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한국균학회> Mycobiology> Analysis of the Genome Sequence of Strain GiC-126 of Gloeostereum incarnatum with Genetic Linkage Map

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Analysis of the Genome Sequence of Strain GiC-126 of Gloeostereum incarnatum with Genetic Linkage Map

Wan-zhu Jiang , Fang-jie Yao , Ming Fang , Li-xin Lu , You-min Zhang , Peng Wang , Jing-jing Meng , Jia Lu , Xiao-xu Ma , Qi He , Kai-sheng Shao , Asif Ali Khan , Yun-hui Wei
  • : 한국균학회
  • : Mycobiology 49권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2021년 08월
  • : 406-420(15pages)
Mycobiology

DOI


목차

1. Introduction
2. Materials and methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
5. Conclusions
Acknowledgment
Disclosure statement
Funding
ORCID
References

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Gloeostereum incarnatum has edible and medicinal value and was first cultivated and domesticated in China. We sequenced the G. incarnatum monokaryotic strain GiC-126 on an Illumina HiSeq X Ten system and obtained a 34.52-Mb genome assembly sequence that encoded 16,895 predicted genes. We combined the GiC-126 genome with the published genome of G. incarnatum strain CCMJ2665 to construct a genetic linkage map (GiC-126 genome) that had 10 linkage groups (LGs), and the 15 assembly sequences of CCMJ2665 were integrated into 8 LGs. We identified 1912 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and detected 700 genes containing 768 SSRs in the genome; 65 and 100 of them were annotated with gene ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways, respectively. Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) were identified in 20 fungal genomes and annotated; among them, 144 CAZymes were annotated in the GiC-126 genome. The A mating-type locus (MAT-A) of G. incarnatum was located on scaffold885 at 38.9 cM of LG1 and was flanked by two homeodomain (HD1) genes, mip and beta-fg. Fourteen segregation distortion markers were detected in the genetic linkage map, all of which were skewed toward the parent GiC-126. They formed three segregation distortion regions (SDR1-SDR3), and 22 predictive genes were found in scaffold1920 where three segregation distortion markers were located in SDR1. In this study, we corrected and updated the genomic information of G. incarnatum. Our results will provide a theoretical basis for fine gene mapping, functional gene cloning, and genetic breeding the follow-up of G. incarnatum.

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간행물정보

  • : 자연과학분야  > 생물
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCI,SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 1229-8093
  • : 2092-9323
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2000-2021
  • : 1184


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1Phallus chiangmaiensis sp. nov. and a Record of P. merulinus in Thailand

저자 : Sujinda Sommai , Phongsawat Khamsuntorn , Sayanh Somrithipol , Janet Jennifer Luangsa-ard , Umpawa Pinruan

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 439-453 (15 pages)

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During the rainy season in Thailand, specimens of Phallus chiangmaiensis sp. nov. and P. merulinus were collected from Chiang Mai and Samut Sakhon Provinces, respectively. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU), nuclear ribosomal 5.8S gene including the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 (ITS), and the protein-coding gene atp6 (mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate [ATP] synthase subunit 6) support the placement of the new species within Phallus. Phallus chiangmaiensis has a well-developed white indusium and campanulated caps with reticulate surfaces. It differs morphologically from the related species, as supported by the phylogenetic data. Phallus merulinus is reported here as a species that was re-encountered in Thailand. The descriptions of the species are accompanied by illustrations of macro- and micro- morphological features, and a discussion of the related taxa is presented.

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2First Report of Six Macrofungi from Daecheongdo and Socheongdo Islands, Korea

저자 : Minkyeong Kim , Jin Sung Lee , Jae Young Park , Changmu Kim

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 454-460 (7 pages)

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Daecheongdo and Socheongdo Islands are located in the West Sea of Korea, 210km away from land, and are military border areas very close to North Korea, making them difficult to access. Although the ecosystem of the islands is relatively well preserved due to the lack of accessibility, research on fungi of the regions is insufficient. Therefore, we aimed to investigate indigenous fungi in these geographically and geopolitically constrained regions. A survey of the indigenous fungal diversity of the islands was conducted in 2018. All specimens were identified at the species level based on morphological and molecular analyses. Among them, six macrofungi―namely, Agaricus menieri, Crepidotus praecipuus, Dichomitus squalens, Hortiboletus amygdalinus, Melanoleuca friesii, and Trametes lactinea―were not previously reported in Korea. Considering that the proportion of unrecorded species is high in the survey area and period as well as the number of samples collected, similar research on adjacent islands may be necessary.

