS: We found that after urination, body weight, skeletal muscle mass, and basal metabolic rate (BMR) significantly decreased. However, water intake significantly increased body weight, body fat mass, and body fat percentage. Furthermore, an acute 30-minutes aerobic exercise significantly decreased body weight, fat mass, and fat percentage, and increased skeletal muscle mass and BMR. In addition, impedance decreased immediately and increased 120 minutes after the acute aerobic exercise. Finally, food ingestion significantly increased the body weight, skeletal muscle mass, and BMR.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that variables such as urination, exercise, food consumption, and water intake should be considered to accurately assess body composition.

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9폐 기능 및 운동수행력 증진을 위한 비 확장기의 효용성

저자 : 김동규 ( Dong-kyu Kim ) , 김맹규 ( Maeng-kyu Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 481-490 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine changes in pulmonary function induced by an internal nasal dilator (IND) and to determine whether an IND enhances exercise performance.
METHODS: Young, healthy men (n=13) were randomly assigned either an IND or control (CON) session to perform a pulmonary function test (PFT). All participants then completed treadmill exercise tests that consisted of maximal and submaximal running with or without an IND.
RESULTS: Some variables of PFTs were increased in men that used INDs compared to those in the CON group (p<.05, respectively). There was a significant difference between sessions in energy cost during the running test (65% VO2max) (p<.05). In the IND group, respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise was lower, and relaxation of respiratory muscles after exercise was faster, as compared with the CON group (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: IND may contribute to improvements in pulmonary function. Furthermore, INDs may reduce energy costs and respiratory muscle fatigue during submaximal exercise by maintaining nasal breathing and facilitating respiratory muscle relaxation after maximal exercise tests.

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10Acute Effects of Foam Rolling Exercises on Arterial Stiffness, Flexibility and Autonomic Nervous System Function in Young and Middle-Aged Women

저자 : Cheonok Lee , Sewon Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 491-500 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: Arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with flexibility. Self-myofascial release (SMR) using a foam roller is a popular intervention to improve flexibility, restore the muscles, fascia, tendons, and ligaments, and regain soft-tissue extensibility. This study aimed to investigate whether a single bout of SMR has a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness and the function of the autonomic nervous system and the relationships among these variables in young and middle-aged women by age.
METHODS: Ten healthy young (23.20±0.59 years) and 10 middle-aged women (44.50±0.91 years) completed an instructed SMR using a foam roller. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), augmentation index (AIx), trunk flexibility, shoulder flexibility, heart rate variability, including standard deviation of normal R-R intervals (SDNN), and the root mean square of the standard deviation of the time between heartbeats (RMSSD) were measured before and after one 30-minutes bout of SMR.
RESULTS: After one bout of SMR, trunk and shoulder flexibility increased in both groups of women, while AIx decreased significantly (from 6.9±2.9 to -1.9±4.6%, p=.0072, young women group; from 22.1±3.4 to 14.7±1.7%, p=.0049, middle-aged women group). However, the baPWV, RMSSD, and SDNN did not change. In the analysis of correlations between all measured variables, changes in AIx showed negative correlations with flexibility and SDNN.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that one bout of SMR using a foam roller positively affected arterial stiffness in women by reducing AIx and improving flexibility.

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1치매예방을 위한 근거기반 운동의 필요성

저자 : 김창선 ( Changsun Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 271-272 (2 pages)

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2운동부족 시대의 운동과학의 역할

저자 : 박현태 ( Hyuntae Park )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 273-277 (5 pages)

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3운동선수의 비타민D에 대한 최신지견

저자 : 조진경 ( Jinkyung Cho ) , 박수현 ( Soo-hyun Park ) , 송홍선 ( Hong-sun Song )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 278-287 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: Vitamin D plays important roles in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Since vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are located in a variety of organs, including skeletal muscle, vitamin D has potentially widespread effects. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current understanding of the effects of vitamin D on muscle function and exercise performance in athletes.
METHODS: In this narrative review, we summarized previous studies by searching the literature in the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases.
RESULTS: Vitamin D has been shown to regulate multiple actions in skeletal muscle tissue, such as myocyte proliferation and growth via genomic and non-genomic molecular pathways. Higher levels of vitamin D are associated with improved skeletal muscle function and exercise performance. Moreover, in some studies, vitamin D supplementation has beneficial effects on muscle strength in athletes, especially those who are vitamin D-deficient.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D appears to have beneficial effects on muscle and exercise performance in athletes. However, more studies are needed to clarify the action and dosage of vitamin D in athletes.