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3Determination of Diversity, Distribution and Host Specificity of Korean Laccaria Using Four Approaches

저자 : Hae Jin Cho , Ki Hyeong Park , Myung Soo Park , Yoonhee Cho , Ji Seon Kim , Chang Wan Seo , Seung-yoon Oh , Young Woon Lim

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 461-468 (8 pages)

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The genus Laccaria (Hydnangiaceae, Agaricales) plays an important role in forest ecosystems as an ectomycorrhizal fungus, contributing to nutrient cycles through symbiosis with many types of trees. Though understanding Laccaria diversity and distribution patterns, as well as its association with host plants, is fundamental to constructing a balanced plant diversity and conducting effective forest management, previous studies have not been effective in accurately investigating, as they relied heavily on specimen collection alone. To investigate the true diversity and distribution pattern of Laccaria species and determine their host types, we used four different approaches: specimen-based analysis, open database search (ODS), NGS analysis, and species-specific PCR (SSP). As a result, 14 Laccaria species have been confirmed in Korea. Results regarding the species distribution pattern were different between specimen-based analysis and SSP. However, when both were integrated, the exact distribution pattern of each Laccaria species was determined. In addition, the SSP revealed that many Laccaria species have a wide range of host types. This study shows that using these four different approaches is useful in determining the diversity, distribution, and host of ECM fungi. Furthermore, results obtained for Laccaria will serve as a baseline to help understand the role of ECM fungi in forest management in response to climate change.

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4Mrakia terrae sp. nov. and Mrakia soli sp. nov., Two Novel Basidiomycetous Yeast Species Isolated from Soil in Korea

저자 : Yuna Park , Soohyun Maeng , Junsang Oh , Gi-ho Sung , Sathiyaraj Srinivasan

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 469-475 (7 pages)

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Three strains, YP416T, YP421T, and Y422, were isolated from soil samples in Pocheon City, Gyeonggi province, South Korea. The strains belong to two novel yeast species in the genus Mrakia. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain YP416T was closely related to Mrakia niccombsii. Still, it differed by 9 nucleotide substitutions with no gap (1.51%) in the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene and 14 nucleotide substitutions with 7 gaps (2.36%) in the ITS region. The strain YP421T differed from the type strain of the most closely related species, Mrakia aquatica, by 5 nucleotide substitutions with no gap (0.81%) in the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene and 9 nucleotide substitutions with one gap (1.43%) in the ITS region. The names Mrakia terrae sp. nov. and Mrakia soli sp. nov. are proposed, with type strains YP416T (KCTC 27886T) and YP421T (KCTC 27890T), respectively. MycoBank numbers of the strains YP416T and YP421T are MB 836844 and MB 836847, respectively.

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5High-Temperature-Tolerant Fungus and Oomycetes in Korea, Including Saksenaea longicolla sp. nov.

저자 : Bora Nam , Dong-jae Lee , Young-joon Choi

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 476-490 (15 pages)

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Global temperatures are steadily increasing, leading to significant changes in microbial diversity and ecology. In the present study, we isolated high-temperature-growing fungi and fungi-like group (Oomycota) strains from freshwater environments of Korea and identified them based on cultural, morphological, and multilocus phylogenetic analyses. As a result, we introduce Saksenaea (Fungi) isolates as a new species, Saksenaea longicolla sp. nov. and record Phytophthora chlamydospora and P. lagoariana (Oomycota) new to Korea. In the growth experiments, they exhibited high-temperature tolerance, which can grow at 35-40 ℃ but become inactive at 4 ℃ and below. This study confirms the presence of high-temperature- tolerant fungi and oomycetes in Korea and suggests that the Korean climate conditions are changing in favor of these species. This indicates that climate warming is altering microbial distributions in freshwater environments.

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6Optimization of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of Xylaria grammica EL000614, an Endolichenic Fungus Producing Grammicin

저자 : Min-hye Jeong , Jung A. Kim , Seogchan Kang , Eu Ddeum Choi , Youngmin Kim , Yerim Lee , Mi Jin Jeon , Nan Hee Yu , Ae Ran Park , Jin-cheol Kim , Soonok Kim , Sook-young Park

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 491-497 (7 pages)

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An endolichenic fungus Xylaria grammica EL000614 produces grammicin, a potent nematicidal pyrone derivative that can serve as a new control option for root-knot nematodes. We optimized an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) protocol for X. grammica to support genetic studies. Transformants were successfully generated after co-cultivation of homogenized young mycelia of X. grammica with A. tumefaciens strain AGL-1 carrying a binary vector that contains the bacterial hygromycin B phosphotransferase (hph) gene and the eGFP gene in T-DNA. The resulting transformants were mitotically stable, and PCR analysis showed the integratin of both genes in the genome of transformants. Expression of eGFP was confirmed via fluorescence microscopy. Southern analysis showed that 131 (78.9%) out of 166 transformants contained a single T-DNA insertion. Crucial factors for producing predominantly single T-DNA transformants include 48 h of co-cultivation, pretreatment of A. tumefaciens cells with acetosyringone before co-cultivation, and using freshly prepared mycelia. The established ATMT protocol offers an efficient tool for random insertional mutagenesis and gene transfer in studying the biology and ecology of X. grammica.

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7Antifungal Activity of an Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus versicolor DYSJ3 from Aphanamixis grandifolia Blume against Colletotrichum musae

저자 : Xiaoyu Li , Yateng Wu , Zhiqiang Liu

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 498-506 (9 pages)

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An endophytic fungus strain DYSJ3 was isolated from a stem of Aphanamixis grandifolia Blume, which was identified as Aspergillus versicolor based on the morphological characteristics, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and calmodulin gene sequences analyses. A. versicolor DYSJ3 exhibited strong antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum musae, C. gloeosporioides and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense with the inhibition rates of 61.9, 51.2 and 55.3% respectively. The antifungal metabolites mainly existed in the mycelium of A. versicolor DYSJ3, and its mycelial crude extract (CE) had broad-spectrum antifungal activities against plant pathogenic fungi. The CE had a good thermal stability, and the inhibition rate of 100 mg/mL CE against C. musae was above 70.0% after disposing at 120 ℃ for 1 h. Five secondary metabolites were isolated from the CE and identified as averufanin, ergosterol peroxide, versicolorin B, averythrin and sterigmatocystin. Activity evaluation showed versicolorin B exhibited inhibitory effects on the mycelial growth and conidial germination of C. musae, and sterigmatocystin had a weak inhibitory effect on the mycelial growth of C. musae.

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8Removal of Manganese and Copper from Aqueous Solution by Yeast Papiliotrema huenov

저자 : Phu Nguyen Van , Hai Thi Hong Truong , Tuan Anh Pham , Tuan Le Cong , Tien Le , Kim Cuc Thi Nguyen

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 507-520 (14 pages)

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Papiliotrema huenov was previously reported to be highly tolerant of a range of extremely toxic heavy metals. This study aimed to identify the potential of P. huenov to remove manganese and copper from aqueous solution. Physical conditions which affect removal of Mn(II) and Cu(II) were determined. Optimal temperature for adsorption of both metal ions was 30 ℃, and optimal pH for maximum uptake of Mn(II) and Cu(II) were 5 and 6, respectively. Under these conditions, living cells of P. huenov accumulated up to 75.58% of 110mg/ L Mn(II) and 70.5% of 128mg/L Cu(II) over 120 h, whereas, the removal efficiency of metal ions by dead cells over 1 h was 60.3% and 56.5%, respectively. These results indicate that living cells are more effective than dead biomass for bioremediation, but that greater time is required. The experimental data extends the potential use of P. huenov in biosorption and bioaccumulation of toxic heavy metals to copper and manganese, two of the most common industrial contaminants.

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9Zygotorulaspora cornina sp. nov. and Zygotorulaspora smilacis sp. nov., Two Novel Ascomycetous Yeast Species Isolated from Plant Flowers and Fruits

저자 : Chorong Ahn , Minkyeong Kim , Changmu Kim

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 521-526 (6 pages)

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Three isolates belonging to the ascomycetous genus Zygotorulaspora were obtained from the fruits of Cornus officinalis and Smilax china, and flowers of Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum in Gongju-si, Korea. Phylogenetic Analyses of the LSU D1/D2 domain and ITS region sequences supported the recognition of two new species: Zygotorulaspora cornina sp. nov. (type strain NIBRFGC000500475 ¼ KACC93346PPP) and Zygotorulaspora smilacis sp. nov. (type strain NIBRFGC000500476 ¼ KACC93347PPP). The two novel species revealed no growth on D-Galactose, unlike the other six species in the genus Zygotorulaspora. They are distinguished from each other by their phylogenetic differences and phenotypic characteristics such as assimilation of xylitol, 5-keto-D-gluconate, and ethanol. All species in the genus Zygotorulaspora including the two novel species have phenotypic traits of genus Zygotorulaspora: asci are persistent, sucrose and raffinose are assimilated, and m-inositol is not required for growth, and they are mainly associated with plants.