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4The Moderating Effect of Urbanization on the Association between Socioeconomic Status and Physical Activity in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

저자 : Nan Chen , Chang Gyeong Kim , Kang Jae Jerry Lee , Jaehyun Kim

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 288-294 (7 pages)

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PURPOSE: Rapid urbanization has witnessed a dramatic decrease in physical activity. The purpose of this research was to explore the vulnerable inactivity group influenced by urbanization in China.
METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the 2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey were utilized. A total of 7,319 households, including 20,914 individuals within 12 provinces, were pooled. Seven types of physical activity were included in statistical testing. Community-level urbanization was measured on an urbanicity scale consisting of 12 dimensions. Cross-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the direct and interactive effects of individual socioeconomic statuses and community-level urbanization on a leisure time physical activity (LTPA). After removing incomplete responses, 8,617 samples were selected for the statistical analyses.
RESULTS: Community-level urbanization was positively related to participation probability in the LTPA. With an increase of one standard deviation (SD) in the level of urbanization, the odds of participating in the LTPA increased by approximately six times in the most urbanized areas compared with the least urbanized areas. The effect of employment status on the probability of participation in the LTPA differed across the levels of urbanization in each community. For white-collar workers who resided in the most urbanized communities, the odds of participating in the LTPA decreased by approximately 46% compared to their peers in the least urbanized communities.
CONCLUSIONS: Community-level urbanization should be addressed when developing interventions and health policies to promote physical activity during leisure time, especially for individuals who are white-collar workers living in urbanized communities.

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5남자 대학생의 8주간 넙다리뒤근 웨이트 트레이닝이 H/Q ratio와 H/Q FI에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김승리 ( Seung-Ri Kim ) , 강현주 ( Hyun-joo Kang )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 295-302 (8 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects on the hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q ratio) and H/Q ratio fatigue index (H/Q FI) of the knee joint of an 8-week weight training to improve the hamstring muscles of male college students.
METHODS: Twenty male college students were divided into two groups: an exercise group (EG) and a control group (CG). The EG participated in an 8-week hamstring weight training program, working out twice a week, 60 min per session, with a 60-80% 1RM and 12-16 RPE intensity. The peak torque, H/Q ratio, and H/Q FI were measured, and a t-test was used to verify the statistical significance of the difference between the pre- and post-intervention results.
RESULTS: The right flexor peak torque at 60°/sec increased by 14.10±9.60%BW in the EG and decreased by -9.00±16.55%BW in the CG, showing a significant difference between the groups (p<0.01). The left flexor peak torque increased by 6.60±12.31%BW in the EG and decreased by -5.10±10.68%BW in the CG, showing a significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). The left extensor peak torque decreased by -5.40±19.53%BW in the EG and by -28.40±25.70%BW in the CG, showing a significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). The H/Q ratios tended to increase, but the difference was not significant.
CONCLUSIONS: To prevent injuries and stabilize the knee joint, the central joint of the lower extremity that plays an important role in daily life and sports activities, hamstring weight training can be performed to maintain the H/Q ratio within the normal range.

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6The Effect of a Short Foot Eccentric Endurance Exercise on Foot Center of Pressure: A Pilot study

저자 : Jim Schilling , Bobby Gragston , Bryan Dunlavey , Jupil Ko

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 303-308 (6 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 5-week short foot eccentric endurance training program on the foot center of pressure measures in healthy university graduate students.
METHODS: Eleven healthy students between the ages of 18 and 35 years (n=11, 3 males, 8 females; mean age 26.5±2.5 years; BMI 23.9±2.6 kg/㎡) were included in the study. The participants volunteered in a 5-week progressive eccentric contraction short foot exercise program performed three times per week. The main outcome pressure measurements pre- and post-intervention in static double leg stance were measured using a MatScan® Pressure Mapping System.
RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in the base of support (p=.002, ES=2.59), time to boundary (p=.024, ES=1.63), and overall minima measures (p=.05, ES=1.36) pre- and post-intervention.
CONCLUSIONS: A 5-week progressive eccentric contraction short foot exercise program significantly decreased the center of pressure excursion measures, demonstrating improved postural control.

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7저항성 운동이 제2형 당뇨쥐의 심근 내 염증 인자와 ERK1/2 발현에 미치는 영향

저자 : 김문주 ( Moon-ju Kim ) , 김경래 ( Kyeong-lae Kim ) , 안민지 ( Min-ji An )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 309-317 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance ladder exercise on myocardial inflammatory cytokines and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 expression in type 2 diabetic rats.
METHODS: A total of 21 8-week-old male Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) and Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were divided into three groups: LETO group (CON, n=7), OLETF group (DM, n=7), and resistance exercise group (DM+EXE, n=7). Resistance exercise referred to a climbing exercise on a slope. The rats performed this exercise 3 full d per week, for 8 week. The expression of myocardial inflammatory cytokines and ERK1/2 was analyzed via western blotting after 8 week of exercise intervention.
RESULTS: After 8 weeks of resistance exercise for the management of type 2 diabetes, the production of anti-inflammatory factor Interleukin (IL)-10 in the myocardium increased. This inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory factors IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, resistance exercise did not affect the expression of ERK1 and ERK2, which are apoptosis regulatory proteins.
CONCLUSIONS: In type 2 diabetes, resistance exercise is thought to be effective in reducing inflammatory factors by mediating cytokines. Although the effects of resistance ladder exercise were confirmed, further studies on a variety of exercise types and intensities should be conducted to prevent and improve the conditions of those with diabetes.