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1Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data of the Chinese Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps liangshanensis Reveal Its New Systematic Position in the Family Ophiocordycipitaceae

저자 : Yao Wang , Yong-dong Dai , Zhong-lin Yang , Rui Guo , Yuan-bing Wang , Zhu L. Yang , Lei Ding , Hong Yu

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 297-307 (11 pages)

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A cordycipitoid fungus infecting Hepialidae sp. in Nepal was supposed to be identical to Cordyceps liangshanensis, originally described from southwestern China, and thus, transferred to the genus Metacordyceps or Papiliomyces in previous studies. However, our multi-gene (nrSSU-nrLSU-tef-1a-rpb1-rpb2) phylogenetic and morphological studies based on the type specimen and additional collections of C. liangshanensis revealed that the fungus belongs to the genus Ophiocordyceps (Ophiocordycipitaceae). Therefore, a new combination O. liangshanensis was made, and a detailed description of this species was provided.

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2Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Lactifluus (Russulales, Basidiomycota) of South Korea

저자 : Hyun Lee , Komsit Wissitrassameewong , Myung Soo Park , Jonathan J. Fong , Annemieke Verbeken , Changmu Kim , Young Woon Lim

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 308-345 (38 pages)

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Lactifluus (Pers.) Roussel is an ectomycorrhizal genus that was recently recognized to be distinct from the genus Lactarius. To date, 226 Lactifluus species have been reported worldwide. Misidentification of Lactifluus species is common because of intraspecific morphological variation, cryptic diversity, and the limited number of taxonomic keys available. Molecular data are indispensable for species delimitation; a multilocus phylogenetic analysis showed that most Asian Lactifluus species are not conspecific with morphologically similar species present on other continents. In particular, Korea has misused European and North American Lactifluus names. In this study, we evaluated the taxonomy of Lactifluus in Korea using both morphological and multilocus molecular (ITS, nrLSU, rpb1, and rpb2) data. We examined 199 Lactifluus specimens collected between 1980 and 2016, and a total of 24 species across the four Lactifluus subgenera were identified. All Korean species are distinct and clearly separated from European and North American species. Five taxa corresponded to previously described species from Asia and the remaining 19 taxa are confirmed as new species. Herein, we provide keys to the Korean Lactifluus species within their subgenera, molecular phylogenies, a summary of diversity, and detailed description of the new species.

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3Four Unrecorded Aspergillus Species from the Rhizosphere Soil in South Korea

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The genus Aspergillus is commonly isolated from various marine and terrestrial environments; however, only a few species have been studied in rhizosphere soil. As part of the Korean indigenous fungal excavation project, we investigated fungal diversity from rhizosphere soil, focusing on Aspergillus species. A total of 13 strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of three different plants. Based on phylogenetic analysis of b-tubulin and calmodulin and morphological characteristics, we identified five Aspergillus species. A. calidoustus and A. pseudodeflectus were commonly isolated from the rhizosphere soil. Four species were confirmed as unrecorded species in Korea: A. calidoustus, A. dimorphicus, A. germanicus, and A. pseudodeflecuts. The detailed morphological descriptions of these unrecorded species are provided.

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4A New Marine Species of Miracula (Oomycota) Parasitic to Minidiscus sp. in Iceland

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Obligate endoparasitic oomycetes are known to ubiquitously occur in marine and freshwater diatoms, but their diversity is still largely unexplored. Many of these parasitoids are members of the early-diverging oomycete lineages (Miracula, Diatomophthora), others are within the Leptomitales of the Saprolegniomycetes (Ectrogella, Lagenisma) and some have been described in the Peronosporomycetes (Aphanomycopsis, Lagenidium). Even though some species have been recently described and two new genera were introduced (Miracula and Diatomophthora), the phylogeny and taxonomy of most of these organisms remain unresolved. This is contrasted by the high number of sequences from unclassified species, as recently revealed from environmental sequencing, suggesting the presence of several undiscovered species. In this study, a new species of Miracula is reported from a marine centric diatom (Minidiscus sp.) isolated from Skagastr€ond harbor in Northwest Iceland. The morphology and life cycle traits of this novel oomycete parasite are described herein, and its taxonomic placement within the genus Miracula is confirmed by molecular phylogeny. As it cannot be assigned to any previously described species, it is introduced as Miracula islandica in this study. The genus Miracula thus contains three described holocarpic species (M. helgolandica, M. islandica, M. moenusica) to which likely additional species will need to be added in the future, considering the presence of several lineages known only from environmental sequencing that clustered within the Miracula clade.