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8Neuromuscular Characteristics and Physical Function in Participants with Parkinson's Disease

저자 : Ji-young Kim , Ji-Yong Byeon , Hyuk-in Yang , Jeonghoon-Oh , Ju-hee Lee , Moon-Ki Choi , Hae-Dong Lee , Justin Y Jeon

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 318-326 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the level of physical function, lower body strength, and muscle activation during various types of muscle contraction in participants with and without Parkinson's disease (PD).
METHODS: Twelve participants with PD (mean age=63.17±6.24 years) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy adults (mean age = 58.67±6.39 years) were recruited. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the length- and velocity-dependent maximum voluntary force and the rate of torque development (RTD) of the knee extensor muscles. Muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles of both legs was examined using surface electromyography. The 6-minute walk test, chair stand test, timed up-and-go test, sit-and-reach test, and back-scratch test were performed to assess physical function.
RESULTS: Compared to healthy individuals, participants with PD showed significantly lower maximum voluntary force and RTD (p<.05), performed fewer repetitions in the chair stand test (11.64±1.75 vs. 17.08±2.27, p<.001), were slower in the timed up-and-go test (8.36±1.42 vs. 5.65±1.07, p<.001), and walked shorter distances in the 6-minute walk test (424.17±65.97 vs. 539.47±63.18, p<.001). However, activation of the three different muscles during isometric and isokinetic muscle contraction was not different between participants with and without PD.
CONCLUSIONS: Preserved muscle activation and significantly lower muscle strength during various types of muscle contractions may suggest lower muscle strength and efficiency. The lower physical function seen in participants with mild PD could be due to disease and low physical activity-related muscle atrophy rather than lower muscle activation.

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9편심성 운동 후 상완이두근의 국소부위 간 기계적 속성의 차이

저자 : 김춘섭 ( Choun-sub Kim ) , 김맹규 ( Maeng-kyu Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 327-335 (9 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of eccentric exercise (ECC) on the indices of mechanical properties together with markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in different sites of the biceps brachii (BB) muscle.
METHODS: ECC using an elbow joint was performed in 13 non-trained, college men. Global symptoms of EIMD were identified through changes in muscle soreness and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, including muscle function following ECC. To evaluate regional EIMD, muscle swelling and tenderness as well as muscular echo intensity were measured at distal (4 cm above the elbow joint) and middle (30% of the distance from the antecubital crease to the acromion) sites within the BB muscle. A handheld myotonometer was used to estimate changes in mechanical properties, that is, oscillation frequency (F), dynamic stiffness (S), and relaxation time (R), of BB muscles after ECC.
RESULTS: A significant difference in the major markers of EIMD, such as muscle soreness and serum CK activity, along with parameters of muscle function, was observed after ECC compared to baseline. Although all indirect markers of regional muscle damage demonstrated meaningful differences between before and after ECC, no statistically significant interaction between the distal and middle sites was observed in any of the markers. After ECC, both distal and middle sites showed significant changes in F, S, and R, but no statistical differences in changes in muscle mechanical properties were observed between localized muscle sites within BB muscles.
CONCLUSIONS: Changes in mechanical properties, including regional muscle damage, seem to be uniformly influenced by different anatomical locations within the BB muscle, such as elbow flexors, following ECC.

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10수온 차이에 의한 하이드로테라피 적용이 편심성 운동 후 근손상 발현 및 회복에 미치는 영향

저자 : 조현덕 ( Hyeon-deok Jo ) , 김춘섭 ( Choun-sub Kim ) , 김맹규 ( Maeng-kyu Kim )

발행기관 : 한국운동생리학회 간행물 : 운동과학 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 336-345 (10 pages)

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effect of hydrotherapy at different temperatures following eccentric exercise on muscle damage and recovery profiles in young men.
METHODS: Male college students without any cardiovascular or orthopedic disorders were randomly assigned to three hydrotherapy groups: a 5°C group (cold water, COLD), a 15°C group (cool water, COOL), and a control group (CON). Thirty maximal eccentric exercises were performed using the participants' nondominant elbow flexor muscles. Each treatment consisted of immersion five times for 1 minute, along with a 1-minute rest between each immersion trial. Each intervention was conducted immediately after the eccentric exercise and every 24 hours. Changes in the level of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), circumference, muscle soreness, range of motion (ROM), maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), muscle dynamic stiffness, and muscular echo intensity (EI) were measured. All parameters were measured at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after exercise, as well as immediately before and after exercise.
RESULTS: Muscle soreness was significantly higher in the COLD group than in the other groups. Moreover, the muscle circumference tended to increase in the COLD group than in the other groups. However, an increase in the dynamic stiffness and EI, promoting the recovery of MVIC, was observed in the COOL group. In addition, ROM tended to return more rapidly in the COOL group than in the other groups.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that hydrotherapy at moderately low temperatures compared with that at extremely low temperatures may induce relatively positive effects on EIMD and recovery phases following eccentric exercise in the arms.

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