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5Seven New Records of Penicillium Species Belonging to Section Lanata-Divaricata in Korea

저자 : Monmi Pangging , Thuong T. T. Nguyen , Hyang Burm Lee

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 363-375 (13 pages)

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Penicillium species are known to be ubiquitous environmental saprophytes. In the survey of diversity of genus Penicillium, seven new records of Penicillium species belonging to section Lanata-Divaricata were isolated from freshwater and soil samples collected from different locations in Korea. Based on morphological characteristics and multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), b-tubulin (BenA), and calmodulin (CaM) genes, the isolated strains were identified as P. annulatum, P. camponotum, P. echinu-lonalgiovense, P. globosum, P. limosum, P. onobense, and P. yunnanense, respectively. This study presents detailed phylogenetic analyses and morphological descriptions of these species that contribute to section Lanata-Divaricata in Korea.

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6Evaluation of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Analysis among Germplasm of Agaricus bisporus by SSR Markers

저자 : Hyejin An , Hwa-yong Lee , Hyeran Shin , Jun Hyoung Bang , Seahee Han , Youn-lee Oh , Kab-yeul Jang , Hyunwoo Cho , Tae Kyung Hyun , Jwakyung Sung , Yoon-sup So , Ick-hyun Jo , Jong-wook Chung

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 376-384 (9 pages)

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Agaricus bisporus is a popular edible mushroom that is cultivated worldwide. Due to its secondary homothallic nature, cultivated A. bisporus strains have low genetic diversity, and breeding novel strains is challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of globally collected A. bisporus strains using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Agaricus bisporus strains were divided based on genetic distance- based groups and model-based subpopulations. The major allele frequency (MAF), number of genotypes (NG), number of alleles (NA), observed heterozygosity (HO), expected heterozygosity (HE), and polymorphic information content (PIC) were calculated, and genetic distance, population structure, genetic differentiation, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) were assessed. Strains were divided into two groups by distance-based analysis and into three subpopulations by model-based analysis. Strains in subpopulations POP A and POP B were included in Group I, and strains in subpopulation POP C were included in Group II. Genetic differentiation between strains was 99%. Marker AB-gSSR-1057 in Group II and subpopulation POP C was confirmed to be in HWE. These results will enhance A. bisporus breeding programs and support the protection of genetic resources.

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7Fungal Community Analyses of Endophytic Fungi from Two Oak Species, Quercus mongolica and Quercus serrata, in Korea

저자 : Manh Ha Nguyen , Keum Chul Shin , Jong Kyu Lee

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 385-395 (11 pages)

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Fungal endophytes have been recorded in various plant species with a richness of diversity, and their presence plays an essential role in host plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. This study applied the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform based on the amplification of fungal ribosomal ITS2 region to analyze fungal endophytic communities of two oak species (Quercus mongolica and Q. serrata) with different oak wilt disease susceptibilities in Korea. The results showed a total of 230,768 sequencing reads were obtained and clustered at a 97% similarity threshold into 709 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The OTUs of Q. serrata were higher than that of Q. mongolica with the number of 617 OTUs and 512 OTUs, respectively. Shannon index also showed that Q. serrata had a significantly higher level of fungal diversity than Q. mongolica. Total of OTUs were assigned into 5 fungal phyla, 17 classes, 60 orders, 133 families, 195 genera, and 280 species. Ascomycota was the dominant phylum with 75.11% relative abundance, followed by Basidiomycota with 5.28%. Leptosillia, Aureobasidium and Acanthostigma were the most abundant genera detected in Q. serrata with the average relative abundance of 2.85, 2.76, and 2.19%, respectively. On the other hand, Peltaster, Cladosporium and Monochaetia were the most common genera detected in Q. mongolica with the average relative abundance of 4.83, 3.03, and 2.87%, respectively. Our results indicated that fungal endophytic communities were significantly different between two oak species and these differences could influence responses of host trees to oak wilt disease caused by Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae.

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8Two Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Alleviates Drought Stress and Improves Plant Growth in Cinnamomum migao Seedlings

저자 : Xiaofeng Liao , Jingzhong Chen , Ruiting Guan , Jiming Liu , Qinwen Sun

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 396-405 (10 pages)

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Cinnamomum migao plants often face different degrees of drought in karst habitats, which can lead to plants' death, especially in the seedling stage. Widespread of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in karst soils have the potential to address this drought, which is a threat to C. migao seedlings. We inoculated C. migao seedlings with spores from Glomus lamellosum and Glomus etunicatum, two AM fungi widely distributed in karst soils, to observe seedling growth response after simulated drought. Our results showed that 40 g of G. lamellosum and G. etunicatum significantly promoted the growth of C. migao seedlings, 120 days after inoculation. Following a 15-day drought treatment, root colonization of the seedlings with G. lamellosum or G. etunicatum had lower the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the accumulation of enzymes and osmotic substances in the seedlings. The relative water content in different organs (roots, stems, and leaves) of the drought-stressed seedlings was higher in plants with G. lamellosum or G. etunicatum than in plants without AM fungi colonization. Our results showed that inoculation with AM fungi was an effective means to improve the drought resistance of C. migao seedlings.

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9Analysis of the Genome Sequence of Strain GiC-126 of Gloeostereum incarnatum with Genetic Linkage Map

저자 : Wan-zhu Jiang , Fang-jie Yao , Ming Fang , Li-xin Lu , You-min Zhang , Peng Wang , Jing-jing Meng , Jia Lu , Xiao-xu Ma , Qi He , Kai-sheng Shao , Asif Ali Khan , Yun-hui Wei

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 406-420 (15 pages)

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Gloeostereum incarnatum has edible and medicinal value and was first cultivated and domesticated in China. We sequenced the G. incarnatum monokaryotic strain GiC-126 on an Illumina HiSeq X Ten system and obtained a 34.52-Mb genome assembly sequence that encoded 16,895 predicted genes. We combined the GiC-126 genome with the published genome of G. incarnatum strain CCMJ2665 to construct a genetic linkage map (GiC-126 genome) that had 10 linkage groups (LGs), and the 15 assembly sequences of CCMJ2665 were integrated into 8 LGs. We identified 1912 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and detected 700 genes containing 768 SSRs in the genome; 65 and 100 of them were annotated with gene ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways, respectively. Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) were identified in 20 fungal genomes and annotated; among them, 144 CAZymes were annotated in the GiC-126 genome. The A mating-type locus (MAT-A) of G. incarnatum was located on scaffold885 at 38.9 cM of LG1 and was flanked by two homeodomain (HD1) genes, mip and beta-fg. Fourteen segregation distortion markers were detected in the genetic linkage map, all of which were skewed toward the parent GiC-126. They formed three segregation distortion regions (SDR1-SDR3), and 22 predictive genes were found in scaffold1920 where three segregation distortion markers were located in SDR1. In this study, we corrected and updated the genomic information of G. incarnatum. Our results will provide a theoretical basis for fine gene mapping, functional gene cloning, and genetic breeding the follow-up of G. incarnatum.

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10Transcriptome Analysis and Expression Profiling of Molecular Responses to Cd Toxicity in Morchella spongiola

저자 : Xu Hongyan , Xie Zhanling , Jiang Hongchen , Guo Jing , Meng Qing , Zhao Yuan , Wang Xiaofang

발행기관 : 한국균학회 간행물 : Mycobiology 49권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 421-433 (13 pages)

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Morchella is a genus of fungi with the ability to concentrate Cd both in the fruit-body and mycelium. However, the molecular mechanisms conferring resistance to Cd stress in Morchella are unknown. Here, RNA-based transcriptomic sequencing was used to identify the genes and pathways involved in Cd tolerance in Morchella spongiola. 7444 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by cultivating M. spongiola in media containing 0.15, 0.90, or 1.50mg/L Cd2+. The DEGs were divided into six sub-clusters based on their global expression profiles. GO enrichment analysis indicated that numerous DEGs were associated with catalytic activity, cell cycle control, and the ribosome. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the main pathways under Cd stress were MAPK signaling, oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism, and propanoate metabolism. In addition, several DEGs encoding ion transporters, enzymatic/non-enzymatic antioxidants, and transcription factors were identified. Based on these results, a preliminary gene regulatory network was firstly proposed to illustrate the molecular mechanisms of Cd detoxification in M. spongiola. These results provide valuable insights into the Cd tolerance mechanism of M. spongiola and constitute a robust foundation for further studies on detoxification mechanisms in macrofungi that could potentially lead to the development of new and improved fungal bioremediation strategies.

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